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  • 1. Acciaro, R.
    et al.
    Aulin, C.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wågberg, L.
    Lindström, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Claesson, P.M.
    Varga, I.
    Investigation of the formation structure and release characteristics of self-assembled composite films of cellulose nanofibrils and temperature responsive microgels2011In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, no 4, 1369-1377 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Achtel, Christian
    et al.
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF. Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Kosan, Birgit
    Thuringian Institute of Textile and Plastics Research (TITK), Germany.
    Seoud, Omar. A.El
    University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Heinze, Thomas
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Dissolution capacity of novel cellulose solvents based on triethyloctylammonium chloride2017In: Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 1022-1352, E-ISSN 1521-3935, Vol. 218, no 21, 1700208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolution of cellulose from various sources (microcrystalline cellulose and different dissolving grade pulp fibers) is investigated in solvent systems based on triethyl(n-octyl)ammonium chloride (N2228Cl). Clear cellulose solutions are obtained with N2228Cl in a variety of solvents, e.g., dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, and acetone. It is possible to prepare clear cellulose solutions from pulp fibers with concentrations up to 15 wt%. However, it is found that the cellulose is degraded, especially when neat (i.e., molten) N2228Cl is used as a solvent. The present work includes comprehensive rheological characterization of the cellulose solutions, both with shear and extensional rheology. In most cases, the viscosity values are low (complex viscosities below 100 Pa s for 5–10 wt% dissolved cellulose), and the solutions show more Newtonian than viscoelastic behavior. 

  • 3.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF, Keramer.
    Zirconia in applications with bone contact2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Lyckfeldt, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Johansson, Emil
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Visible-Light CurableCeramic Suspensions for Additive Manufacturing of Dense Ceramic Parts2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Shen, J.Z.
    Stockholm University.
    Defect Minimization in Prosthetic Ceramics2014In: Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry, Elsevier Inc. , 2014, 359-373 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical reliability and aesthetic appearance of ceramic dental prostheses are strongly influenced by the presence of defects. When several processes are used during fabrication of ceramic dental prostheses, additional defects are unavoidably introduced in each process step; these are in addition to the ones that already exist in raw materials. To avoid the degeneration of material performance by the accumulated defect population, process optimization is needed to minimize the defects introduced. Standardized mechanical evaluations are usually performed on samples with carefully prepared surfaces in order to minimize the influence from the defects usually induced by fabrication processes. The results from such mechanical evaluation indicate the strength level that is achievable by the material with the given population of bulk defects. In order to avoid a reduction in the performance of the ceramic material by the additional defects normally induced by the fabrication process, it must be understood how these defects are introduced, and solutions must be found to reduce their size and frequency through modifications of the material and processes. The aim of this chapter is to elucidate the sources of defects that are common for ceramic dental prostheses and to determine how to minimize them. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Shen, Z.
    Stockholm University.
    Effects of granule density on strength and granule related defects in zirconia2012In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 32, no 11, 2653-2659 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A suspension of zirconia powder (TZ3YSE) with a solids loading of 50. vol% was prepared by ball milling. Binders were added and some of the suspension was diluted to 40, 30 and 20. vol% before freeze granulation was performed. A spray dried material (TZ3YSEB) was used as a reference. The pore size distribution of the different granules was evaluated and from the microstructure it was shown that inhomogeneities were present in both the freeze granulated as well as in the spray dried granules. In addition, the density, microstructure as well as the strength of sintered materials prepared from the granules were studied. The results showed that a high green density or sintered density was not sufficient in order to achieve a high strength material. It was further shown that the strength was significantly influenced by the granule density and not by the inhomogeneities found in the granules. © 2012.

  • 7.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Tönnäng, Lenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    The effect of softmachining parameters on the mechanical strength of zirconia2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Venturini, Francesca
    ZHAW School of Engineering.
    Schönherr, Veit
    ZHAW School of Engineering .
    Rey, Julien
    ZHAW School of Engineering.
    Characterization oflight-gas interaction in strongly-scattering nanoporous materials and itsimplications for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9. Agnihotri, S.
    et al.
    Johnsen, I.A.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Moe, S.
    Gregersen, Ø.
    More selective biorefining of softwood by combined hot water and ethanol organosolv pretreatment2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10. Ahlberg, C.
    et al.
    Lundell, F.
    Söderberg, L. Daniel
    RISE, Innventia.
    Self-organization of fibers in a suspension between two counter-rotating discs2009In: Proceedings of the ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Conference 2009, 2009, Vol. 1, no PART A, 585-592 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The behavior of fibers suspended in a flow between two flat counter-rotating discs has been studied experimentally. Captured images of the fibers in the flow were analyzed by steerable filters, to extract positions and orientations of the fibers. Experiments were performed for gaps between the discs of less than one fiber length, and for equal absolute values of the angular velocities for the discs. The length-to-diameter ratio of the fibers was approximately 14. During certain conditions, the fibers organized themselves in a distinct manner, which we will denote as fiber trains, in which three or more fibers are aligned next to each other, at the same radial position, with a short fiber-to-fiber distance. The direction of the individual fibers is radial and the direction of the whole train is tangential. Trains containing more than 60 fibers have been observed and are quite impressing.

