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  • 1.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Oxfall, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Mapping and Evaluation of some Restricted Chemical Substances in Recycled Plastics Originating from ELV and WEEE Collected in Europe2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of plastics is a critical step toward the realisation of a sustainable society. Plastic is a fitting material to recycle, as it often can easily be melted and formed into new products. Plastic recycling is therefore an easy process with pure plastics, however, most of the plastics that are recycled today are not pure and contain additives and/or impurities. Some of these additives can be hazardous substances that could be harmful for both humans and the environment. It is therefore important that these hazardous substances are not recycled and transferred into new products. To ensure a safe use of plastics, these substances are today regulated in new products, but old products could still contain these substances (legacy chemicals). To comply with legislation it is therefore critical that these substances are removed during the recycling process. There are however many hazardous substances that are yet not regulated, which may also be present in products and therefore recycled material. 

    Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment (WEEE) and End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV) are two of the materials streams that contains a high amount of legacy chemicals. These streams have been associated with spreading legacy chemicals after recycling. In several reports WEEE plastics have been identified as the source of brominated flame retardants (BRF) found in toys and everyday items. According to the EU regulation the use of certain BFRs is not permitted in new products or articles above a certain value. Recyclers and resellers of the recycled plastic often specified that the products should not be used in toys, medical equipment of food contact application, yet BFRs from WEEE can still be found in these products. This could mean that either producers that use recycled material in new products do not follow the recommendations from the recyclers, or that the recycled material does not fulfil the regulations. Another possibility for the findings of legacy chemicals in these items could be a meagre follow-up on imported plastics.

    In this study the Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE) has, on behalf of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvårdsverket), investigated the content of legacy chemicals in recycled plastics that have been processed in a recycling facility. The plastics originated from WEEE and ELV and have been gathered from recyclers across Europe. A number of different legacy chemicals were investigated, both inorganic (Cd, Pb, Hg) and organic substances (flame retardants and plasticisers). To simulate a real case scenario and to get better measurement accuracy, all samples were injection moulded. The analysis of the samples was performed using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and Gas chromatography with a Mass spectrometer (GC-MS). All the processing and analysis (except for SCCP/MCCP)) were done by RISE which gives good control over the analysis process, which are important when interpreting the results. In total 54 samples of PE, PP, ABS and PS, were gathered and tested. It was found that all but two samples contained legacy chemicals below the regulated values. The two samples that did not meet the legal limit had a HBCDD content above 100 ppm. All the tested materials contained detectable amounts of bromine, and 15 samples contained detectable amounts of regulated BFRs. None of the detected regulated BRFs were above 186 ppm.  Most of the materials also contained detectable amounts of cadmium and lead.

  • 2.
    Andersson Trojer, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Germany.
    Ananievskaia, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gabul-Zada, Asvad A.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordstierna, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Blanck, Hans
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Polymer Core-Polymer Shell Particle Formation Enabled by Ultralow Interfacial Tension Via Internal Phase Separation: Morphology Prediction Using the Van Oss Formalism2018In: Colloid and Interface Science Communications, ISSN 2215-0382, Vol. 25, p. 36-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The internal phase separation technique is a versatile method for liquid core-polymer shell formation, yet limited to very hydrophobic core materials and actives. The use of polymeric cores instead circumvents this restriction due to the absent mixing entropy for binary polymer mixtures which allows the polymeric core (and the active) to approach the polarity of the shell. Polystyrene core-shell and janus particles were formulated using polymethylmethacrylate, poly(lactic acid), poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid), poly(ε-caprolactone) or cellulose triacetate as shell-forming polymers. The morphology and the partitioning was experimentally determined by selectively staining the core and the shell with β-carotene and methylene blue respectively. In addition, the van Oss formalism was introduced to theoretically predict the thermodynamic equilibrium morphology. As elucidated using the theoretical predictions as well as experimental optical tensiometry, it was found that the driving force for core-shell morphology is, in contrast to liquid core-polymer shell particles, a low core-shell interfacial tension.

