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  • 1.
    Altmann, Brigitte
    et al.
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Karygianni, Lamprini
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Al-Ahmad, Ali
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Butz, Frank
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Bächle, Maria
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Fürderer, Tobias
    Courtois, Nicolas
    Palmero, Paola
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Follo, Marie
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Chevalier, Jérôme
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Steinberg, Thorsten
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Kohal, Ralf Joachim
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Assessment of Novel Long-Lasting Ceria-Stabilized Zirconia-Based Ceramics with Different Surface Topographies as Implant Materials2017In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 27, no 40, article id 1702512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of long-lasting zirconia-based ceramics for implants, which are not prone to hydrothermal aging, is not satisfactorily solved. Therefore, this study is conceived as an overall evaluation screening of novel ceria-stabilized zirconia-alumina-aluminate composite ceramics (ZA8Sr8-Ce11) with different surface topographies for use in clinical applications. Ceria-stabilized zirconia is chosen as the matrix for the composite material, due to its lower susceptibility to aging than yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP). This assessment is carried out on three preclinical investigation levels, indicating an overall biocompatibility of ceria-stabilized zirconia-based ceramics, both in vitro and in vivo. Long-term attachment and mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition of primary osteoblasts are the most distinct on porous ZA8Sr8-Ce11p surfaces, while ECM attachment on 3Y-TZP and ZA8Sr8-Ce11 with compact surface texture is poor. In this regard, the animal study confirms the porous ZA8Sr8-Ce11p to be the most favorable material, showing the highest bone-to-implant contact values and implant stability post implantation in comparison with control groups. Moreover, the microbiological evaluation reveals no favoritism of biofilm formation on the porous ZA8Sr8-Ce11p when compared to a smooth control surface. Hence, together with the in vitro in vivo assessment analogy, the promising clinical potential of this novel ZA8Sr8-Ce11 as an implant material is demonstrated. 

  • 2.
    Altmann, Brigitte
    et al.
    University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany.
    Rabel, Kerstin
    University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany.
    Kohal, Ralf J.
    University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany.
    Proksch, Susanne
    University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany.
    Tomakidi, Pascal
    University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Bernsmann, Falk
    NTTF Coatings GmbH, Germany.
    Palmero, Paola
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Fürderer, Tobias
    MOESCHTER GROUP Holding GmbH, Germany.
    Steinberg, Thorsten
    University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany.
    Cellular transcriptional response to zirconia-based implant materials2017In: Dental Materials, ISSN 0109-5641, E-ISSN 1879-0097, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 241-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To adequately address clinically important issues such as osseointegration and soft tissue integration, we screened for the direct biological cell response by culturing human osteoblasts and gingival fibroblasts on novel zirconia-based dental implant biomaterials and subjecting them to transcriptional analysis. Methods Biomaterials used for osteoblasts involved micro-roughened surfaces made of a new type of ceria-stabilized zirconia composite with two different topographies, zirconium dioxide, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (control). For fibroblasts smooth ceria- and yttria-stabilized zirconia surface were used. The expression of 90 issue-relevant genes was determined on mRNA transcription level by real-time PCR Array technology after growth periods of 1 and 7 days. Results Generally, modulation of gene transcription exhibited a dual dependence, first by time and second by the biomaterial, whereas biomaterial-triggered changes were predominantly caused by the biomaterials’ chemistry rather than surface topography. Per se, modulated genes assigned to regenerative tissue processes such as fracture healing and wound healing and in detail included colony stimulating factors (CSF2 and CSF3), growth factors, which regulate bone matrix properties (e.g. BMP3 and TGFB1), osteogenic BMPs (BMP2/4/6/7) and transcription factors (RUNX2 and SP7), matrix collagens and osteocalcin, laminins as well as integrin ß1 and MMP-2. Significance With respect to the biomaterials under study, the screening showed that a new zirconia-based composite stabilized with ceria may be promising to provide clinically desired periodontal tissue integration. Moreover, by detecting biomarkers modulated in a time- and/or biomaterial-dependent manner, we identified candidate genes for the targeted analysis of cell-implant bioresponse during biomaterial research and development.