  • 11.
    Ahlroth, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Bialik, Marta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Hydrothermal carbonisation of effluent sludge2017In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017, Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi , 2017, 156-158 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research was carried out to investigate hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) treatment of different effluent sludges from the pulp and paper industry in a Parr-reactor. Sludge samples were evaluated from a thermomechanical paper (TMP) mill and a kraft market pulp mill (NSWBK). The issues studied included HTC treatment time; addition of acid and alkali; dewatering properties of the resulting slurry; and non-process element (NPE) concentration in the original sludge, the filtrate and the filter cake. It was found that HTC improved the fuel quality. Alkali metals were depleted in TMP and NSWBK sludge and in both cases, the sludge was easier to dewater. The yield was better for TMP than NSWBK sludge and the yield losses had a negative impact on the NSWBK sludge. TMP sludge was already a viable boiler fuel and the treatment improved the fuel qualities even more. The HTC treatment of the NSWBK sludge resulted in lower chlorine and potassium, with lower fuel-nitrogen resulting in lower nitrous oxide. Although HTC treatment improved the low heating value of the sludge, this was counteracted by yield loss. Compared with untreated NSWBK, the overall energy impact was negative. HTC treatment offered mixed opportunities from the viewpoint of the recovery cycle.

  • 12.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Aluminium i betong - Litteraturstudie och experimentella försök2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens byggprojekt används en mängd olika material för att bygga konstruktioner. Det förekommer att komponenter av aluminium gjuts in i betong vilket medför en risk att täckskiktet spricker p.g.a. korrosionsprodukternas stora volym. Därför är det viktigt att klargöra vilka korrosionsegenskaper aluminium har ingjuten i betong.

  • 13.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Atmosfäriska korrosionsegenskaper för rostfritt stål med olika ytstruktur2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Generellt sett så har rostfria stål en hög korrosionsresistens i atmosfärisk miljö p.g.a. den mycket tunna oxidfilmen på ytan, en film som fungerar som en barriär och försvårar initieringen av en korrosionsprocess på stålets yta. Dock så kan rostfria stål få svåra gropfrätningsangrepp i vissa aggressiva atmosfärer där t.ex. klorider och SO2 finns närvarande. Olika ytstrukturer kan ge ytan olika egenskaper som vätbarhet, ytråhet och ytsammansättning. En yta som har hög vätbarhet har en tjockare fuktfilm på ytan jämfört med en yta som har låg vätbarhet. Det är i fuktfilmen på ytan som korrosionsprocesserna sker, aggressiva partiklar och gaser kan tas upp i fuktfilmen från atmosfären och öka korrosionshastigheten. Ytråheten påverkar både vätbarhet och hur mycket partiklar som fastnar på en yta, därmed påverkar ytråheten korrosionshastigheten. Ytsammansättning anger vilka och hur mycket det finns av ett ämne i den skyddande oxidfilmen, ämnen som kan ha betydelse för hur lätt korrosion uppstår, t.ex. så kan olika sulfider fungera som initieringsyta för korrosionsangrepp. I litteraturen har det dragits olika slutsatser om vilken ytegenskap som har störst betydelse för korrosionens omfattning. Vissa studier säger att ytråheten har störst betydelse medan andra säger att ytsammansättningen har störst betydelse. Särskilt låglegerade ferritiska rostfria stål kan få svår gropfrätning i aggressiva miljöer och då har typen av ytstruktur liten betydelse för hur stora korrosionsangreppen blir. För de mer legerade austenitiska stålen kan typen av ytstruktur ha stor betydelse för storleken på korrosionsangrepp. Höglegerade stål som innehåller molybden har generellt sett små korrosionsangrepp och typen av ytstruktur har liten betydelse för korrosionsangreppens omfattning. Sammantaget tycks det dock vara så att ytråheten ändå har relativt stor inverkan på korrosionsresistensen, dock har relativt få studier genomförts där ytråheten verkligen mätts.

