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  • 1.
    Aaen, Ragnhild
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Lehtonen, Mari
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Mikkonen, Kirsi
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Combining cellulose nanofibrils and galactoglucomannans for enhanced stabilization of future food emulsions2021Inngår i: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 28, nr 16, s. 10485-10500Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wood-derived cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) or galactoglucomannans (GGM) for emulsion stabilization may be a way to obtain new environmentally friendly emulsifiers. Both have previously been shown to act as emulsifiers, offering physical, and in the case of GGM, oxidative stability to the emulsions. Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared using highly charged (1352 ± 5 µmol/g) CNFs prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation, or a coarser commercial CNF, less charged (≈ 70 µmol/g) quality (Exilva forte), and the physical emulsion stability was evaluated by use of droplet size distributions, micrographs and visual appearance. The highly charged, finely fibrillated CNFs stabilized the emulsions more effectively than the coarser, lower charged CNFs, probably due to higher electrostatic repulsions between the fibrils, and a higher surface coverage of the oil droplets due to thinner fibrils. At a constant CNF/oil ratio, the lowest CNF and oil concentration of 0.01 wt % CNFs and 5 wt % oil gave the most stable emulsion, with good stability toward coalescence, but not towards creaming. GGM (0.5 or 1.0 wt %) stabilized emulsions (5 wt % oil) showed no creaming behavior, but a clear bimodal distribution with some destabilization over the storage time of 1 month. Combinations of CNFs and GGM for stabilization of emulsions with 5 wt % oil, provided good stability towards creaming and a slower emulsion destabilization than for GGM alone. GGM could also improve the stability towards oxidation by delaying the initiation of lipid oxidation. Use of CNFs and combinations of GGM and CNFs can thus be away to obtain stable emulsions, such as mayonnaise and beverage emulsions. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 2.
    Abbadessa, Anna
    et al.
    KTH Royal institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dogaris, Ioannis
    KTH Royal institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kishani Farahani, Saina
    KTH Royal institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Reid, Michael S.
    KTH Royal institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rautkoski, Hille
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Holopainen-Mantila, Ulla
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Oinonen, Petri
    Ecohelix, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH Royal institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Layer-by-layer assembly of sustainable lignin-based coatings for food packaging applications2023Inngår i: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 182, artikkel-id 107676Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Packaging plays a critical role in ensuring food safety and shelf life by protecting against e.g., moisture, gases, and light. Polyethylene (PE) is widely used in food packaging, but it is mainly produced from non-renewable resources and it is an inefficient oxygen and light barrier. In this study, the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of a sustainably produced lignin-based polymer (EH) with polyethylenimine (PEI) or chitosan (CH) was used to fabricate (partially or fully) bio-based coatings with the aim of improving barrier properties of PE films. The charge density of EH was calculated using a polyelectrolyte titration method and the hydrodynamic diameters of EH, PEI and CH were determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). LbL assembly was monitored in situ via Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) and Stagnation Point Adsorption Reflectometry (SPAR). PE films were coated with a variable number of PEI/EH or CH/EH bilayers (BL) using an immersive LbL assembly method. Coated films were studied in terms of light-blocking ability, wettability, thermal behaviour, surface structure, as well as oxygen and water vapor barrier properties. QCM-D and SPAR data showed a stepwise multilayer formation and strong interactions between the oppositely charged polymers, with PEI/EH coating having a greater amount of deposited polymer compared to CH/EH coating at the same number of BL. Overall, light barrier properties and wettability of the coated films increased with the number of deposited bilayers. Coated PE films maintained the overall thermal behaviour of PE. A number of BL of 20 was found to be the most promising based on the studied properties. Selected samples showed improved oxygen and water vapor barrier properties, with PEI/EH coating performing better than CH/EH coating. Taken altogether, we demonstrated that a novel and sustainable lignin-based polymer can be combined with PEI or CH to fabricate (partially or fully) bio-based coatings for food packaging. 