  • 3.
    Carmona, Pierre
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Särkkä, Aila
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    von Corswant, Christian
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Olsson, Eva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Structure formation and coarsening kinetics of phase-separated spin-coated ethylcellulose/hydroxypropylcellulose films2022In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 18, no 16, p. 3206-3217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Porous phase-separated ethylcellulose/hydroxypropylcellulose (EC/HPC) films are used to control drug transport from pharmaceutical pellets. The drug transport rate is determined by the structure of the porous films that are formed as water-soluble HPC leaches out. However, a detailed understanding of the evolution of the phase-separated structure in the films is lacking. In this work, we have investigated EC/HPC films produced by spin-coating, mimicking the industrial fluidized bed spraying. The aim was to investigate film structure evolution and coarsening kinetics during solvent evaporation. The structure evolution was characterized using confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis. The effect of the EC:HPC ratio (15 to 85 wt% HPC) on the structure evolution was determined. Bicontinuous structures were found for 30 to 40 wt% HPC. The growth of the characteristic length scale followed a power law, L(t) ∼ t(n), with n ∼ 1 for bicontinuous structures, and n ∼ 0.45-0.75 for discontinuous structures. The characteristic length scale after kinetic trapping ranged between 3.0 and 6.0 μm for bicontinuous and between 0.6 and 1.6 μm for discontinuous structures. Two main coarsening mechanisms could be identified: interfacial tension-driven hydrodynamic growth for bicontinuous structures and diffusion-driven coalescence for discontinuous structures. The 2D in-plane interface curvature analysis showed that the mean curvature decreased as a function of time for bicontinuous structures, confirming that interfacial tension is driving the growth. The findings of this work provide a good understanding of the mechanisms responsible for morphology development and open for further tailoring of thin EC/HPC film structures for controlled drug release. © 2022 The Royal Society of Chemistry

  • 4.
    de Hooge, Ilona E.
    et al.
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Muller Loose, Simone
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Lengard Almli, Valerie
    Nofima, Norway.
    This apple is too ugly for me!: Consumer preferences for suboptimal food products in the supermarket and at home2017In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 56, p. 80-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste has received increasing scientific and societal attention during the last decade. One important cause of food waste is thought to be the un-willingness of supply chains and consumers to sell, purchase, and consume suboptimal or imperfect foods. Yet, empirical research on this issue is scarce and contradictory. The current research investigates under which conditions consumers purchase or consume foods that deviate from regular products in terms of appearance standards, date labelling, or damaged packaging, without deviation on the intrinsic quality or safety. An online choice experiment among 4214 consumers from five Northern European countries reveals that consumer preferences for suboptimal products differ depending on whether the consumer is in a supermarket or at home, and depending on the type of sub-optimality. Moreover, consumer choices, discount preferences, and waste behaviors of suboptimal products are influenced by demographics (nationality, age), by personality characteristics (value orientation, commitment to environmental sustainability, and perceived consumer effectiveness in saving the environment), and by individual-waste aspects (perceived food waste of the household, perceived importance of food waste, engaging in shopping/cooking). These findings provide important insights into consumer preferences for suboptimal products, and useful suggestions for supply-chain regulations on suboptimal products.

  • 5.
    Dehestani, Mahdi
    et al.
    Purdue University, USA.
    Zemlyanov, Dmitry Yu
    Purdue University, USA.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Stanciu, Lia A.
    Purdue University, USA.
    Improving bioactivity of inert bioceramics by a novel Mg-incorporated solution treatment2017In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 425, p. 564-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zirconia/alumina ceramics possess outstanding mechanical properties for dental and orthopedic applications, but due to their poor surface bioactivities they exhibit a weak bone-bonding ability. This work proposes an effective 30-min solution treatment which could successfully induce formation of bone-like apatite on the surface of 3Y-TZP and a ternary composite composed of yttria-stabilized zirconia, ceria-stabilized zirconia, and alumina (35 vol% 3Y-TZP + 35 vol% 12Ce-TZP + 30 vol% Al2O3) after 3 weeks immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). XRD was used for phase identification in the ceramic materials. The influence of solution treatment on the surface chemistry and its role on apatite formation were investigated via SEM, EDS and XPS. In vitro apatite-forming ability for the solution-treated and untreated samples of the composite and individual substrates of 3Y-TZP, 12Ce-TZP, and Al2O3 was evaluated by immersion in SBF. Apatite crystals were formed only on 3Y-TZP and composite substrates, implying that it is mainly the 3Y-TZP constituent that contributes to the bioactivity of the composite. Further, it was found from the XPS analysis that the zirconia material with higher phase stability (12Ce-TZP) produced less Zr–OH functional groups on its surface after solution treatment which accounts for its weaker bioactivity compared to 3Y-TZP. 