  • 14.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Rostfritt stål i betong med hög fukt och kloridhalt - Provningsmetod för rostfritt stål i betong: Delrapport IV2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    För betongkonstruktioner som är exponerade i aggressiva miljöer kan korrosionsskador uppstå som kräver kostsamma reparationer. Aggressiva miljöer kan t.ex. vara konstruktioner i kontakt med havsvatten där klorider kan transporteras genom betongskiktet fram till armeringen och där orsakar korrosionsskador. För att förhindra vissa korrosionsskador kan armering av kolstål (som är det vanligaste armeringsmaterialet) bytas ut mot armering i rostfritt stål. Idag finns en mängd olika rostfria stål, med olika korrosionsegenskaper, tillgängliga på marknaden och det är därför viktigt att kunna klassificera korrosionshärdigheten för dessa stål. I en tidigare litteraturstudie ”Elektrokemiska metoder för utvärdering av armeringskorrosion samt kritisk kloridjonkoncentration för rostfritt stål i betong” [1] så undersöktes vad som har rapporterats i litteraturen om provningsmetoder för att undersöka korrosionshärdigheten för rostfritt stål i betong. Det framgick av litteraturstudien att en potentiostatisk metod med polarisering till +200 mV kan vara lämplig. I denna studie har en liknande potentiostatisk metod tillämpats och utvärderats. Provkropparna placerades i ett vattenbad där temperaturen ökade med 5°C per 14 dagar från lägst 20°C till maximalt 40°C. Två austenitiska och tre duplexa stål har undersökts och resultaten visar att stålen EN 1.4301 (304), EN 1.4162 (2101), EN 1.4436 (316) fick korrosionsangrepp vid 4 vikt-% Cl per cementvikt när temperaturen på vattenbadet var mellan 20 och 30°C. Det mer legerade duplexa stålet EN 1.4362 (2304) fick korrosionsangrepp vid 6 vikt-% Cl per cementvikt vid en temperatur på 35°C. Det högst legerade stålet EN 1.4462 (2205) fick inga korrosionsangrepp vid10 vikt-% Cl per cementvikt som var den högsta kloridkoncentrationen.

  • 15.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Sandberg, Bertil
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Wadsö, L.
    Lund University.
    Galvanic corrosion properties of steel in water saturated concrete2015In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 66, no 1, 67-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminum-based sacrificial anodes were installed to reinforced concrete to stop ongoing corrosion in cooling water tunnels in a Swedish nuclear power plant. The steel rebars were also unintentionally connected to stainless steel water pumps. Therefore, the consumption rate of the sacrificial anodes was higher than predicted. An experimental and a field study were performed to assess if the steel rebar suffer from galvanic corrosion and if the stainless steel pumps are responsible alone for the high consumption rate. It was found from the experimental study that there is an increased risk of galvanic corrosion for steel rebar when the corrosion potential is raised to -200mV (SCE) for samples with 1% CL- by mass of cement and -500mV (SCE) for samples with 2% Cl- by mass of cement. The experimental results were compared with the corrosion potential measured in the cooling water tunnel where sacri ficial anodes were in use and not mounted at all. The cooling water tunnel without sacrificial anodes had generally more anodic corrosion potentials compared to the tunnel with anodes. The tunnel with anodes had also more anodic potentials closer to the stainless steel pumps than further away which means that the rebar is affected by the stainless steel pumps. However, the measured corrosion potentials in the tunnels were not as anodic as the potentials needed for high galvanic current measured in the experimental study. © 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  • 16.
    Ahlsén, Ulf
    et al.
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Bellander, Ulf
    Uppskattning av armerings läge och diameter i färdig konstruktion1979Report (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ahlsén, Ulf
    et al.
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Klevbo, Göran
    Provningsmetod för plattsättningsbruk1979Report (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Ahlsén, Ulf
    et al.
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Montin, Stefan
    Metoder för bestämning av komprimeringsgrad hos färsk betong1979Report (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet, Sweden.
    Khan, Zia Ullah
    Linköpings Universitet, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE, Innventia. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Parasuraman, Rajasekar
    Indian Institute of Science, India.
    Umarji, Arun M.
    Indian Institute of Science, India.
    Slettengren, Kerstin
    RISE, Innventia. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    RISE, Innventia. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings Universitet, Sweden.
    Room temperature synthesis of transition metal silicide-conducting polymer micro-composites for thermoelectric applications2017In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 225, 55-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic polymer thermoelectrics (TE) as well as transition metal (TM) silicides are two thermoelectric class of materials of interest because they are composed of atomic elements of high abundance; which is a prerequisite for mass implementation of thermoelectric (TE) solutions for solar and waste heat recovery. But both materials have drawbacks when it comes to finding low-cost manufacturing. The metal silicide needs high temperature (>1000 °C) for creating TE legs in a device from solid powder, but it is easy to achieve long TE legs in this case. On the contrary, organic TEs are synthesized at low temperature from solution. However, it is difficult to form long legs or thick films because of their low solubility. In this work, we propose a novel method for the room temperature synthesis of TE composite containing the microparticles of chromium disilicide; CrSi2 (inorganic filler) in an organic matrix of nanofibrillated cellulose- poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (NFC-PEDOT:PSS). With this method, it is easy to create long TE legs in a room temperature process. The originality of the approach is the use of conducting polymer aerogel microparticles mixed with CrSi2 microparticles to obtain a composite solid at room temperature under pressure. We foresee that the method can be scaled up to fabricate and pattern TE modules. The composite has an electrical conductivity (σ) of 5.4 ± 0.5 S/cm and the Seebeck coefficient (α) of 88 ± 9 ΌV/K, power factor (α2σ) of 4 ± 1 ΌWm−1K−2 at room temperature. At a temperature difference of 32 °C, the output power/unit area drawn across the load, with the resistance same as the internal resistance of the device is 0.6 ± 0.1 ΌW/cm2.