  • 3.
    Agnihotri, Swarnima
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Johnsen, Ingvild A.
    RISE., Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Böe, Maren S.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Öyaas, Karin
    RISE., Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Moe, Størker
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ethanol organosolv pretreatment of softwood (Picea abies) and sugarcane bagasse for biofuel and biorefinery applications2015Inngår i: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 49, nr 5, s. 881-896Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol derived from biomass has the potential to be a renewable transportation fuel that can replace gasoline. This work was carried out to establish an optimized ethanol organosolv pretreatment of Norway spruce (Picea abies) for bioethanol production (63 wt% EtOH, pH ~3.5 in aqueous phase, 170–240 °C, 90 min) utilizing hydrolytic enzymes in the saccharification step. To test the generality of the method, a series of ethanol organosolv pretreatments were also performed on sugarcane bagasse (50 wt% EtOH, pH ~3.5 in aqueous phase, 155–210 °C, 90–120 min). The degree of delignification increased with increasing temperature during pretreatment, and the fastest increase was observed with sugarcane bagasse. The pretreatments were carried out in a batch mode. The maximum degree of delignification of ~65 % was reached at ~235 °C for Norway spruce, while sugarcane bagasse reached ~80 % at ~210 °C. Cellulose was subjected to degradation (5–10 % points) at these temperatures. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis (30 FPU/g cellulose, 32 pNPGU/g cellulose, 50 °C, 48 h) of ethanol organosolv-pretreated biomass achieved complete conversion for both raw materials at the highest degrees of delignification.

  • 4.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Schweinebarth, Hannah
    RISE., Innventia.
    Törngren, Per
    RISE., Innventia.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE., Innventia.
    Simplified determination of total lignin content in kraft lignin samples and black liquors2011Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, nr 4, s. 601-604Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo, Printed electronics.
    Displays and Transistors Printed on Flexible Substrates and Integrated into Versatile Applications2012Inngår i: Large-Area, Organic and Printed Electronics Convention (LOPE-C) 2012 (June 19th-21st), accepted for oral presentation, Munich, Germany, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo, Printed electronics.
    Electrolyte-gated transistors used in printed organic electronic applications2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Integration of printed electronic components into versatile systems on flexible substrates2013Inngår i: Innovative Printed Smart Objects (IPSO), invited oral presentation, Gardanne, France, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A technology platform based on electrochemical transistors and electrochromic displays printed from organic materials on flexible substrates is presented. The devices are manufactured by using standard printing tools and operated below 3 V, and the device manufacturing is further simplified by that only a small set of materials is employed. Examples of printed electronic systems will be presented, such as active and passive matrix addressed displays, touchless sensor interfaces, secure user authentication applications and a novel approach to obtain reconfigurable systems utilizing self-adhesive active materials.

  • 8.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Integration of printed electronic components into versatile systems on flexible substrates2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo, Printed electronics.
    Roll to roll printable technology platform consisting of electrolyte-based components2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo, Printed electronics.
    Kawahara, J
    Roll to roll printable technology platform consisting of electrolyte-based components2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Multiscale Reactor Network Simulation of an Entrained Flow Biomass Gasifier: Model Description and Validation2017Inngår i: Energy Technology, ISSN 2194-4288, Vol. 5, s. 1-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development of a multiscale equivalent reactor network model for pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification to quantify the effect of operational parameters on the gasification process, including carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency, and syngas methane content. The model, implemented in the commercial software Aspen Plus, includes chemical kinetics as well as heat and mass transfer. Characteristic aspects of the model are the multiscale effect caused by the combination of transport phenomena at particle scale during heating, pyrolysis, and char burnout, as well as the effect of macroscopic gas flow, including gas recirculation. A validation using experimental data from a pilot-scale process shows that the model can provide accurate estimations of carbon conversion, concentrations of main syngas components, and cold gas efficiency over a wide range of oxygen-to-biomass ratios and reactor loads. The syngas methane content was most difficult to estimate accurately owing to the unavailability of accurate kinetic parameters for steam methane reforming.