  • 6.
    Dong, Guojun
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bate, Andrew
    GSK, United Kingdom; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom.
    Haguinet, François
    GSK, United Kingdom.
    Westman, Gabriel
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Dürlich, Luise
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hviid, Anders
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Statens Serum Institut, Denmark.
    Sessa, Maurizio
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Optimizing Signal Management in a Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System: A Proof-of-Concept with COVID-19 Vaccines Using Signs, Symptoms, and Natural Language Processing2023In: Drug Safety, ISSN 0114-5916, E-ISSN 1179-1942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) has already been challenged by an extreme increase in the number of individual case safety reports (ICSRs) after the market introduction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. Evidence from scientific literature suggests that when there is an extreme increase in the number of ICSRs recorded in spontaneous reporting databases (such as the VAERS), an accompanying increase in the number of disproportionality signals (sometimes referred to as ‘statistical alerts’) generated is expected. Objectives: The objective of this study was to develop a natural language processing (NLP)-based approach to optimize signal management by excluding disproportionality signals related to listed adverse events following immunization (AEFIs). COVID-19 vaccines were used as a proof-of-concept. Methods: The VAERS was used as a data source, and the Finding Associated Concepts with Text Analysis (FACTA+) was used to extract signs and symptoms of listed AEFIs from MEDLINE for COVID-19 vaccines. Disproportionality analyses were conducted according to guidelines and recommendations provided by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. By using signs and symptoms of listed AEFIs, we computed the proportion of disproportionality signals dismissed for COVID-19 vaccines using this approach. Nine NLP techniques, including Generative Pre-Trained Transformer 3.5 (GPT-3.5), were used to automatically retrieve Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Terms (MedDRA PTs) from signs and symptoms extracted from FACTA+. Results: Overall, 17% of disproportionality signals for COVID-19 vaccines were dismissed as they reported signs and symptoms of listed AEFIs. Eight of nine NLP techniques used to automatically retrieve MedDRA PTs from signs and symptoms extracted from FACTA+ showed suboptimal performance. GPT-3.5 achieved an accuracy of 78% in correctly assigning MedDRA PTs. Conclusion: Our approach reduced the need for manual exclusion of disproportionality signals related to listed AEFIs and may lead to better optimization of time and resources in signal management. © 2023, The Author(s).

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  • 7.
    Ekern, Erlend
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Gambäck, Björn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Interactive, Efficient and Creative Image Generation Using Compositional Pattern-Producing Networks2021In: Artificial Intelligence in Music, Sound, Art and Design. EvoMUSART 2021. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 12693., Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2021, Vol. 12693, p. 131-146Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to most recent models that generate an entire image at once, the paper introduces a new architecture for generating images one pixel at a time using a Compositional Pattern-Producing Network (CPPN) as the generator part in a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN), allowing for effective generation of visually interesting images with artistic value, at arbitrary resolutions independent of the dimensions of the training data. The architecture, as well as accompanying (hyper-) parameters, for training CPPNs using recent GAN stabilisation techniques is shown to generalise well across many standard datasets. Rather than relying on just a latent noise vector (entangling various features with each other), mutual information maximisation is utilised to get disentangled representations, removing the requirement to use labelled data and giving the user control over the generated images. A web application for interacting with pre-trained models was also created, unique in the offered level of interactivity with an image-generating GAN.

  • 8.
    Ghajeri, Farnaz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Xia, Wei
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The Influence of Residuals Combining Temperature and Reaction Time on Calcium Phosphate Transformation in a Precipitation Process2022In: Journal of Functional Biomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4983, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitation is one of the most common processes to synthesize hydroxyapatite, which is the human body’s mineral forming bone and teeth, and the golden bioceramic material for bone repair. Generally, the washing step is important in the precipitation method to remove the residuals in solution and to stabilize the phase transformation. However, the influence of residuals in combination with the reaction temperature and time, on calcium phosphate formation, is not well studied. This could help us with a better understanding of the typical synthesis process. We used a fixed starting ion concentration and pH in our study and did not adjust it during the reaction. XRD, FTIR, ICP-OES, and SEM have been used to analyze the samples. The results showed that combining residuals with both reaction temperature and time can significantly influence calcium phosphate formation and transformation. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate formation and transformation are sensitive to temperature. Increasing temperature (60◦C) can inhibit the formation of acidic calcium phosphate or transform it to other phases, and further the particle size. It was also observed that high reaction temperature (60◦C) results in higher precipitation efficiency than room temperature. A low ion concentration combining reaction temperature and time could still significantly influence the calcium phosphate transformation during the drying. © 2022 by the authors. 