  • 20.
    Aitomäki, Y.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Långström, R.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Fernberg, P.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Novel reactive bicomponent fibres: Material in composite manufacturing2012In: Journal of Nanostructured Polymers and Nanocomposites, ISSN 17904439, Vol. 8, no 1, 11-maj p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypotheses that reactive uncured, thermoset bicomponent fibres can be prepared and mixed with reinforcing fibres and ultimately used in preparation of a composite was tested and is described. It is thought that such fibres have the two potential advantages: (1) to enable manufacturing with particle doped resins e.g. nanocomposites which add functionality to composites and (2) increased efficiency of structural composite manufacturing by increasing the level of automation. The structure of the thermoset fibres comprises of a sheath of thermoplastic and a core of uncured thermoset resin. Once manufactured, the fibres were wound with a reinforced fibre onto a plate, consolidated and cured. The resulting composite was examined and compared to other composites made with the same manufacturing method from commercially available materials. The results show that a laminate can be produced using these reactive bicomponent fibres. The resin system successfully impregnates the reinforcing carbon fibres and that the thermoplastic separates from the epoxy resin system during consolidation. In comparison to reference material, the bicomponent laminate shows promising characteristics. However, the processes developed are currently on a lab-scale and considerable improvement of various bicomponent fibre properties, such as the strength, are required before the technology can be used on a larger scale.

  • 21.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Långström, Runar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Novel reactive bicomponent fibres: Material in composite manufacturing2012In: Journal of Nanostructured Polymers and Nanocomposites, ISSN 17904439, Vol. 8, no 1, s.5-11 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypotheses that reactive uncured, thermoset bicomponent fibres can be prepared and mixed with reinforcing fibres and ultimately used in preparation of a composite was tested and is described. It is thought that such fibres have the two potential advantages: (1) to enable manufacturing with particle doped resins e.g. nanocomposites which add functionality to composites and (2) increased efficiency of structural composite manufacturing by increasing the level of automation. The structure of the thermoset fibres comprises of a sheath of thermoplastic and a core of uncured thermoset resin. Once manufactured, the fibres were wound with a reinforced fibre onto a plate, consolidated and cured. The resulting composite was examined and compared to other composites made with the same manufacturing method from commercially available materials. The results show that a laminate can be produced using these reactive bicomponent fibres. The resin system successfully impregnates the reinforcing carbon fibres and that the thermoplastic separates from the epoxy resin system during consolidation. In comparison to reference material, the bicomponent laminate shows promising characteristics. However, the processes developed are currently on a lab-scale and considerable improvement of various bicomponent fibre properties, such as the strength, are required before the technology can be used on a larger scale.

  • 22.
    Akesson, D.
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Skrifvars, M.
    University of Borås.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Preparation of thermoset composites from natural fibres and acrylate modified soybean oil resins2009In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 114, no 4, 2502-2508 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural composites with a high content of renewable material were produced from natural fibres and an acrylated epoxidized soybean oil resin. Composites were prepared by spray impregnation followed by compression moulding at elevated temperature. The resulting composites had good mechanical properties in terms of tensile strength and flexural strength. Tensile testing as well as dynamical mechanical thermal analysis showed that increasing the fibre content, increased the mechanical properties. The resin can be reinforced with up to 70 wt % fibre without sacrifice in processability. The tensile modulus ranged between 5.8 and 9.7 GPa depending on the type of fibre mat. The study of the adhesion by low vacuum scanning electron microscopy shows that the fibres are well impregnated in the matrix. The aging properties were finally evaluated. This study shows that composites with a very high content of renewable constituents can be produced from soy bean oil resins and natural fibres. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 23. Alakalhunmaa, S.
    et al.
    Parikka, K.
    Penttilä, P. A.
    Cuberes, M. T.
    Willför, S.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mikkonen, K. S.
    Softwood-based sponge gels2016In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, no 5, 3221-3238 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crosslinking-aided gelation was utilized to prepare hydrogels from softwood polysaccharides, with spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM)—a group of largely unexploited hemicelluloses—as the main component, aiming at conversion into sponge-like aerogels. Cellulose nanofibrils were used for the formation of a reinforcing network, which was further crosslinked together with a GGM matrix by ammonium zirconium carbonate, an inorganic salt that is regarded as safe for use in food packaging. The hydrogels were freeze-dried into stiff, low-density aerogels with 98 % of their volume composed of air-filled pores. When immersed in water, the aerogels absorbed water up to 37 times their initial weight, demonstrating elasticity and repeatable and reversible sponge capacity. The developed concept reassembles the wood polysaccharides in a new way, creating interesting possibilities for utilizing the abundant “green gold,” GGM. The obtained biobased materials could find application potential, for example, in the field of food packaging and could contribute in the reduction of the usage of petroleum-based plastics in the future.