  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Theliander, T
    Coagulation of dry-jet wet-spun lignin-based carbon fibre precursors2018In: Proceedings of the 15th European workshop on lignocellulosics and pulp, 2018, p. 123-126Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    de la Motte, Hanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Circular recycling of cotton fibers recovered from polyester/cotton textile blends2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Englund, Finn
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Wedin, Helena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Ribul, Miriam
    London Doctoral Design Centre (LDoC), UK.
    de la Motte, Hanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Östlund, Åsa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Textile tagging to enable automated sorting and beyond: a report to facilitate an active dialogue within the circular textile industry2018Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Vennetti, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Własak, Lech
    Mostostal Warszawa SA, Poland.
    Structural Concept of Novel RPC Sandwich Façade Elements with GFRP Connectors2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment. Report, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 2164-2171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SESBE research project aims to develop novel smart sandwich façade elements with high insulating capabilities while providing a reduced thickness in conjunction with superior mechanical and durability properties. The present paper mainly focuses on the verification of the mechanical performance of the glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) connectors in the façade element composed of reactive powder concrete (RPC) panels with foam concrete insulation between them. Because of the reduced thickness of the large façade elements, the performance of the connectors is critical for the entire structural concept. A description of structural performance and results based on experimental methods and finite element (FE) analysis are presented.

  • 7.
    Gwinnutt, J.
    et al.
    International Newsletters Ltd, Germany.
    Cumming, S.
    BCC Research LLC, Germany.
    Prigneaux, J.
    EDANA, Germany.
    Stevenson, A.
    ELG Carbon Fibre, UK.
    Dils, C.
    IZM Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration, Germany.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE, Innventia.
    Slater, A.
    Lenzing Fibers Grimsby Ltd, Germany.
    Knorr, K.
    Norafin Industries GmbH, Germany.
    Jolly, M.
    Norafin Industries GmbH, Germany.
    Möbitz, C.
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Lutke, C.
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Hofmann, M.
    STFI Saxon Textile Research Institute, Germany.
    Käppel, D.
    Tenowo, Germany.
    How will high-performance nonwovens transform your business?2016In: Technical Textiles International, ISSN 0964-5993, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 33-37Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Industrial scale production of nanofibers from polymer solutions2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Hagström, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Rössler, Joraine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Controlling Strength and Conductivity of Functional Wet-Spun Cellulose Fibers through Different Types of Carbon Black2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Jönsson, Christin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Olsson, Carina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kristinsdottir, Anna Runa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Strååt, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Schwarz, Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Guo, Zengwei
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Återvinning av textilier: Hur säkerställer man giftfria flöden i relation till textilåtervinning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med arbetet var att främja ökad återvinning av textilt spill utan ökad spridning av giftiga ämnen eller minskad kvalitet. Arbetet har till stor del utförts genom fallstudier men även genom myndighetsdialoger, underlag till myndigheter och företag samt initiering av nya relevanta forskningsstudier.Målet i arbetspaket 3 Textil var att ta fram ett kvalificerat underlag för ökad användning av giftfri återvunnen textilråvara genom att studera och beskriva kunskapsläget samt ta fram ny kunskap och driva en aktiv dialog med relevanta aktörer inom fyra fokusområden:1. Spårbarhet2. Minskning av spill3. Teknikutveckling för återvinning av textil4. Återvinning på den svenska marknadenMålet har väl uppfyllts och projektet har bidragit till ökad kunskap om möjligheter för ökad användning av giftfri återvunnen textilråvara. Framförallt har fallstudier genererat detaljerad förståelse för vilka specifika utmaningar som är kopplade till olika textila material och fiberslag.Arbetet har utförts i tät samverkan och dialog med parter från textilbranchen: Boob, Filippa K, Gudrun Sjöden, Fjällräven och WRSD, Swegmarks, Ragnsells, Re:Newcell, samt några av deras leverantörer och flera medlemmar i Kemikaliegruppen på Swerea IVF.Projektet visar att materialspecifik kunskap och teknik är det viktigaste steget mot ökad återvinning av industriella restprodukter. Detta är således en förutsättning för att den sekundära råvaran ska ha ett tillräckligt värde och ändamålsenlig kvalitet. Dessa specifika aspekter kommer att studeras vidare inom efterföljand