  • 9.
    Hansson, Adam
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsen, Eskil André
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway; Amicoat A/S, Norway.
    Stensen, Wenche
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Svendsen, John S. M.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway; Amicoat A/S, Norway.
    Berglin, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Anders
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Preventing E. coli Biofilm Formation with Antimicrobial Peptide-Functionalized Surface Coatings: Recognizing the Dependence on the Bacterial Binding Mode Using Live-Cell Microscopy2024In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 6799-6812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can kill bacteria by destabilizing their membranes, yet translating these molecules’ properties into a covalently attached antibacterial coating is challenging. Rational design efforts are obstructed by the fact that standard microbiology methods are ill-designed for the evaluation of coatings, disclosing few details about why grafted AMPs function or do not function. It is particularly difficult to distinguish the influence of the AMP’s molecular structure from other factors controlling the total exposure, including which type of bonds are formed between bacteria and the coating and how persistent these contacts are. Here, we combine label-free live-cell microscopy, microfluidics, and automated image analysis to study the response of surface-bound Escherichia coli challenged by the same small AMP either in solution or grafted to the surface through click chemistry. Initially after binding, the grafted AMPs inhibited bacterial growth more efficiently than did AMPs in solution. Yet, after 1 h, E. coli on the coated surfaces increased their expression of type-1 fimbriae, leading to a change in their binding mode, which diminished the coating’s impact. The wealth of information obtained from continuously monitoring the growth, shape, and movements of single bacterial cells allowed us to elucidate and quantify the different factors determining the antibacterial efficacy of the grafted AMPs. We expect this approach to aid the design of elaborate antibacterial material coatings working by specific and selective actions, not limited to contact-killing. This technology is needed to support health care and food production in the postantibiotic era. 

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  • 10.
    Herzberg, Moshe
    et al.
    Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.
    Berglin, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Eliahu, Sarai
    Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.
    Bodin, Lovisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Agrenius, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Zlotkin, Amir
    DisperseBio Ltd, Israel.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Efficient prevention of marine biofilm formation employing a surface-grafted repellent marine peptide2021In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, E-ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 3360-3373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creation of surfaces resistant to the formation of microbial biofilms via biomimicry has been heralded as a promising strategy to protect a range of different materials ranging from boat hulls to medical devices and surgical instruments. In our current study, we describe the successful transfer of a highly effective natural marine biofilm inhibitor to the 2D surface format. A series of cyclic peptides inspired by the natural equinatoxin II protein produced by Beadlet anemone (Actinia equine) have been evaluated for their ability to inhibit the formation of a mixed marine microbial consortium on polyamide reverse osmosis membranes. In solution, the peptides are shown to effectively inhibit settlement and biofilm formation in a nontoxic manner down to 1 nM concentrations. In addition, our study also illustrates how the peptides can be applied to disperse already established biofilms. Attachment of a hydrophobic palmitic acid tail generates a peptide suited for strong noncovalent surface interactions and allows the generation of stable noncovalent coatings. These adsorbed peptides remain attached to the surface at significant shear stress and also remain active, effectively preventing the biofilm formation over 24 h. Finally, the covalent attachment of the peptides to an acrylate surface was also evaluated and the prepared coatings display a remarkable ability to prevent surface colonization at surface loadings of 55 ng/cm2 over 48 h. The ability to retain the nontoxic antibiofilm activity, documented in solution, in the covalent 2D-format is unprecedented, and this natural peptide motif displays high potential in several material application areas.

  • 11.
    Jönsson, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Gas flow measurement of evaporated liquid nanoflows2023In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the miniaturisation of fluidic components, the demand for traceable measurements of micro and nanoflows is increasing in various technological fields such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and automotive industry. Gravimetric flow measurement methods are accurate at microflows and above, but have a lower limit of about 5nLmin−1. Several alternative approaches have been developed to circumvent this limit. Here a measurement setup and proof of principle is presented for a method measuring the gas flows generated by complete evaporation of liquid ethanol nanoflows. The gas flow measurement is based on the well-established method of determining the pressure drop across a geometrically precisely defined circular opening in the molecular flow regime. Liquid flow rates from a syringe pump in the range of 5nLmin−1 to 200nLmin−1 are measured with an expanded uncertainty as low as 340pLmin−1 at instantaneous flow rates. Strategies to further improve accuracy are discussed.

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  • 12.
    Karltorp, Kersti
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Guo, Siping
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandén, Björn A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Handling financial resource mobilisation in technological innovation systems - The case of chinese wind power2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, p. 3872-3882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To mitigate climate change, a rapid and large-scale expansion of sustainable innovations such as renewable energy technologies is crucial. China's track record of wind power development shows both speed and scale that can provide valuable knowledge of how to stimulate and maintain transformation of energy systems. The growth was made possible partly by ample access to financial capital. However, the rapid growth also led to growing pains and made the industry face increasing financial constraints. While these constraints partly relate to structures and trends that are external to the wind power innovation system, they were also a consequence of the particular path taken in Chinese wind power development. The case demonstrates that if a full-fledged industry is to be developed and sustained, a balanced growth is required and all innovation system functions need due attention, sooner or later. Conceptually, the article contributes by further exploring how mobilisation of financial resources affect and is affected by overall system dynamics.