  • 24.
    Alberts, Claes
    et al.
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Strömberg, Uno
    Skador på betongbalkonger.: Uppföljning av tidigare utförda lagningar1980Report (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Alberts, D.
    et al.
    University of Oviedo.
    Vega, V.
    University of Oviedo.
    Pereiro, R.
    University of Oviedo.
    Bordel, N.
    University of Oviedo.
    Prida, V.M.
    University of Oviedo.
    Bengtson, Arne
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Sanz-Medel, A.
    University of Oviedo.
    In-depth profile analysis of filled alumina and titania nanostructured templates by radiofrequency glow discharge coupled to optical emission spectrometry2010In: Analusis, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 396, no 8, 2833-2840 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of highly ordered and self-assembled magnetic nanostructures such as arrays of Fe or Ni nanowires and their alloys is arousing increasing interest due to the peculiar magnetic properties of such materials at the nanoscale. These nanostructures can be fabricated using nanoporous anodic alumina membranes or self-assembled nanotubular titanium dioxide as templates. The chemical characterization of the nanostructured layers is of great importance to assist the optimization of the filling procedure or to determine their manufacturing quality. Radiofrequency glow discharge (RF-GD) coupled to optical emission spectrometry (OES) is a powerful tool for the direct analysis of either conducting or insulating materials and to carry out depth profile analysis of thin layers by multi-matrix calibration procedures. Thus, the capability of RF-GD-OES is investigated here for the in-depth quantitative analysis of self-aligned titania nanotubes and self-ordered nanoporous alumina filled with arrays of metallic and magnetic nanowires obtained using the template-assisted filling method. The samples analysed in this work consisted of arrays of Ni nanowires with different lengths (from 1.2 up to 5 μm) and multilayer nanowires of alternating layers with different thicknesses (of 1-2 μm) of Ni and Au, or Au and FeNi alloy, deposited inside the alumina and titania membranes. Results, compared with other techniques such as scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, show that the RF-GD-OES surface analysis technique proves to be adequate and promising for this challenging application. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  • 26. Albertsson, A.-C.
    et al.
    Voepel, J.
    Edlund, U.
    Dahlman, Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Söderqvist-Lindblad, M.
    Design of renewable hydrogel release systems from fiberboard mill wastewater2010In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 11, no 5, 1406-1411 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new route for the design of renewable hydrogels is presented. The soluble waste from masonite production was isolated, fractionized, and upgraded. The resulting hemicellulose rich fraction was alkenyl-functionalized and used in the preparation of covalently cross-linked hydrogels capable of sustained release of incorporated agents. Said hydrogels showed a Fickian diffusion-based release of incorporated bovine serum albumin. Also, a method for the coating of seeds with hydrogel was developed. The sustained release of incorporated growth retardant agents from the hydrogel coating on rape seeds was shown to enable the temporary inhibition of germination.

  • 27.
    Albinsson, Ola
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Lundevall, Åsa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Sehati, Parisa
    Linköpings universitet.
    Stålhanske, Christina
    RISE.
    Sundberg, P
    Mattsson, Lards-Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology .
    Sjövall, Peter
    Rise.
    The influence of surface composition and plasma treatment on adhesion2015In: Proceedings of GPD Glass Performance Days 2015, 2015, 11-14 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Assessment of concrete structures after fire2011Report (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Dedic, Dina
    RISE, Innventia.
    Karpenja, Tatjana
    RISE, Innventia.
    Magnusson, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Modorato-Rosta, Caroline
    RISE, Innventia.
    Rosén, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sundin, Konstantin
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lucisano, Marco
    RISE, Innventia.
    Towards a cellulose-based society: current trends, future scenarios, and the role of the wood biorefinery2016In: EWLP 2016. Proceedings of the 14th European workshop on lignocellulosics and pulp, Autrans 28 June - 1 July, 2016  vol. 2: Poster presentations, 2016, Vol. 2, 125-127 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a great need to maintain research for a future in which the traditional value chains of the forest industry are combined with the needs and demands of a bio-based economy. In such a future, the pulp mill biorefinery will be a crucial node. In order to map the transformation from a fossil-based society to a cellulose-based society, a global consumer survey has been made. In addition, interviews and workshops with various players throughout the bio-economy field have been accomplished. Several current trends that affect the road to a cellulose-based society have been identified. These trends are describing the effects of urbanization, consumer behaviour, new business models, material recycling, open innovation, and the need for early demonstration of new research. The trends have been combined with uncertainties into a number of plausible scenarios describing the society and the role of cellulose in the year 2030.