  • 11.
    Kolman, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nechyporchuk, Oleksandr
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Persson, Michael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; AkzoNobel Pulp and Performance Chemicals, Sweden .
    Holmberg, Krister
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bordes, Romain
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Preparation of silica/polyelectrolyte complexes for textile strengthening applied to painting canvas restoration2017In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 09277757, Vol. 532, p. 420-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We here report three different approaches to prepare silica-polyelectrolyte complexes for mechanical strengthening of cotton fibers. In the first approach, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as a stabilizing polymer to delay the adsorption of a poly(quaternary ammonium) species, PQA (a copolymer of dimethylamine and epichlorohydrin), on the surface of silica. In the second approach cationic starch (CS), which is a branched polyelectrolyte, was used and the adsorption of CS resulted in formulations with good colloidal stability. The third approach was based on reduction of the charge density of silica to prevent PQA adsorption. Lowering the pH reduced the surface charge of the silica and enabled control of the adsorption. As a result, the aggregation was prevented and only a thin layer of polymer adsorbed. For all formulations a second polyelectrolyte, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was subsequently adsorbed on the cationic polyelectrolyte layer. The silica/polyelectrolyte formulations were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The obtained formulations were applied on model surfaces of degraded painting canvas. The performance of the silica particles coated either with one cationic polyelectrolyte and or with a layer of cationic polyelectrolyte followed by a layer of anionic polyelectrolyte were assessed by tensile testing and the morphology of the treated samples was investigated with SEM. The particles coated with a single cationic layer increased the maximum load at break by 29% at the cost of a reduction in strain. The particles coated with a double layer increased the maximum load to a lesser extent; however, higher values of strain were recorded. For all systems the mass uptake was limited to around 5 wt%.

  • 12.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Textile recycling at Swerea IVF, Cradle to Cradle Product Symposium & Innovation Celebration2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13. Li, D
    et al.
    Iversen, Tommy
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ek, Monica
    Polyesters and composites based on birch suberin2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14. Lund, A
    et al.
    Nilsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Melt spun piezoelectric textile fibres demonstrated2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Lund, Anja
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rundqvist, Karin
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Yu, Liyang
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Müller, Christian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Energy harvesting textiles for a rainy day: woven piezoelectrics based on melt-spun PVDF microfibres with a conducting core2018In: npj Flexible Electronics, Vol. 2, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in ubiquitous low-power electronics call for the development of light-weight and flexible energy sources. The textile format is highly attractive for unobtrusive harvesting of energy from e.g., biomechanical movements. Here, we report the manufacture and characterisation of fully textile piezoelectric generators that can operate under wet conditions. We use a weaving loom to realise textile bands with yarns of melt-spun piezoelectric microfibres, that consist of a conducting core surrounded by β-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), in the warp direction. The core-sheath constitution of the piezoelectric microfibres results in a—for electronic textiles—unique architecture. The inner electrode is fully shielded from the outer electrode (made up of conducting yarns that are integrated in the weft direction) which prevents shorting under wet conditions. As a result, and in contrast to other energy harvesting textiles, we are able to demonstrate piezoelectric fabrics that do not only continue to function when in contact with water, but show enhanced performance. The piezoelectric bands generate an output of several volts at strains below one percent. We show that integration into the shoulder strap of a laptop case permits the continuous generation of four microwatts of power during a brisk walk. This promising performance, combined with the fact that our solution uses scalable materials and well-established industrial manufacturing methods, opens up the possibility to develop wearable electronics that are powered by piezoelectric textiles.

  • 16. Newson, W.R.
    et al.
    Kuktaite, R.
    Hedenqvist, M.S.
    Gällstedt, M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, E.
    Oilseed meal based plastics from plasticized, hot pressed crambe abyssinica and brassica carinata residuals2013In: Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, ISSN 0003-021X, E-ISSN 1558-9331, no 8, p. 1229-1237Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Nilsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Oxfall, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Wandelt, W.
    Rychwalski, R.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Electrically conductive textile fibres with hybridized graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black filler2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Olsson, Carina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Biobaserade fibrer från skog och återvunnen textil2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Posner, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Chemicals in textiles - Risks to human health and the environment: Report from a government assignment2014Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Preparation and characterization of biobased thermoset polymers from renewable resources and their use in composites2017In: Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials / [ed] Thakur, V.K.a, Thakur, M.K.b, Kessler, M.R.c, wiley , 2017, Vol. 1-8, p. 425-457Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on physicochemical and mechanical characterization of composites made from renewable materials. Most common renewable materials used in composites are natural fibers and polymers based on starch or vegetable oil. The extent of using renewable materials in biocomposites has increased during the past decade due to extensive research on cellulosic fibers and biobased polymers. Earlier, the research was focused on using the natural fibers as reinforcement in crude oil-based polymers such as polypropylene. Later, the emphasis shifted to increase the amount of renewable components in the biocomposites which led to the introduction of biobased resins in the composites. The properties of some biocomposites are today comparable to the properties for commercially available nonrenewable composites. Several plant biofibers have been used as reinforcement in biobased thermoplastics or thermosets to manufacture biocomposites. Material characterization is important to understand the performance of these composites under specific environment. Detailed discussion about the mechanical and physicochemical characterization is provided in this chapter. Physicochemical characterization includes chemical composition, density, viscosity, molecular weight, melting temperature, crystallinity, morphology, wettability, surface tension, water binding capacity, electrical conductivity, flammability, thermal stability, and swelling. Mechanical characterization includes tensile, flexural, impact, compressive, shear, toughness, hardness, brittleness, ductility, creep, fatigue, and dynamic mechanical analysis. © 2017 Scrivener Publishing LLC.