  • 13.
    Longfils, M.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Särkä, A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rudemo, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Single particle raster image analysis of diffusion2017In: Journal of Microscopy, ISSN 0022-2720, E-ISSN 1365-2818, Vol. 266, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a complement to the standard RICS method of analysing Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy images with estimation of the image correlation function, we introduce the method SPRIA, Single Particle Raster Image Analysis. Here, we start by identifying individual particles and estimate the diffusion coefficient for each particle by a maximum likelihood method. Averaging over the particles gives a diffusion coefficient estimate for the whole image. In examples both with simulated and experimental data, we show that the new method gives accurate estimates. It also gives directly standard error estimates. The method should be possible to extend to study heterogeneous materials and systems of particles with varying diffusion coefficient, as demonstrated in a simple simulation example. A requirement for applying the SPRIA method is that the particle concentration is low enough so that we can identify the individual particles. We also describe a bootstrap method for estimating the standard error of standard RICS.

  • 14.
    McConville, J. R.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jönsson, H.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, M.
    Ecoloop, Sweden.
    Source separation: Challenges & opportunities for transition in the Swedish wastewater sector2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 120, p. 144-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A paradigm shift to waste reuse has started in the wastewater sector with many experts calling for greater resource recovery, often facilitated by alternative solutions such as source separation. Source separation has been shown to be advantageous for improving treatment capacity, food security, and efficiency; yet these systems are still immature, considered risky by professionals and scarcely implemented. This study attempts to answer the question of why source separation is still marginalized by examining the Swedish experience with source separated wastewater from the perspective of Technology Innovation Systems (TIS) in order to identify obstacles and policy recommendations. Considering that source-separation is still in a development phase, the study found that source separation works moderately well within the on-site niche and that blackwater systems in general perform better than urine diversion. Knowledge development is found to be the weakest function. A major blocking mechanism is the weakness of interchange between knowledge development and entrepreneurial activity. Policy recommendations include: increased R&D; building networks and communication platforms; and establishing guidelines for technologies, legislation interpretation and organizational models.

  • 15.
    Notarnicola, Bruno
    et al.
    University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Sala, Serenella
    European Commission Joint Research Centre. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Italy.
    Assumpcio, Anton
    IRTA Institute for Food and Agricultural Research and Technology, Spain.
    McLaren, Sarah J.
    Massey University, New Zealand.
    Saouter, Erwan
    European Commission Joint Research Centre. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Italy.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    The role of life cycle assessment in supporting sustainable agri-food systems: A review of the challenges2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, p. 399-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle thinking is increasingly seen as a key concept for ensuring a transition towards more sustainable production and consumption patterns. As food production systems and consumption patterns are among the leading drivers of impacts on the environment, it is important to assess and improve food-related supply chains as much as possible. Over the years, life cycle assessment has been used extensively to assess agricultural systems and food processing and manufacturing activities, and compare alternatives “from field to fork” and through to food waste management. Notwithstanding the efforts, several methodological aspects of life cycle assessment still need further improvement in order to ensure adequate and robust support for decision making in both business and policy development contexts. This paper discusses the challenges for life cycle assessment arising from the complexity of food systems, and recommends research priorities for both scientific development and improvements in practical implementation. In summary, the intrinsic variability of food production systems requires dedicated modelling approaches, including addressing issues related to: the distinction between technosphere and ecosphere; the most appropriate functional unit; the multi-functionality of biological systems; and the modelling of the emissions and how this links with life cycle impact assessment. Also, data availability and interpretation of the results are two issues requiring further attention, including how to account for consumer behaviour.

  • 16.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Petersson, Niclas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements2016In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 27, no 9, article id 094003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements is in its infancy - concepts such as traceability and uncertainty are as yet poorly developed. This paper reviews how a measurement system analysis approach, particularly invoking as performance metric the ability of a probe (such as a human being) acting as a measurement instrument to make a successful decision, can enable a more general metrological treatment of qualitative observations. Measures based on human observations are typically qualitative, not only in sectors, such as health care, services and safety, where the human factor is obvious, but also in customer perception of traditional products of all kinds. A principal challenge is that the usual tools of statistics normally employed for expressing measurement accuracy and uncertainty will probably not work reliably if relations between distances on different portions of scales are not fully known, as is typical of ordinal or other qualitative measurements. A key enabling insight is to connect the treatment of decision risks associated with measurement uncertainty to generalized linear modelling (GLM). Handling qualitative observations in this way unites information theory, the perceptive identification and choice paradigms of psychophysics. The Rasch invariant measure psychometric GLM approach in particular enables a proper treatment of ordinal data; a clear separation of probe and item attribute estimates; simple expressions for instrument sensitivity; etc. Examples include two aspects of the care of breast cancer patients, from diagnosis to rehabilitation. The Rasch approach leads in turn to opportunities of establishing metrological references for quality assurance of qualitative measurements. In psychometrics, one could imagine a certified reference for knowledge challenge, for example, a particular concept in understanding physics or for product quality of a certain health care service. Multivariate methods, such as Principal Component Regression, can also be improved by exploiting the increased resolution of the Rasch approach.