  • 30.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Larsson, Karolina
    RISE, Innventia.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Kubat, Mikaela
    RISE, Innventia.
    Karlström, Katarina
    RISE, Innventia.
    Norberg, Lars
    RISE, Innventia.
    Anadolyan, Shant
    RISE, Innventia.
    Peciulyte, Ausra
    Olsson, Lisbeth
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    The supramolecular structure of cellulose-rich wood and wheat straw pulps can be a determinative factor for enzymatic hydrolysability2016In: 7th Workshop on cellulose, regenerated cellulose and cellulose derivatives, Örnsköldsvik 15-16 november, 2016, 2016, 11Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Larsson, Karolina
    RISE, Innventia.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Kubat, Mikaela
    RISE, Innventia.
    Karlström, Katarina
    RISE, Innventia.
    Peciulyte, A.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    The supramolecular structure of cellulose-rich wood pulps can be a determinative factor for enzymatic hydrolysability2015In: CelluloseArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Larsson, Karolina
    RISE, Innventia.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Kubat, Mikaela
    RISE, Innventia.
    Karlström, Katarina
    RISE, Innventia.
    Peciulyte, Ausra
    Olsson, Lisbeth
    The influence of various pulp properties on the enzymatic hydrolyzability2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, Anne-Mari
    RISE, Innventia.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Miniaturized determination of ash content in kraft lignin samples using thermogravimetric analysis2015In: 18th International Symposium on Wood, Fiber and Pulping Chemistry, September 9-11, 2015, Vienna, 2015, 352-354 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in oxidative conditions is a promising alternative to ignition in oven for the determination of inorganic residue, commonly referred to as ash. It is here shown that TGA can be used with temperature programs resembling those in standardized methods for oven ignition, and obtainequivalent results even though the sample amount is several orders of magnitude lower. The precision and limit of quantification of TGA is also discussed.

  • 34.
    Alexandersson, Johan
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Polymercementbetong: Polymer cement concrete1983Report (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Alexandersson, Johan
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Strength losses in heat cured concrete1972Report (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Alexandersson, Johan
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Strength losses in heat curing: causes and countermeasures1974Report (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Alexis, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Björkvall, Johan.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Mathematical modeling of stirring for an optimized ladle furnace process2011In: AISTech - Iron and Steel Technology Conference Proceedings, 2011, 1389-1399 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 38.
    Alexis, Jonas
    et al.
    MEFOS − Stiftelsen för Metallurgisk Forskning.
    Jönsson, P.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Lage
    MEFOS − Stiftelsen för Metallurgisk Forskning.
    Heating and electromagnetic stirring in a ladle furnace - a simulation model2000In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 40, no 11, 1098-1104 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-dimensional simulation model coupling heating and induction stirring in an ASEA-SKF ladle furnace was developed. Data of the heat transfer from the arcs to the steel bath were predicted in a separate model and included as boundary conditions in a ladle model. The arc model considers the contributions of heat transferred by of each of the following mechanisms: radiation, convection, condensation and energy transported by electrons. Predictions were made to simulate the change of temperature distribution in the ladle during simultaneous heating with electrodes and stirring by induction. A first attempt was made to compare the predictions with measured temperatures from a 100 t ASEA-SKF ladle. The agreement was found to be fairly good when heat-flux data for a 25 cm arc length were used as input to the ladle model. This indicates that the model can be used for more in-depth studies of the effects of heating for ladles that are inductively stirred.

  • 39.
    Alexis, Jonas
    et al.
    MEFOS − Stiftelsen för Metallurgisk Forskning.
    Jönsson, P.G.
    KTH.
    Jonsson, Lage
    MEFOS − Stiftelsen för Metallurgisk Forskning.
    A model of an induction-stirred ladle accounting for slag and surface deformation1999In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 39, no 8, 772-778 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 3 dimensional 2-phase model of an induction stirred ladle has been developed. The model is based on fundamental transport equations and includes the solution of steel- and slag-phase. Predicted velocities are in very good agreement with experimental data. Predicted velocities and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation from the model are shown to have linear relationships with input stirring force for different cylindrical ladles. Linear equations forthese relations are presented. Further calculations have shown that these linear equations also are able to predict velocities for a conical ladle. © 1999 ISIJ.

  • 40.
    Alexis, Jonas
    et al.
    MEFOS − Stiftelsen för Metallurgisk Forskning.
    Jönsson, Pär
    MEFOS − Stiftelsen för Metallurgisk Forskning.
    A model of an inductively-stirred ladle1997In: Scandinavian journal of metallurgy, ISSN 0371-0459, E-ISSN 1600-0692, Vol. 26, no 2, 48-54 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fully 3-dimensional model for an inductively-stirred ladle is presented. Since the fluid flow during induction stirring is not symmetric with respect to the centre of the ladle, this model gives a more accurate description of the real stirring conditions than more traditional models that use cylindrical or polar co-ordinates. Typical output from the model are steel velocities, turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. The calculated steel velocities agree fairly well with experimental data. © Munksgaard, 1997.