  • 12.
    Ayub, Rabia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Raheel, Ahmad
    Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan.
    High-Value Chemicals from Electrocatalytic Depolymerization of Lignin: Challenges and Opportunities2022Inngår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 23, nr 7, artikkel-id 3767Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulosic biomass is renewable and one of the most abundant sources for the production of high-value chemicals, materials, and fuels. It is of immense importance to develop new efficient technologies for the industrial production of chemicals by utilizing renewable resources. Lignocellulosic biomass can potentially replace fossil-based chemistries. The production of fuel and chemicals from lignin powered by renewable electricity under ambient temperatures and pressures enables a more sustainable way to obtain high-value chemicals. More specifically, in a sustainable biorefinery, it is essential to valorize lignin to enhance biomass transformation technology and increase the overall economy of the process. Strategies regarding electrocatalytic approaches as a way to valorize or depolymerize lignin have attracted significant interest from growing scientific communities over the recent decades. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the electro-catalytic methods for depolymerization of lignocellulosic biomass with an emphasis on untargeted depolymerization as well as the selective and targeted mild synthesis of high-value chemicals. Elec-trocatalytic cleavage of model compounds and further electrochemical upgrading of bio-oils are discussed. Finally, some insights into current challenges and limitations associated with this approach are also summarized. © 2022 by the authors. 

  • 13.
    Bannow, J.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Benjamins, Jan-Willem
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Wohlert, J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Löbmann, K.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Svagan, A. J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Solid nanofoams based on cellulose nanofibers and indomethacin—the effect of processing parameters and drug content on material structure2017Inngår i: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 526, nr 1-2, s. 291-299Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The unique colloidal properties of cellulose nanofibers (CNF), makes CNF a very interesting new excipient in pharmaceutical formulations, as CNF in combination with some poorly-soluble drugs can create nanofoams with closed cells. Previous nanofoams, created with the model drug indomethacin, demonstrated a prolonged release compared to films, owing to the tortuous diffusion path that the drug needs to take around the intact air-bubbles. However, the nanofoam was only obtained at a relatively low drug content of 21 wt% using fixed processing parameters. Herein, the effect of indomethacin content and processing parameters on the foaming properties was analysed. Results demonstrate that a certain amount of dissolved drug is needed to stabilize air-bubbles. At the same time, larger fractions of dissolved drug promote coarsening/collapse of the wet foam. The pendant drop/bubble profile tensiometry was used to verify the wet-foam stability at different pHs. The pH influenced the amount of solubilized drug and the processing-window was very narrow at high drug loadings. The results were compared to real foaming-experiments and solid state analysis of the final cellular solids. The parameters were assembled into a processing chart, highlighting the importance of the right combination of processing parameters (pH and time-point of pH adjustment) in order to successfully prepare cellular solid materials with up to 46 wt% drug loading.

  • 14.
    Battestini Vives, Mariona
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Abdelaziz, Omar
    Lund University.
    Thuvander, Johan
    Lund University.
    Arkell, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University.
    Lipnizki, Frank
    Lund University.
    Recovery and Characterization of Low-Molecular-Weight Lignin from Ultrafiltered Kraft Black Liquor2022Inngår i: 10th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference / [ed] Atte Virtanen, Helsinki, 2022, s. 218-219Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft lignin is an aromatic polymer found in black liquor, a side stream of the kraft pulping industry.Usually, lignin is burned in the recovery boiler of the pulp mill as a fuel for energy generation. However,lignin has great potential as a raw material for the production of fossil-free fuels, chemicals, andmaterials. Membrane filtration has been studied in the last decades as a key separation method torecover lignin from black liquor. Further studies to concentrate lignin using membrane filtration arerequired, as well as characterization of the resulting lignin fractions for the development of moleculartailored lignin-based applications.