  • 17.
    Pereira, Paulo
    et al.
    Portuguese Institute of Blood and Transplantation, Portugal.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Westgard, James O.
    University of Wisconsin, US.
    Encarnação, Pedro
    Catholic University of Portugal, Portugal.
    Measurement uncertainty as a tool for evaluating the ‘grey zone’ to reduce the false negatives in immunochemical screening of blood donors for infectious diseases2016In: Accreditation and Quality Assurance, ISSN 0949-1775, E-ISSN 1432-0517, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of misclassifying infected individuals as healthy constitutes a crucial challenge when screening blood donors by means of immunoassays. This risk is especially challenging when the numerical results are close to the clinical decision level, i.e. in the ‘grey zone’. The concept of using measurement uncertainty for evaluating the ‘grey zone’ has previously not been systematically applied in this context. This article explains methods, models and empirical (top-down) approaches for the calculation of measurement uncertainty using results from a blood bank according to the internationally accepted GUM principles, focusing on uncertainty sources in the analytical phase. Of the different approaches available, the intralaboratory empirical approaches are emphasised since modelling (bottom-up) approaches are impracticable due to the lack of reliable model equations for immunoassays. Different methods are applied to estimate the measurement uncertainty for the Abbott Prism® HCV immunoassay. The expanded uncertainty obtained at the clinical decision level from the intralaboratory empirical approach was 36 %. The estimated uncertainty was used to set acceptance and rejection zones following the procedure set in the Eurachem guideline, emphasising the need to minimise the occurrence of false negatives.

  • 18.
    Perez, Oswaldo
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Schipper, Nicolaas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Leandri, Valentina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Svensson, Per H.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Loftsson, Thorsteinn
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Bollmark, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Crystal Modifications of a Cyclic Guanosine Phosphorothioate Analogue, a Drug Candidate for Retinal Neurodegenerations2023In: ChemistryOpen, ISSN 2191-1363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contribution to the pharmaceutical development of cyclic guanosine monophosphorothioate analogue cGMPSA as a potential active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) for the treatment of inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs), its neutral form (cGMPSA-H) and salts of sodium (-Na), calcium (-Ca), ammonium (-NH4), triethylammonium (-TEA), tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (-Tris), benethamine (-Bnet), and benzathine (-BZ) were prepared. Their solid-state properties were studied with differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, hot-stage microscopy, and dynamic vapor sorption, and their solubilities were measured in deionized H2O as well as aqueous HCl and NaOH buffers. A total of 21 crystal modifications of cGMPSA were found and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. Despite their crystalline character, no API forms featured any observable melting points during thermal analyses and instead underwent exothermic decomposition at ≥163 °C. Both the vapor sorption behavior and solubility were found to differ significantly across the API forms. cGMPSA-BZ featured the lowest aqueous solubility and hygroscopicity, with 50 μg/mL and 5 % mass gain at maximum relative humidity. The synthesis and crystallization of some crystal modifications were upscaled to >10 g. Single crystal X-ray diffraction was performed which resulted in the first crystal structure determination and absolute configuration of a cyclic guanosine monophosphorothioate, confirming the RP- conformation at the phosphorus atom. 

  • 19.
    Sala, Serenella
    et al.
    European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Assumpcio, Anton
    IRTA Institute for Food and Agricultural Research and Technology, Spain.
    McLaren, Sarah J.
    Massey University, New Zealand.
    Notarnicola, Bruno
    University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Saouter, Erwan
    European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    In quest of reducing the environmental impacts of food production and consumption2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, p. 387-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food supply chains are increasingly associated with environmental and socio-economic impacts. An increasing global population, an evolution in consumers’ needs, and changes in consumption models pose serious challenges to the overall sustainability of food production and consumption. Life cycle thinking (LCT) and assessment (LCA) are key elements in identifying more sustainable solutions for global food challenges. In defining solutions to major global challenges, it is fundamentally important to avoid burden shifting amongst supply chain stages and amongst typologies of impacts, and LCA should, therefore, be regarded as a reference method for the assessment of agri-food supply chains. Hence, this special volume has been prepared to present the role of life cycle thinking and life cycle assessment in: i) the identification of hotspots of impacts along food supply chains with a focus on major global challenges; ii) food supply chain optimisation (e.g. productivity increase, food loss reduction, etc.) that delivers sustainable solutions; and iii) assessment of future scenarios arising from both technological improvements and behavioural changes, and under different environmental conditions (e.g. climate change). This special volume consists of a collection of papers from a conference organized within the last Universal Exposition (EXPO2015) “LCA for Feeding the planet and energy for life” in Milan (Italy) in 2015 as well as other contributions that were submitted in the year after the conference that addressed the same key challenges presented at the conference. The papers in the special volume address some of the key challenges for optimizing food-related supply chains by using LCA as a reference method for environmental impact assessment. Beyond specific methodological improvements to better tailor LCA studies to food systems, there is a clear need for the LCA community to “think outside the box”, exploring complementarity with other methods and domains. The concepts and the case studies presented in this special volume demonstrate how cross-fertilization among difference science domains (such as environmental, technological, social and economic ones) may be key elements of a sustainable “today and tomorrow” for feeding the planet.

