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  • 1. Chen, F.
    et al.
    Nilsson, F.
    Gällstedt, M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hedenqvist, M.S.
    Chitosan extrusion at high solids content: An orthogonal experimental design study2014Inngår i: Polymers from Renewable Resources, ISSN 2045-1377, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 1-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Flodberg, Göran
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Helland, Irene
    Norner Innovation AS, Norway.
    Thomson, Lars
    RISE., Innventia.
    Bodil Fredriksen, Siw
    Norner Innovation AS, Norway.
    Barrier properties of polypropylene carbonate and poly(lactic acid) cast films2015Inngår i: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 63, s. 217-226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study of the barrier properties of cast film of polypropylene carbonate (PPC) and cast film of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has been made in this paper. Dynamic transmission measurements were conducted to obtain the barrier properties for oxygen transmission and for water vapour transmission. A special algorithm fminsearch in Matlab was used to adapt an exponential expression to the measured values. In this way the time needed to reach a 95% level of steady state was made possible to identify. The oxygen permeability was lower for PPC compared to PLA and this could be explained by a much higher positive enthalpy of solution for oxygen in PPC. The enthalpy of diffusion was close to similar for both PPC and PLA and was higher than for enthalpy of solution. The enthalpy of water vapour permeability was higher for PPC compared to PLA and this resulted in substantially higher water vapour permeability for PLA. The uptake of water vapour was also higher for PLA compared to PPC as shown by dynamic vapour sorption measurements. Differential scanning calorimetry confirmed that PPC is an amorphous polymer and that the PLA used in this study had a minimum of crystallinity which made it comparable to PPC.

  • 3.
    Javed, Asif
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Ullsten, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Study of starch and starch-PVOH blends and effects of plasticizers on mechanical and barrier properties of coated paperboard2016Inngår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 499-510Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties of self-supporting films based on starch-plasticizer and starch-PVOH-plasticizer and the barrier properties of paperboard coated with solutions of these polymers have been studied. The plasticizers used were glycerol, polyethylene glycol and citric acid. It was shown that the addition of a plasticizer and PVOH to starch substantially increases the flexibility of starch films. It was seen that curing the self-supporting films led to a decrease in flexibility. After heat-treatment, a substantial increase in storage modulus was observed only in the starch-PVOH-citric-acid blend films. Tensile tests on the films indicate that citric acid did not cause any noticeable phase separation. Citric acid acted as a compatibilizer for starch-PVOH blends even though a similar enrichment of PVOH at the air-solid interface was observed with both citric acid and polyethylene glycol as plasticizer. The properties of barrier coatings greatly reflected the compatibility of starch-PVOH blends containing citric acid. The only plasticizer that resulted in a lower water vapour transmission rate through the starch and starch-PVOH coatings was citric acid, which suggests that cross-linking took place. With four layers, coatings based of starch-PVOH possessed the same oxygen- transmission rate with citric acid as without citric acid.

  • 4.
    Karlsson, Rose-Marie Pernilla
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Thermodynamics of the Water-Retaining Properties of Cellulose-Based Networks2019Inngår i: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 1603-1612Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Noncrystalline cellulose-based gel beads were used as a model material to investigate the effect of osmotic stress on a cellulosic network. The gel beads were exposed to osmotic stress by immersion in solutions with different concentrations of high molecular mass dextran and the equilibrium dimensional change of the gel beads was studied using optical microscopy. The volume fraction of cellulose was calculated from the volume of the gel beads in dextran solutions and their dry content and the relation between the cellulose volume fraction and the total osmotic pressure was thus obtained. The results show that the contribution to the osmotic pressure from counterions increases the water-retaining capacity of the beads at high osmotic pressures but also that the main factor controlling the gel bead collapse at high osmotic strains is the resistance to the deformation of the polymer chain network within the beads. Furthermore, the osmotic pressure associated with the deformation of the polymer network, which counteracts the deswelling of the beads, could be fitted to the Wall model indicating that the response of the cellulose polymer networks was independent of the charge of the cellulose. The best fit to the Wall model was obtained when the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ) of the cellulose-water system was set to 0.55-0.60, in agreement with the well-established insolubility of high molecular mass β-(1,4)-d-glucan polymers in water.