  • 41.
    Alexis, Jonas
    et al.
    MEFOS − Stiftelsen för Metallurgisk Forskning.
    Ramirez, M.
    Massachusetts Inst. of Technology.
    Trapaga, G.
    Massachusetts Inst. of Technology.
    Jönsson, P.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Modeling of a DC Electric Arc Furnace - heat transfer from the arc2000In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 40, no 11, 1089-1097 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mathematical model describing heat and fluid flow in an electric arc has been developed and used to predict heat transfer from the arc to the steel bath in a DC Electric Arc Furnace. The arc model takes the separate contributions to the heat transfer from each involved mechanism into account, i.e. radiation, convection, condensation and energy transported by electrons. The model predicts heat transfer for different currents and arc lengths. Model predictions show that arc efficiency is higher for lower power input. The model also predicts shear stresses and current density distribution at the steel surface. This information can be used as boundary condition input to simulate the effect of heating with electrodes in a DC EAF on the heat and fluid flow in the steel bath.

  • 42.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE, Innventia.
    Experimental study of non-linear stress relaxation and creep of paper materials and the relation between the two types of experiments2010In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 25, no 3, 351-357 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The non-linear time-dependent mechanical behaviour of three different commercial paper grades was investigated. Stress relaxation and creep tests were carried out in MD and CD using different load levels. The strain in each test was split in a linear part and a non-linear part. From the stress and the linear part of the strain in the test, a stress relaxation modulus or a creep compliance was calculated. The stress relaxation moduli and creep compliances determined in this way were observed to be independent of the load level. The stress relaxation moduli and creep compliances for each paper were further independent of the loading direction (MD/CD) when scaled by the elastic modulus. It was also shown that the stress relaxation modulus was approximately equal to the inverse of the creep compliance, which is what would have been expected if linear viscoelastic theory had been applicable.

  • 43.
    Alfthan, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Björklund, Magnus
    Measuring creep with confidence2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Alipour, Y.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Talus, Annika
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Henderson, P.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Norling, Rikard
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    The effect of co-firing sewage sludge with used wood on the corrosion of an FeCrAl alloy and a nickel-based alloy in the furnace region2015In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of digested sewage sludge as a fuel additive to reduce corrosion of furnace walls has been studied. The nickel base alloy Alloy 625 and the iron-chromium-aluminium alloy Kanthal APMT™ were exposed for 14.25. h at the furnace wall in a power boiler burning 100% used (also known as waste or recycled) wood. The test was then repeated with the addition of sewage sludge to the waste wood. The samples were chemically analysed and thermodynamically modelled and the corrosion mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that the co-firing of sewage sludge with recycled wood leads to a reduction in the corrosion. Attack by a potassium-lead combination appeared to be the main corrosion mechanism in Alloy 625 during waste wood combustion, while attack by alkali chloride was found to be dominant in APMT alloy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  • 45.
    Alipour, Y.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Viklund, Peter
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Henderson, P.
    Vattenfall Research and Development.
    The analysis of furnace wall deposits in a low-NOx waste wood-fired bubbling fluidised bed boiler2012In: VGB PowerTech, ISSN 14353199, Vol. 92, no 12, 96-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing use is being made of biomass as fuel for electricity production as the price of natural wood continues to rise. Therefore, more use is being made of waste wood (recycled wood). However, waste wood contains more chlorine, zinc and lead, which are believed to increase corrosion rates. Corrosion problems have occurred on the furnace walls of a fluidised bed boiler firing 100 % waste wood under low-NOx conditions. The deposits have been collected and analysed in order to understand the impact of the fuel.