  • 21.
    Rasel, Hannah
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Therese
    RISE, Innventia.
    Newson, William R
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Johansson, Eva
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    New bio-based plastics from a non-edible plant oil side-stream for film extrusion2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable sourced PET, PA, PE, starch blends, etc, are fastly growing due to the processability and final performance, that is similar to their petroleum derived options. A bit in the shadow of the development of these plastics, development is ongoing on another group of plastics, made directly of the side-streams of agricultural products: oil plant residues and proteins. They can be used in edible applications but not all of them are suitable for food or forage. Industrial oilseed meal from crambe abyssinica contains relatively high levels of protein that is not suitable for human or animal consumption due to the presence of anti-nutritional compounds. This paper presents research on crambe meal as a base for new plastics, developed to extrude continuous, flexible plastic films based on crambe meal, blended with vital wheat gluten as an elastic component and urea as a protein denaturant. The effect of process parameters, such as screw speed, die temperature and pressure, and the effect of components were studied with regards to the final performance of the film extrudates. E.g. mechanical properties, oxygen permeability and moisture content were determined and surface and cross-section morphologies were examined with electron microscopy. The results showed that crambe-based blends can be extruded as continuous, flexible plastic films, which exhibit barrier properties towards oxygen. Recipes and methods for pelletizing of master batches for post-converting (e.g. extrusion or compression molding) were successfully developed. Addition of arenewable plasticizer improved the extrusion performance and resulted in less hygroscopic films, which further showed the overall highest tensile strength while the extensibility was nearly unaffected. The results provide a first basis to further develop the process and the blend towards potential industrial applications, for example as packaging materials to trays, pots and similar type of packages.

  • 22.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Circular flows of textiles – results from a LCA study on behalf of the NordicCouncil of Ministers2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    “Clothes made from eucalyptus – our future2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Sandin, Gustav
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, .
    StarWars and the Environmental Hotspots of Textile Value Chains2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    Chalmers University of Technology, .
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, .
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, .
    Will Clothing Be Sustainable? Clarifying Sustainable Fashion2016In: Textiles and Clothing Sustainability: Implications in Textiles and Fashion / [ed] Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu, Singapore: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2016, p. 1-45Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mistra Future Fashion research programme (2011–2019) is a large Swedish investment aimed at reducing the environmental impact of clothing consumption. Midway into the programme, research results and insights were reviewed with the intent to see what picture appears from this interdisciplinary consortium, developed to address the multiple sustainability challenges in clothing consumption and the tools for intervention. Such tools comprise product design, consumer behaviour changes, policy development, business models, technical development, recycling, life cycle assessment (LCA) and social life cycle assessment (SLCA). This chapter quantifies the extent of the sustainability challenge for the apparel sector, via an analysis of five garment archetypes. It also considers to what extent different interventions for impact reduction can contribute in society’s endeavour towards sustainability, in terms of staying within an “environmentally safe and socially just operating space”, inspired by the planetary boundaries approach. In particular, the results show whether commonly proposed interventions are sufficient or not in relation to the impact reduction necessary according to the planetary boundaries. Also, the results clarify which sustainability aspects that the clothing industry are likely to manage sufficiently if the proposed interventions are realised and which sustainability aspects that will require more radical interventions in order to reach the targets.