  • 5. Kuktaite, R.
    et al.
    Plivelic, T.S.
    Ture, H.
    Hedenqvist, M.S.
    Gällstedt, M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Marttila, S.
    Johansson, E.
    Changes in the hierarchical protein polymer structure: Urea and temperature effects on wheat gluten films2012Inngår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, nr 31, s. 11908-11914Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Naderi, A.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindström, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Pettersson, T.
    The state of carboxymethylated nanofibrils after homogenization-aided dilution from concentrated suspensions: A rheological perspective2014Inngår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 2357-2368Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Naderi, Ali
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi. RISE., Innventia. BillerudKorsnäs, Sweden.
    Koschella, Andreas
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Heinze, Thomas
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Shih, Kuo-Chih
    University of Connecticut, USA; National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Nieh, Mu-Ping
    University of Connecticut, USA.
    Pfeifer, Annett
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Chang, Chung-Chueh
    Stony Brook University, USA.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sulfoethylated nanofibrillated cellulose: Production and properties2017Inngår i: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 169, s. 515-523Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfoethylated nanofibrillated cellulose (NFCSulf) was produced by an industrially relevant process. The properties of the NFCSulf were compared with those of carboxymethylated nanofibrillated cellulose (NFCCarb), which has been identified as an attractive NFC for several industrial applications. The investigations revealed that NFCSulf is characterized by a higher degree of fibrillation and has superior redispersion properties. Furthermore, NFCSulf displays higher stability in varying pH values as compared to NFCCarb. Hence, NFCSulf may be a more attractive alternative than NFCCarb in applications such as rheological modifiers or adsorbing components in personal care products, in which the performance of NFC must remain unaffected in varying ambient conditions. The superior properties of NFCSulf compared to NFCCarb were proposed to be due to the combination of the unique chemical characteristics of the sulfoethylated reagent, and the larger size of the sulfonate group compared to the carboxymethyl group.

  • 8.
    Nechyporchuk, Oleksandr
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Regenerated Casein-Nanocellulose Composite Fibers via Wet Spinning2019Inngår i: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 1419-1426Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of sustainable biobased fibers is required to displace their fossil-based counterparts, e.g., in textile, nonwoven, or composite applications. Regenerated protein fibers have a potential in this regard if their mechanical properties are improved. Herein, we study for the first time the use of nanocellulose as reinforcement in regenerated protein fibers produced using wet spinning. The influence of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) incorporated into regenerated casein fibers is examined in terms of mechanical and morphological properties. The influence of different conditions for fiber chemical cross-linking is also investigated. Incorporation of CNC (up to 37.5 wt %) into spin dopes results in a continuous increase of fiber Young's modulus (up to twofold) in the dry state. Both maximum and breaking tenacity of dry fibers are enhanced by CNC, with a maximum at 7.0-10.5 wt % of CNC. When testing after being wetted, both breaking tenacity and Young's modulus of the composite fibers decrease, likely due to weakening of hydrogen bonds between CNC in the presence of water. We also demonstrate that the presence of salt during chemical cross-linking is crucial to produce intact and separated fibers in the yarn.

  • 9.
    Newson, William R.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Rasheed, Faiza
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kuktaite, Ramune
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE., Innventia.
    Plivelic, Tomás S.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Eva
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Commercial potato protein concentrate as a novel source for thermoformed bio-based plastic films with unusual polymerisation and tensile properties2015Inngår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, nr 41, s. 32217-32226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial potato protein concentrate (PPC) was investigated as a source of thermoformed bio-based plastic film. Pressing temperatures of 100 to 190°C with 15 to 25% glycerol were used to form PPC films. The shape of the tensile stress-strain curve in thermoformed PPC was controlled by glycerol level and was independent of processing temperature. Tensile testing revealed that elongation at break increased with processing temperature while Young's modulus was unaffected by processing temperature, both in contrast to previous results in protein based systems. Also in contrast to previous studies, Young's modulus was found to be only sensitive to glycerol level. Maximum tensile stress increased with increasing processing temperature for PPC films. Maximum stress and strain at break correlated with the extractable high molecular weight protein content of the processed films measured with size exclusion chromatography. Infrared absorption indicated that the content of β-sheet structure increased from the commercial protein concentrate to that pressed at 100°C, but did not further develop with increasing press temperature. Changes in structural arrangements were observed by small angle X-ray scattering indicating the development of different correlation distances with processing temperature but with no clear long range order at the supramolecular level. The novel Young's modulus behaviour appears to be due to constant secondary structure or the effect of aggregated protein structure formed during protein production. Unique strain at break behaviour with processing temperature was demonstrated, likely due to new connections formed between those aggregates.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Olsson, Ann
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Iversen, Tommy
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Bark suberin as a renewable source of long-chain ω-hydroxyalkanoic acids2008Inngår i: Macromolecular Symposia, ISSN 1022-1360, E-ISSN 1521-3900, Vol. 272, nr 1, s. 104-106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycondensations of cis-9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, isolated from birch outer bark, were performed at 75°C in toluene as solvent and at 85°C In bulk using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B as catalyst. The polycondensation performed in toluene in presence of molecular sieves gave a polyester with DP 50 after 24 h. The same DP was obtained at much shorter reaction time (3 h) by bulk polymerization in an open vial without any drying agent present.