    In the present work, nanofiltration (NF) was used to concentrate and recover the low-molecularweightlignin obtained from the permeate of ultrafiltration of kraft black liquor. The concentration wasperformed using a NF090801 polymeric NF membrane (SolSep) with a molecular weight cut-off of 350Da. A transmembrane pressure of 25 bar and 50 °C during the filtration increased the lignin contentfrom 27 to 52 g/l, whereas a transmembrane pressure of 15 bar and 70 °C gave an increase from 18 to45 g/l in lignin content. The lignin fraction recovered in the retentate of the NF step was analyzed bysize-exclusion chromatography to ascertain the molecular weight of the lignin. Moreover, Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were carried out to evaluate thethermal properties and functionalities of the obtained fractions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Full text
  • 15.
    Bender, R.
    et al.
    DECHEMA eV, Germany.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Korrosion.
    Zheludkevich, M.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Germany.
    Corrosion challenges towards a sustainable society2022Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 73, nr 11, s. 1730-1751Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A global transition towards more sustainable, affordable and reliable energy systems is being stimulated by the Paris Agreement and the United Nation's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This poses a challenge for the corrosion industry, as building climate-resilient energy systems and infrastructures brings with it a long-term direction, so as a result the long-term behaviour of structural materials (mainly metals and alloys) becomes a major prospect. With this in mind “Corrosion Challenges Towards a Sustainable Society” presents a series of cases showing the importance of corrosion protection of metals and alloys in the development of energy production to further understand the science of corrosion, and bring the need for research and the consequences of corrosion into public and political focus. This includes emphasis on the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions, on the lifetime of infrastructures, implants, cultural heritage artefacts, and a variety of other topics. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 16. Berggren, M
    et al.
    Forchheimer, R
    Bobacka, J
    Svensson, P-O
    Nilsson, D
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo, Printed electronics.
    Larsson, O
    Ivaska, A
    PEDOT:PSS-based Electrochemical Transistors for Ion-to-Electron Transduction and Sensor Signal Amplification2008Inngår i: Organic Semiconductors in Sensor Applications, s. 263-280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Berglin, Mattias
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cavanagh, Jorunn Pauline
    Amicoat A/S, Norway; UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Caous, Josefin Seth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Thakkar, Balmukund Sureshkumar
    Amicoat A/S, Norway.
    Vasquez, Jeddah Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Stensen, Wenche
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Lyvén, Benny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Svendsen, John-Sigurd
    Amicoat A/S, Norway; UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion.
    Flexible and Biocompatible Antifouling Polyurethane Surfaces Incorporating Tethered Antimicrobial Peptides through Click Reactions2024Inngår i: Macromolecular Bioscience, ISSN 1616-5187, E-ISSN 1616-5195, Vol. 4, artikkel-id 2300425Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient, simple antibacterial materials to combat implant-associated infections are much in demand. Herein, the development of polyurethanes, both cross-linked thermoset and flexible and versatile thermoplastic, suitable for “click on demand” attachment of antibacterial compounds enabled via incorporation of an alkyne-containing diol monomer in the polymer backbone, is described. By employing different polyolic polytetrahydrofurans, isocyanates, and chain extenders, a robust and flexible material comparable to commercial thermoplastic polyurethane is prepared. A series of short synthetic antimicrobial peptides are designed, synthesized, and covalently attached in a single coupling step to generate a homogenous coating. The lead material is shown to be biocompatible and does not display any toxicity against either mouse fibroblasts or reconstructed human epidermis according to ISO and OECD guidelines. The repelling performance of the peptide-coated materials is illustrated against colonization and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis on coated plastic films and finally, on coated commercial central venous catheters employing LIVE/DEAD staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and bacterial counts. This study presents the successful development of a versatile and scalable polyurethane with the potential for use in the medical field to reduce the impact of bacterial biofilms. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Bergvall, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Cheah, You Wayne
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bernlind, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Kemiska processer och läkemedel.
    Bernlind, Alexandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Kemiska processer och läkemedel.
    Olsson, Louise
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Creaser, Derek
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Öhrman, Olov GW
    Preem AB, Sweden.
    Upgrading of fast pyrolysis bio-oils to renewable hydrocarbons using slurry- and fixed bed hydroprocessing2024Inngår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 253, artikkel-id 108009Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass through fast pyrolysis, to yield fast pyrolysis bio-oil (FPBO), is a technique that has been extensively researched in the quest for finding alternatives to fossil feedstocks to produce fuels, chemicals, etc. Properties such as high oxygen content, acidity, and poor storage stability greatly limit the direct use of this bio-oil. Furthermore, high coking tendencies make upgrading of the FPBO by hydrodeoxygenation in fixed-bed bed hydrotreaters challenging due to plugging and catalyst deactivation. This study investigates a novel two-step hydroprocessing concept; a continuous slurry-based process using a dispersed NiMo-catalyst, followed by a fixed bed process using a supported NiMo-catalyst. The oil product from the slurry-process, having a reduced oxygen content (15 wt%) compared to the FPBO and a comparatively low coking tendency (TGA residue of 1.4 wt%), was successfully processed in the downstream fixed bed process for 58 h without any noticeable decrease in catalyst activity, or increase in pressure drop. The overall process resulted in a 29 wt% yield of deoxygenated oil product (0.5 wt% oxygen) from FPBO with an overall carbon recovery of 68%.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Bergvall, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Cheah, Y. W.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öhrman, Olov
    Preem Ab, Sweden.
    Slurry Hydroconversion of Solid Kraft Lignin to Liquid Products Using Molybdenum- and Iron-Based Catalysts2022Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 36, nr 17, s. 10226-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft lignin is an abundantly available and largely underutilized renewable material with potential for production of biobased fuels and chemicals. This study reports the results of a series of slurry hydroprocessing experiments with the aim of converting solid Kraft lignin to liquid products suitable for downstream refining in more conventional reactors. Experiments reported in this study were conducted by feeding a lignin slurry to an already hot, liquid-filled reactor to provide momentaneous heating of the lignin to the reaction temperature. This modified batch procedure provided superior results compared to the regular batch experiments, likely since unwanted repolymerization and condensation reactions of the lignin during the heating phase was avoided, and was therefore used for most of the experiments reported. Experiments were performed using both an unsupported Mo-sulfide catalyst and Fe-based catalysts (bauxite and hematite) at varied reaction temperatures, pressures, and catalyst loadings. The use of Mo-sulfide (0.1% Mo of the entire feed mass) at 425 °C and 50 bar resulted in complete conversion of the Kraft lignin to nonsolid products. Very high conversions (>95%) could also be achieved with both sulfided bauxite or hematite at the same temperature and pressure, but this required much higher catalyst loadings (6.25% bauxite or 4.3% hematite of the total feed mass), and around 99% conversion could be achieved at higher temperatures but at the expense of much higher gas yields. Although requiring much higher loadings, the results in this study suggest that comparatively nonexpensive Fe-based catalysts may be an attractive alternative for a slurry-based process aimed at the hydroconversion of solid lignin to liquid products. Possible implementation strategies for a slurry-based hydroconversion process are proposed and discussed. © 2022 The Authors.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Rosenggren, Max
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Fire Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Road Vehicles2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for lithium-ion battery powered road vehicles continues to increase around the world. As more of these become operational across the globe, their involvement in traffic accidents and fire incidents is likely to rise. This can damage the lithium-ion battery and subsequently pose a threat to occupants and responders as well as those involved in post-crash operations. There are many different types of lithium-ion batteries, with different packaging and chemistries but also variations in how they are integrated into modern vehicles. To use lithium-ion batteries safely means to keep the cells within a defined voltage and temperature window. These limits can be exceeded as a result of crash or fault conditions. This report provides background information regarding lithium-ion batteries and battery pack integration in vehicles. Fire hazards are identified and means for preventing and controlling them are presented. The possibility of fixed fire suppression and detection systems in electric vehicles is discussed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Blyberg, Louise
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Lang, Maria
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Schander, Matilda
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Serrano, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Silfverhielm, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Glass, timber and adhesive joints: Innovative load bearing building components2014Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 55, s. 470-478Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural glass-timber composite beams and shear wall elements were investigated in terms of their mechanical behaviour, energy performance and their LCA performance. The load bearing components were manufactured using annealed float glass which was adhesively bonded to the timber with different adhesives. The results show, among other things, that is is possible to join the two materials glass and timber and obtaining a non-brittle failure of the beams. The shear wall elements have the potential of being used as stabilising elements and load bearing walls in buildings of up to 4 storeys height. It is possible to combine glass and timber in a load bearing shear wall without loss of energy performance of a building or without loosing LCA performance. In addition to these benefits, the timber glass composite wall has, of course the benefit of being transparent.