  • 26.
    Rundqvist, Karin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lund, Anja
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Registrering av fotnedsättning baserat på piezoelektriska fibrer2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Rössler, Joraine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Från Trä till Smarta Textilier – Fibrer som kan lite extra2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peters, Gregory M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Using the planetary boundaries for evaluating interventions for impact reduction in the clothing industry2015In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, 2015, p. 608-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Schellenberger, Steffen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Gillgard, Philip
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Stare, Ann
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Hanning, Anne-Charlotte
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Levenstam, O.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Cousins, I. T.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Facing the rain after the phase out: Performance evaluation of alternative fluorinated and non-fluorinated durable water repellents for outdoor fabrics2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 193, p. 675-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorinated durable water repellent (DWR) agents are used to obtain water and stain repellent textiles. Due to the on-going phase-out of DWRs based on side-chain fluorinated polymers (SFP) with “long” perfluoroalkyl chains, the textile industry lacks suitable alternatives with comparable material characteristics. The constant development and optimization of SFPs for textile applications initiated more than half a century ago has resulted in a robust and very efficient DWR-technology and textiles with exceptional hydro- and oleo-phobic properties. The industry is now in the predicament that the long-chain SFPs with the best technical performance have undesirable toxicological and environmental behaviour. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the technical performance of presently available fluorinated and non-fluorinated DWRs as part of a chemical alternatives assessment (CAA). The results are based on a study with synthetic outdoor fabrics treated with alternative DWRs and tested for repellency using industrial standard and complementary methods. Using this approach, the complex structure-property relationships of DWR-polymers could be explained on a molecular level. Both short-chain SFPs and non-fluorinated DWRs showed excellent water repellency and durability in some cases while short-chain SFPs were the more robust of the alternatives to long-chain SFPs. A strong decline in oil repellency and durability with perfluoroalkyl chain length was shown for SFP DWRs. Non-fluorinated alternatives were unable to repel oil, which might limit their potential for substitution in textile application that require repellency towards non-polar liquids.

  • 30. Schmidt, A.
    et al.
    Watson, D.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Askham, C.
    Brunn Poulsen, P.
    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of different treatments for discarded textiles2016Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Schwartz, Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Trash-2-Cash2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32. Strömbom, S
    et al.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Chemicals management in the textile sector: Dialogue between authorities, research institutes and retailers leading to concrete actions2015In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, 2015, p. 631-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33. Ture, H.
    et al.
    Gällstedt, M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Kuktaite, R.
    Johansson, E.
    Hedenqvist, M.S.
    Protein network structure and properties of wheat gluten extrudates using a novel solvent-free approach with urea as a combined denaturant and plasticiser2011In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, no 19, p. 9416-9423Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Wand, Charlie Ray
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden; University of Cambridge, UK.
    Bolton, Kim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Negative thermal expansion of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and polyethylene tie molecules: A molecular dynamics study2016In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 54, no 21, p. 2223-2232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism of thermal actuation for poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and polyethylene (PE) tie molecules has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Tie molecules are found in semicrystalline polymers and are polymer chains that link two (or more) crystalline lamellae, allowing for the transfer of force between these regions. A novel simulation technique has been developed to enable measurement of changes in the tie molecule length upon heating. We investigate the dependence of the percentage actuation observed upon heating, on the external applied force that stretches the tie molecules, the temperature range used for heating as well as the length and the number of tie molecules. Two molecular level mechanisms for actuation are identified. An entropically driven mechanism occurs at low applied forces and is applicable to all flexible polymers. A second mechanism due to conformational changes is observed for PVDF but not for PE at intermediate applied forces.

  • 35.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Life cycle assessment of cable recycling: Part 1: Plastsep compared to state of the art2012Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Åkerfeldt, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF. University of Borås.
    Nilsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Gillgard, Philip
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Textile piezoelectric sensors – melt spun bi-component poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibres with conductive cores and poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) coating as the outer electrode2014In: Fashion and Textiles, ISSN 2198-0802, Vol. 1, no 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented here addresses the outer electroding of a fully textile piezoelectric strain sensor, consisting of bi-component fibre yarns of β-crystalline poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) sheath and conductive high density polyethylene (HDPE)/carbon black (CB) core as insertions in a woven textile, with conductive poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) coatings developed for textile applications. Two coatings, one with a polyurethane binder and one without, were compared for the application and evaluated as electrode material in piezoelectric testing, as well as tested for surface resistivity, tear strength, abrasion resistance and shear flexing. Both coatings served their function as the outer electrodes in the system and no difference in this regard was detected between them. Omission of the binder resulted in a surface resistivity one order of magnitude less, of 12.3 Ω/square, but the surface resistivity of these samples increased more upon abrasion than the samples coated with binder. The tear strength of the textile coated with binder decreased with one third compared to the uncoated substrate, whereas the tear strength of the coated textile without binder increased with the same amount. Surface resistivity measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the samples subjected to shear flexing showed that the coatings without the binder did not withstand this treatment, and that the samples with the binder managed this to a greater extent. In summary, both of the PEDOT:PSS coatings could be used as outer electrodes of the piezoelectric fibres, but inclusion of binder was found necessary for the durability of the coating.

  • 37.
    Åkerfeldt, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Textilhögskolan..
    Strååt, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    A rheology study of a textile coating paste containing PEDOT:PSS2011In: Papers presented at the nordic rheology conference, 2011, p. 269-273Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 37 of 37
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