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  • 1.
    Jönsson, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Gas flow measurement of evaporated liquid nanoflows2023In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the miniaturisation of fluidic components, the demand for traceable measurements of micro and nanoflows is increasing in various technological fields such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and automotive industry. Gravimetric flow measurement methods are accurate at microflows and above, but have a lower limit of about 5nLmin−1. Several alternative approaches have been developed to circumvent this limit. Here a measurement setup and proof of principle is presented for a method measuring the gas flows generated by complete evaporation of liquid ethanol nanoflows. The gas flow measurement is based on the well-established method of determining the pressure drop across a geometrically precisely defined circular opening in the molecular flow regime. Liquid flow rates from a syringe pump in the range of 5nLmin−1 to 200nLmin−1 are measured with an expanded uncertainty as low as 340pLmin−1 at instantaneous flow rates. Strategies to further improve accuracy are discussed.

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  • 2.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Petersson, Niclas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements2016In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 27, no 9, article id 094003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements is in its infancy - concepts such as traceability and uncertainty are as yet poorly developed. This paper reviews how a measurement system analysis approach, particularly invoking as performance metric the ability of a probe (such as a human being) acting as a measurement instrument to make a successful decision, can enable a more general metrological treatment of qualitative observations. Measures based on human observations are typically qualitative, not only in sectors, such as health care, services and safety, where the human factor is obvious, but also in customer perception of traditional products of all kinds. A principal challenge is that the usual tools of statistics normally employed for expressing measurement accuracy and uncertainty will probably not work reliably if relations between distances on different portions of scales are not fully known, as is typical of ordinal or other qualitative measurements. A key enabling insight is to connect the treatment of decision risks associated with measurement uncertainty to generalized linear modelling (GLM). Handling qualitative observations in this way unites information theory, the perceptive identification and choice paradigms of psychophysics. The Rasch invariant measure psychometric GLM approach in particular enables a proper treatment of ordinal data; a clear separation of probe and item attribute estimates; simple expressions for instrument sensitivity; etc. Examples include two aspects of the care of breast cancer patients, from diagnosis to rehabilitation. The Rasch approach leads in turn to opportunities of establishing metrological references for quality assurance of qualitative measurements. In psychometrics, one could imagine a certified reference for knowledge challenge, for example, a particular concept in understanding physics or for product quality of a certain health care service. Multivariate methods, such as Principal Component Regression, can also be improved by exploiting the increased resolution of the Rasch approach.

  • 3.
    Pereira, Paulo
    et al.
    Portuguese Institute of Blood and Transplantation, Portugal.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Westgard, James O.
    University of Wisconsin, US.
    Encarnação, Pedro
    Catholic University of Portugal, Portugal.
    Measurement uncertainty as a tool for evaluating the ‘grey zone’ to reduce the false negatives in immunochemical screening of blood donors for infectious diseases2016In: Accreditation and Quality Assurance, ISSN 0949-1775, E-ISSN 1432-0517, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of misclassifying infected individuals as healthy constitutes a crucial challenge when screening blood donors by means of immunoassays. This risk is especially challenging when the numerical results are close to the clinical decision level, i.e. in the ‘grey zone’. The concept of using measurement uncertainty for evaluating the ‘grey zone’ has previously not been systematically applied in this context. This article explains methods, models and empirical (top-down) approaches for the calculation of measurement uncertainty using results from a blood bank according to the internationally accepted GUM principles, focusing on uncertainty sources in the analytical phase. Of the different approaches available, the intralaboratory empirical approaches are emphasised since modelling (bottom-up) approaches are impracticable due to the lack of reliable model equations for immunoassays. Different methods are applied to estimate the measurement uncertainty for the Abbott Prism® HCV immunoassay. The expanded uncertainty obtained at the clinical decision level from the intralaboratory empirical approach was 36 %. The estimated uncertainty was used to set acceptance and rejection zones following the procedure set in the Eurachem guideline, emphasising the need to minimise the occurrence of false negatives.

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