  • 22.
    Bonin, Pierre
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Korrosion. Université de Toulouse, France.
    Roggero, Aurelien
    Université de Toulouse, France.
    Caussé, Nicolas
    Université de Toulouse, France.
    Pébère, Nadine
    Université de Toulouse, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Korrosion.
    Le Bozec, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Korrosion.
    Impedance analysis of the barrier effect of coil-coated materials: Water uptake and glass transition variations2021Inngår i: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 153, artikkel-id 106163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, an industrial polyester coil-coated steel sample was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The diagrams were obtained for various immersion times in a 0.5 M NaCl solution for three different initial states of the same coil coating (as received, dried and dried after the impedance measurements). The aim of the study was to have a better knowledge of how the water uptake influences the coil coating physical properties and to extract relevant parameters of the ageing processes. From the high-frequency part of the impedance diagrams, the water uptake was calculated using a linear rule of mixtures. Two sorption regions were observed for the dried samples suggesting the presence of porosities already filled with ambient moisture for the as-received sample. It was shown that the water uptake was a slow process and, independently of the initial state of the sample, a saturation plateau was never reached, even after 456 h of immersion. A time constant, clearly visible on the phase angle of the impedance diagrams, was analysed through the dielectric permittivity formalism and attributed to the signature of the dielectric manifestation of the glass transition. This time constant was shifted to higher frequencies with increasing water fraction (increasing immersion time), consistent with a plasticization effect. This result was supported by differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Finally, the data obtained for the different initial states of the coating highlighted that, even if the water uptake was reversible, the sorption kinetics was different for the sample dried after the impedance measurements. This could be of importance in the degradation process of the coil coated steel. 