  • 20.
    Sathi, Vipin N.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rohner, Christian
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    A PUF-Based Indirect Authentication and Key Establishment Protocol for Wearable Devices2023In: IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, Vol. 2023-May, p. 615-621, article id 193943Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microwave communication through the fat tissue in the human body enables a new channel for wearable devices to communicate with each other. The wearable devices can communicate to the external world through a powerful device in their network called central control unit (CU); for example, a smartphone. Some wearable devices may be out of the range of the CU temporarily due to body movements or permanently due to low signal strength, in a fat channel communication network. Such devices can connect to the CU with the help of their neighbor device in the same network. In this paper, we propose a protocol to ensure secure indirect authentication and key establishment between the out-of-range device and the CU in a fat channel communication network, via an untrusted intermediate device in the network. The proposed protocol is lightweight and resistant to denial-of-sleep attacks on the intermediate device. We analyze the security and the computation overhead of the proposed protocol. 

  • 21.
    Shah, Furqan A.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Centre of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden; BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Centre of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden.
    Martinelli, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thomsen, Peter
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Centre of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden.
    Palmquist, Anders
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Centre of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden.
    Direct communication between osteocytes and acid-etched titanium implants with a sub-micron topography2016In: Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine, ISSN 0957-4530, E-ISSN 1573-4838, Vol. 27, no 11, article id 167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The osteocyte network, through the numerous dendritic processes of osteocytes, is responsible for sensing mechanical loading and orchestrates adaptive bone remodelling by communicating with both the osteoclasts and the osteoblasts. The osteocyte network in the vicinity of implant surfaces provides insight into the bone healing process around metallic implants. Here, we investigate whether osteocytes are able to make an intimate contact with topologically modified, but micrometre smooth (Sa < 0.5 µm) implant surfaces, and if sub-micron topography alters the composition of the interfacial tissue. Screw shaped, commercially pure (cp-Ti) titanium implants with (i) machined (Sa = ~0.2 µm), and (ii) two-step acid-etched (HF/HNO3 and H2SO4/HCl; Sa = ~0.5 µm) surfaces were inserted in Sprague Dawley rat tibia and followed for 28 days. Both surfaces showed similar bone area, while the bone-implant contact was 73 % higher for the acid-etched surface. By resin cast etching, osteocytes were observed to maintain a direct intimate contact with the acid-etched surface. Although well mineralised, the interfacial tissue showed lower Ca/P and apatite-to-collagen ratios at the acid-etched surface, while mineral crystallinity and the carbonate-to-phosphate ratios were comparable for both implant surfaces. The interfacial tissue composition may therefore vary with changes in implant surface topography, independently of the amount of bone formed. Implant surfaces that influence bone to have higher amounts of organic matrix without affecting the crystallinity or the carbonate content of the mineral phase presumably result in a more resilient interfacial tissue, better able to resist crack development during functional loading than densely mineralised bone.

  • 22.
    Sun, Fengzhen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nordli, Henriette R.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Pukstad, Brita
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway ; Trondheim University Hospital, Norway.
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Mechanical characteristics of nanocellulose-PEG bionanocomposite wound dressings in wet conditions2017In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 69, p. 377-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood nanocellulose has been proposed for wound dressing applications partly based on its capability to form translucent films with good liquid absorption capabilities. Such properties are adequate for non-healing and chronic wounds where adequate management of exudates is a requirement. In addition, the translucency will allow to follow the wound development without the necessity to remove the dressing from the wound. Understanding the mechanical properties of nanocellulose films and dressings are also most important for tailoring optimizing wound dressing structures with adequate strength, conformability, porosity and exudate management. Mechanical properties are usually assessed in standard conditions (50% relative humidity, RH), which is not relevant in a wound management situation. In this study we have assessed the mechanical properties of three nanocellulose grades varying in the degree of nanofibrillation. The effect of nanofibrillation and of polyethylene glycol (PEG) addition, on the tensile strength, elongation and elastic modulus were assessed after 24 h in water and in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The results reveal the behavior of the nanocellulose dressings after wetting and shed light into the development of mechanical properties in environments, which are relevant from a wound management point of view.