  • 11.
    Ovaska, Sami-Seppo
    et al.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Salla
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Backfolk, Kaj
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Characterization of rapeseed oil/coconut oil mixtures and their penetration into hydroxypropylated-starch-based barrier coatings containing an oleophilic mineral2016Inngår i: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 101, s. 569-576Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted that demonstrated that the blending of edible oils leads to changes in surface tension, thermal properties, viscosity, and oil penetration times through a barrier-coated paperboard. The results emphasize the significance of testing the oil and grease resistance (OGR) oil blends in order-to verify the suitability of the packaging material for real-life end-use applications. The results of the OGR determinations suggest that hydroxypropylated-starch-based composite coatings containing an oleophilic high aspect ratio mineral can be tailored for food shaving different fatty acid compositions by varying the pigmentation level. Compared to standard OGR tests, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)-based techniques make it possible to evaluate the oil penetration time and its diffusion behavior very accurately, both inside the coating layer and in the bulk matrix. It was found that, at room temperature, coconut oil tends to crystallize inside the substrate, inducing swelling of the coating layer, which probably has an influence on the physicomechanical properties of the packaging material.

  • 12.
    Petersen, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Enebro, Jonas
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Development of nanocomposites based on organically modified montmorillonite and plasticized PVC with improved barrier properties2016Inngår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 133, nr 3, artikkel-id 42876Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Montmorillonite (MMT) was organically modified with tributyl citrate (TBC). Organoclays (OMMTs) were processed with diisononyl phthalate (DINP)-plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to form polymer nanocomposites. The produced composite materials showed a contradictory change in properties to that expected of a layered silicate nanocomposite, with a decreased E-modulus and increased gas permeability compared with a material without OMMT. It was experimentally shown that the TBC modifier was extracted from the OMMT and was dispersed in the PVC/DINP matrix, whereupon the OMMT collapsed and formed micrometer-sized agglomerates. Further investigation revealed that TBC has a significant effect on the gas permeability and the E-modulus, even at low additions to a DINP-plasticized PVC. A PVC nanocomposite with the TBC acting as both the OM for MMT and as the primary plasticizer was produced. This material showed a significantly increased E-modulus as well as a decrease in gas permeability, confirming that it is possible to develop a nanocomposite based on plasticized PVC, if both the organo-modification of the MMT and the formulation of the matrix are carefully selected.

  • 13.
    Sjöstedt, Anna
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wohlert, Jakob
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE., Innventia.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Structural changes during swelling of highly charged cellulose fibres2015Inngår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 2943-2953Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural changes of fibrils and fibril aggregates in the fibre wall were studied after oxidation of the cellulose by 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy to high charge densities (highest charge density: 1300 μeq/g). The increase in pore volume was measured by mini-WRV at two different pH levels, and the supramolecular structure in the fibre wall in terms of aggregate size, specific surface area and average pore size was measured by solid state NMR, DVS desorption and BET N2 gas adsorption. A structural change in the arrangement of the fibrils inside the fibril aggregates was observed although the oxidation did not lead to a complete liberation of individual fibrils, i.e. they still exist as an aggregated structure after oxidation. Theoretical estimates suggest that the electrostatic repulsion energy connected with the increase in surface charge of the fibrils can be sufficient to gradually separate the fibrils enough to expose all fibril surfaces to oxidation chemicals.

  • 14.
    Svärd, Antonia
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Brännvall, Elisabet
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Modified and thermoplastic rapeseed straw xylan: A renewable additive in PCL biocomposites2018Inngår i: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 119, s. 73-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Xylan extracted from rapeseed straw was chemically modified to gain hydrophobic and thermoplastic properties via macroinitiator formation followed by a free radical grafting-from polymerization with octadecyl acrylate. Biocomposites were then prepared by incorporation of 5 or 20% (w/w) rapeseed straw xylan into a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix by melt extrusion. The grafted xylan was homogeneously distributed within the biocomposite and reinforced the PCL matrix while at the same time preserving the ability to elongate to tensile strains >500%. Analogous biocomposites made from unmodified xylan in a PCL matrix resulted in heterogeneous mixtures and brittle tensile properties.

  • 15.
    Wang, Miao
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE., Innventia.
    Li, Jiebing
    RISE., Innventia.
    On lignin reactivity quantification for lignin substitution of phenol in preparation of phenol-formaldehyde polymer2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Ye, Xinchen
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Junel, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Papperstillverkning och förpackningar.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    SIG Combibloc, Sweden.
    Langton, Maud
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Wei, Xin-Feng
    KTH Royal Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Lendel, Christofer
    KTH Royal Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Protein/Protein Nanocomposite Based on Whey Protein Nanofibrils in a Whey Protein Matrix2018Inngår i: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 5462-5469Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes nanocomposite films with separately grown protein nanofibrils (PNFs) in a nonfibrillar protein matrix from the same protein starting material (whey). Tensile tests on the glycerol-plasticized films indicate an increased elastic modulus and a decreased extensibility with increasing content of PNFs, although the films are still ductile at the maximum PNF content (15 wt %). Infrared spectroscopy confirms that the strongly hydrogen-bonded β-sheets in the PNFs are retained in the composites. The films appear with a PNF-induced undulated upper surface. It is shown that micrometer-scale spatial variations in the glycerol distribution are not the cause of these undulations. Instead, the undulations seem to be a feature of the PNF material itself. It was also shown that, apart from plasticizing the protein film, the presence of glycerol seemed to favor to some extent exfoliation of stacked β-sheets in the proteins, as revealed by X-ray diffraction.

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