  • 23.
    Boubitsas, Dimitrios
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg. Lund University, Sweden.
    Chloride transport and chloride threshold values: studies on concretes and mortars with Portland cement and limestone blended cement2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used building materials and if it is properly designed and produced, it is an extremely durable material with a service life up to 100 years. However, under certain environmental conditions the service life of reinforced concrete structures is more limited. Deterioration ofconcrete structure is in most cases caused by the penetration of aggressive media from the surrounding environment. Chloride initiated reinforcement corrosion is one of the major causes of deterioration of Concrete structures. One conflicting issue is how replacing Portland cement with mineral additions influences chlorideinitiated reinforcement corrosion. This issue is of immediate interest, as there is a steady growth in the use of cement blended with mineral additions, such as blast-furnace slag, fly ash and limestone filler. This is done by the cement and concrete industry to reduce the CO2 emissions linked to Portland cement manufacturing, bylimiting the use of clinker in the cement.The main objective of this work has been to further clarify the role of limestone filler as partial substitute to Portland cement on the two main decisive parameters for chloride induced reinforcement corrosion: chloride ingress rate and chloride threshold values. In the first part of this work the chloride ingress was studied both with accelerated laboratory methods and also after field exposure. The initial focus for the second part of the study was to determine the chloride threshold values for the binders investigated in the first part, so a comprehensive view of the effect of limestone addition on chloride initiated corrosion could be presented.However, during the work the need for the development of a practice-related method for determining the chloride threshold values was identified and the focus of the research was redirected to meet that need.The efficiency of limestone filler concerning chloride ingress showed to be dependent on replacement ratio, time (age) and on the test method. It was not possible to draw any rigid conclusion of the limestone filler’s efficiency regarding chloride ingress. But part of the inconsistency in the results was identified to be that limestone filler has two opposite effects on chloride ingress, on one hand contribute to a refinement of microstructure and on the other hand diminishing the chloride binding.The steel surface condition was shown to have a strong effect on the corrosion initiation, and can likely be one of the most decisive parameters attributing to the variability in the reported chloride threshold values obtained in laboratory experiments. The chloride threshold value for the sulphate resistant Portland cement fromthe laboratory experiments was estimated to be about 1% by weight of binder. For the concrete with limestone blended cement (CEM II/A-LL 42.5R) tested in this work the chloride threshold value was at the same level as for the sulphate resistant Portland cement. From the field study but with a somewhat different definition ofchloride threshold value, a chloride threshold value of about 1% by weight of binder was also estimated for ordinary Portland cement and sulphate resistance Portland with 5% silica fume exposed to marine environment.