  • 23.
    Svagan, Anna J.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Benjamins, Jan-Willem
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Al-Ansari, Zeinab
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Shalom, Daniel Bar
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Müllertz, Anette
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Löbmann, Korbinian
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Solid cellulose nanofiber based foams – Towards facile design of sustained drug delivery systems2016In: Journal of Controlled Release, ISSN 0168-3659, E-ISSN 1873-4995, Vol. 244, p. 74-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Control of drug action through formulation is a vital and very challenging topic within pharmaceutical sciences. Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) are an excipient candidate in pharmaceutical formulations that could be used to easily optimize drug delivery rates. CNF has interesting physico-chemical properties that, when combined with surfactants, can be used to create very stable air bubbles and dry foams. Utilizing this inherent property, it is possible to modify the release kinetics of the model drug riboflavin in a facile way. Wet foams were prepared using cationic CNF and a pharmaceutically acceptable surfactant (lauric acid sodium salt). The drug was suspended in the wet-stable foams followed by a drying step to obtain dry foams. Flexible cellular solid materials of different thicknesses, shapes and drug loadings (up to 50 wt%) could successfully be prepared. The drug was released from the solid foams in a diffusion-controlled, sustained manner due to the presence of intact air bubbles which imparted a tortuous diffusion path. The diffusion coefficient was assessed using Franz cells and shown to be more than one order of magnitude smaller for the cellular solids compared to the bubble-free films in the wet state. By changing the dimensions of dry foams while keeping drug load and total weight constant, the drug release kinetics could be modified, e.g. a rectangular box-shaped foam of 8 mm thickness released only 59% of the drug after 24 h whereas a thinner foam sample (0.6 mm) released 78% of its drug content within 8 h. In comparison, the drug release from films (0.009 mm, with the same total mass and an outer surface area comparable to the thinner foam) was much faster, amounting to 72% of the drug within 1 h. The entrapped air bubbles in the foam also induced positive buoyancy, which is interesting from the perspective of gastroretentive drug-delivery.

  • 24.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    På jakt efter nya läkemedel i Ishavet2016In: Naturvetare, ISSN 2000-2424, Vol. 6, p. 24-28Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ungefär en tredjedel av alla läkemedel har sin källa i naturen. Forskaren Johan Svenson skriver själv om sin expedition i Arktis, där forskarna samlar in alger och andra organismer i sökandet efter nya molekyler, som till exempel kan bli ny antibiotika.

  • 25.
    Winkel, Jørgen
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Edwards, Kasper
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Jarebrant, Caroline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Birgisdóttir, Birna Dröfn
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Johansson Hanse, Jan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gunnarsdóttir, Sigrún
    University of Iceland, Iceland; Bifröst University, Iceland.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Ulin, Kerstin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effect modifiers in intervention research at hospitals in three Nordic countries2016In: Abstract book of the 10th NOVO symposium, 2016, p. 33-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lagerström, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Holmquist, Albin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Eklund, Brita
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Elwing, Hans
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Dahl, Peter
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Mia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    A novel XRF method to measure environmental release of copper and zinc from antifouling paints2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 225, p. 490-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from vessels and leisure crafts coated with antifouling paints can pose a threat to water quality in semi-enclosed areas such as harbors and marinas as well as to coastal archipelagos. However, no reliable, practical and low-cost method exists to measure the direct release of metals from antifouling paints. Therefore, the paint industry and regulatory authorities are obliged to use release rate measurements derived from either mathematical models or from laboratory studies. To bridge this gap, we have developed a novel method using a handheld X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) to determine the cumulative release of Cu and Zn from antifouling paints. The results showed a strong linear relationship between XRF Kα net intensities and metal concentrations, as determined by ICP-MS. The release of Cu and Zn were determined for coated panels exposed in harbors located in the Baltic Sea and in Kattegat. The field study showed salinity to have a strong impact on the release of Cu, i.e. the release increased with salinity. Contrary, the effect of salinity on Zn was not as evident. As exemplified in this work, the XRF method also makes it possible to identify the governing parameters to the release of Cu and Zn, e.g. salinity and type of paint formulation. Thus, the XRF method can be used to measure environmentally relevant releases of metallic compounds to design more efficient and optimized antifouling coatings.

1 - 26 of 26
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