  • 46.
    Allen, D.H.
    et al.
    Texas AandM University.
    Holmberg, Anders
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Ericson, M.
    Volvo Car Components Corporation.
    Lans, L.
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Svensson, N.
    Xdin AB.
    Holmberg, S.
    Volvo Car Components Corporation.
    Modeling the viscoelastic response of GMT structural components2001In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 61, no 4, 503-515 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A glass-mat-reinforced thermoplastic (GMT) composite material has been fabricated from randomly oriented continuous glass fibers embedded in a polypropylene matrix. The mechanical constitution of this composite has been characterized by using a linear viscoelastic micromechanically based material model. This material model has subsequently been implemented to several finite-element computer codes for analysis of structural components fabricated from polypropylene GMT. In this paper several example problems have been studied in order to determine the applicability of this modeling approach to predicting time-dependent deformations due to creep in GMT components. These example problems have been solved by utilizing two commercially available codes: ABAQUS, and ANSYS. Furthermore, results obtained with the codes have been compared to both analytic and experimental results, with varying degrees of success. The paper details these results for each of the example problems considered herein. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Allvar, Marie
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    MIG/MAG brazing with cold metal transfer2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the automotive industry a commonly used material is thin steel sheets coated with a thin layer of zinc for corrosion resistance purposes. Welding of this material, with the high temperatures involved, causes problems with zinc burn-off leading to reduced corrosion resistance. The zinc evaporation also causes arc disturbances leading to spatter formation, pores and difficulties achieving good visual weld quality. The joints are in many cases visible or semi-visible (e.g. visible after opening a door) and “A-grade” quality is demanded, meaning no visible discontinuities are allowed. It also implies a smooth and generally appealing appearance of the joint. An alternative to welding is brazing, and laser brazing meets the requirements but the process is associated with high costs. In the national project “LEX-B”, funded by Vinnova, the possibilities of using arc brazing, in particular one MIG/MAG brazing and two TIG brazing processes, for some automotive applications are investigated. This master thesis is connected to the first part of the project and aims at compiling data for making a selection of the most promising process to investigate and optimise further. LEX-B is conducted in cooperation between Swerea KIMAB AB, Volvo Trucks, Scania CV and University West. The joint of interest is a lap joint between bottom and upper sheets of 1.2 mm and 0.8 mm respectively that represents a joint on the side of a truck cabin. The requirements are visual A-grade quality and tensile shear strength of 300 MPa. In the project the MIG/MAG process Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) was compared to the TIG processes forceTIG and Plasmatron. CMT was experimentally investigated while the results for the other two processes were obtained partly from a previous study and partly from Volvo Trucks where tests were performed simultaneously. A system for measuring data for the process was developed, test specimens were brazed and examined visually and mechanical destructive testing was performed to ensure the tensile shear strength. Parameter studies were done for further process optimisation.

  • 48.
    Alm, H.K.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ström, Göran
    RISE, Innventia.
    Karlström, Katarina
    Schoelkopf, J.
    Gane, P.A.C.
    Effect of excess dispersant on surface properties and liquid interactions on calcium carbonate containing coatings2010In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 25, no 1, 82-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to identify what effects excess amount of sodium polyacrylate, a commonly used dispersant, has on the coating properties and the interaction between ink and the paper coating in offset printing. Since polyacrylate strongly interacts with calcium ions, soluble calcium salt was added to some coating colours to illustrate the impact of charge neutralization by calcium ions. It was found that the coating structure was only slightly affected by the extra addition of polyacrylate, showing some weak flocculation, whereas the surface chemistry was strongly influenced. The coatings became more polar and interacted more strongly with water. This resulted in slower ink setting and reduced ink-paper coating adhesion, especially in the presence of applied water/dampening solution, which are identified as contributory factors in ink piling and print mottle.

  • 49.
    Almgren, K. M.
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Kerholm, M.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Gamstedt, E. K.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Salmén, Lennart
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Effects of moisture on dynamic mechanical properties of wood fiber composites studied by dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy2008In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 27, no 16-17, 1709-1721 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood fiber reinforced polylactide is a biodegradable composite where both fibers and matrix are from renewable resources. In the development of such new materials, information on mechanical behavior on the macroscopic and the molecular level is useful. In this study, dynamic Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is used to measure losses at the molecular level during cyclic tensile loading for bonds that are characteristic of the cellulosic fibers and the polylactid matrix. This molecular behavior is compared with measured macroscopic hysteresis losses for different moisture levels. The results show that moisture ingress will transfer the load from the fibers to the matrix, and that a more efficient fiber-matrix interface would diminish mechanical losses. Although the dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy method is still qualitative, this investigation shows that it can provide information on the stress transfer of the constituents in wood fiber reinforced plastics.

  • 50.
    Almgren, Karin M.
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Moisture uptake and hygroexpansion of wood fiber composite materials with polylactide and polypropylene matrix materials2009In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 30, no 12, 1809-1816 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of butantetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) modification, choice of matrix, and fiber volume fraction on hygroexpansion of wood fiber composites have been investigated. Untreated reference wood fibers and BTCA-modified fibers were used as reinforcement in composites with matrices composed of polylactic acid (PLA), polypropylene (PP), or a mixture thereof. The crosslinking BTCA modification reduced the out-of- plane hygroexpansion of PLA and PLA/PP composites, under water-immersed and humid conditions, whereas the swelling increased when PP was used as matrix material. This is explained by difficulties for the BTCA- modified fibers to adhere to the PP matrix. Fiber volume fraction was the most important parameter as regards out-of-plane hygroexpansion, with a high-fiber fraction leading to large hygroexpansion. Fiber-matrix wettability during processing and consolidation also showed to have a large impact on the dimensional stability and moisture uptake.

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