  • 24. Bradley, E. L.
    et al.
    Honkalampi-Hämäläinen, U.
    Weber, A.
    Andersson, M. A.
    Bertaud, F.
    Castle, L.
    Dahlman, O.
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Hakulinen, P.
    Hoornstra, D.
    Lhuguenot, J. -C
    Mäki-Paakkanen, J.
    Salkinoja-Salonen, M.
    Speck, D. R.
    Severin, I.
    Stammati, A.
    Turco, L.
    Zucco, F.
    von Wright, A.
    The BIOSAFEPAPER project for in vitro toxicity assessments: Preparation, detailed chemical characterisation and testing of extracts from paper and board samples2008Inngår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 46, nr 7, s. 2498-2509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nineteen food contact papers and boards and one non-food contact board were extracted following test protocols developed within European Union funded project BIOSAFEPAPER. The extraction media were either hot or cold water, 95% ethanol or Tenax, according to the end use of the sample. The extractable dry matter content of the samples varied from 1200 to 11,800 mg/kg (0.8-35.5 mg/dm2). According to GC-MS the main substances extracted into water were pulp-derived natural products such as fatty acids, resin acids, natural wood sterols and alkanols. Substances extracted into ethanol particularly, were diisopropylnaphthalenes, alkanes and phthalic acid esters. The non-food contact board showed the greatest number and highest concentrations of GC-MS detectable compounds. The extracts were subjected to a battery of in vitro toxicity tests measuring both acute and sublethal cytotoxicity and genotoxic effects. None of the water or Tenax extracts was positive in cytotoxicity or genotoxicity assays. The ethanol extract of the non-food contact board gave a positive response in the genotoxicity assays, and all four ethanol extracts gave positive response(s) in the cytotoxicity assays to some extent. These responses could not be pinpointed to any specific compound, although there appeared a correlation between the total amount of extractables and toxicity.

  • 25.
    Breijaert, T. C.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Daniel, G.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hedlund, D.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Svedlindh, P.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kessler, V. G.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Håkansson, Karl
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Seisenbaeva, G. A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Self-assembly of ferria – nanocellulose composite fibres2022Inngår i: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 291, artikkel-id 119560Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An environmentally benign synthesis of a magnetically responsive carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibril-based material is reported. Applied experimental conditions lead to the in-situ formation of magnetite nanoparticles with primary particle sizes of 2.0–4.0 nm or secondary particles of 3.6–16.4 nm depending on whether nucleation occurred between individual carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibrils, or on exposed fibril surfaces. The increase in magnetite particle size on the cellulose fibril surfaces was attributed to Ostwald ripening, while the small particles formed within the carboxymethyl cellulose aggregates were presumably due to steric interactions. The magnetite nanoparticles were capable of coordinating to carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibrils to form large “fibre-like” assemblies. The confinement of small particles within aggregates of reductive cellulose molecules was most likely responsible for excellent conservation of magnetic characteristics on storage of this material. The possibility for using the material in drug delivery applications with release rate controlled by daylight illumination is presented. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 26.
    Brooke, Darby G.
    et al.
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.
    Cervin, Gunnar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Champeau, Olivier
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.
    Harwood, David Tim
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.
    Pavia, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Selwood, Andrew I.
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Tremblay, Louis A.
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand; University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Cahill, Patrick Louis
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.
    Antifouling activity of portimine, select semisynthetic analogues, and other microalga-derived spirocyclic imines2018Inngår i: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 34, nr 8, s. 950-961Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of natural products from marine invertebrates, bacteria and fungi have been assessed as leads for nature-inspired antifouling (AF) biocides, but little attention has been paid to microalgal-derived compounds. This study assessed the AF activity of the spirocyclic imine portimine (1), which is produced by the benthic mat-forming dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum. Portimine displayed potent AF activity in a panel of four macrofouling bioassays (EC50 0.06–62.5 ng ml−1), and this activity was distinct from that of the related compounds gymnodimine-A (2), 13-desmethyl spirolide C (3), and pinnatoxin-F (4). The proposed mechanism of action for portimine is induction of apoptosis, based on the observation that portimine inhibited macrofouling organisms at developmental stages known to involve apoptotic processes. Semisynthetic modification of select portions of the portimine molecule was subsequently undertaken. Observed changes in bioactivity of the resulting semisynthetic analogues of portimine were consistent with portimine’s unprecedented 5-membered imine ring structure playing a central role in its AF activity.

  • 27.
    Bulidon, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Korrosion.
    Pélissier, Krystel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Korrosion.
    Boissy, Clément
    M.E.C.M Rond-point de l'échangeur, France.
    Mendibide, Christophe
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Korrosion.
    Maillot, Valérie
    Andra, France.
    Bourbon, Xavier
    Andra, France.
    Crusset, Didier
    Andra, France.
    Hydrogen production through aluminium corrosion in a cement-based matrix2023Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 74, nr 11-12, s. 1765-1776Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In France, deep geological disposal is considered for the storage of high and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive wastes. For aluminium, the possibility to encapsulate the wastes in a cement-based matrix is studied. However, cement being an alkaline environment, aluminium can lose its passivity, starts to corrode leading to hydrogen evolution in the infrastructures and generate a possible explosive hazard after decades of storage if hydrogen can accumulate somewhere in the facility. It is therefore necessary to study the corrosion behaviour of aluminium in the different cements considered for the encapsulation to estimate the possible amount of hydrogen that could be generated through corrosion and design the cement capsules accordingly. This work mainly focused on the reaction occurring at the aluminium-cement interface. Raman spectroscopy did not highlight significant differences in the nature of the corrosion products forming at the cement/aluminium interface, leading to the conclusion that it is not the chemistry of the cement that is the key factor controlling the corrosion rate but rather the physical properties of the cement matrix. 

  • 28.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioekonomi. RISE., Innventia.
    Wolf, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioekonomi. RISE., Innventia.
    Techno-economic assessment of catalytic gasification of biomass powders for methanol production2017Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 237, s. 167-177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the techno-economic performance and potential benefits of methanol production through catalytic gasification of forest residues and lignin. The results showed that while catalytic gasification enables increased cold gas efficiencies and methanol yields compared to non-catalytic gasification, the additional pre-treatment energy and loss of electricity production result in small or no system efficiency improvements. The resulting required methanol selling prices (90–130 €/MWh) are comparable with production costs for other biofuels. It is concluded that catalytic gasification of forest residues can be an attractive option as it provides operational advantages at production costs comparable to non-catalytic gasification. The addition of lignin would require lignin costs below 25 €/MWh to be economically beneficial.

  • 29.
    Caussé, Nicolas
    et al.
    Université de Toulouse, France.
    Bonin, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Korrosion. Université de Toulouse, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Korrosion. Université de Toulouse, France.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Roggero, Aurelien
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Pébère, Nadine
    Université de Toulouse, France.
    Ageing processes of coil-coated materials: Temperature-controlled electrochemical impedance analysis2023Inngår i: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 183, artikkel-id 107682Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, an industrial polyester coil-coated steel was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) during immersion in a 0.5 M NaCl solution for different temperatures (30, 40, 50 and 60 °C). The objective was to propose a methodology to follow the ageing of the coil-coated system, from the first stage of water uptake until the blistering appearance. Relevant parameters were extracted from the EIS diagrams to analyse ageing processes of the polymer and of the metal/polymer interface. Water uptake was determined from the high-frequency part of the impedance diagrams using a linear rule of mixtures. By increasing the temperature, both the water uptake kinetics and the water content in the coating increased. The effect of water uptake on the physical structure of the coating (plasticization) was discussed through the analysis of a time constant corresponding to the dielectric manifestation of the polymer glass transition. At 40, 50 and 60 °C, appearance of corrosion was detected on the impedance spectra by a decrease, at low frequency, of the impedance modulus and of the phase angle. For 60 °C, the corroded surface area as a function of time, was assessed from the EIS data analysis with adapted equivalent circuits. The corroded surface areas followed similar trend as blister surface areas determined from images analysis.

  • 30.
    Celaya Romeo, Javier
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Wernersson Brodin, Fredrik
    RISE., Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Toven, Kai
    RISE., Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Re-homogenization of phase separated forest residue pyrolysis oil by blending2016Inngår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 163, s. 60-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The wood processing industry generates large amounts of forest residues like branches and tops which represent a significant unexploited resource for sustainable biofuel production. A feasible thermochemical route to valorise these residues is fast pyrolysis. However, the main product of this technology, pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, shows several disadvantages in comparison with conventional fuels. One of the main drawbacks of bio-oil is its instability which results in liquid phase separation in many cases. The purpose of this study is to verify whether homogenous single-phase heating fuels for district heating etc. can be formed from aged, phase separated forest residue pyrolysis oils by blending. Aged, phase separated pyrolysis oils were blended with either methanol or 1-butanol and the amount of alcohol needed to form homogeneous and storage stable fuel blends was evaluated. Homogeneity of the fuel blends was analysed by water concentration profile analysis and image analysis. Storage stability was analysed by analysing homogeneity as function of storage time. Essential fuel characteristics were analysed. The results revealed that phase separated forest residue pyrolysis oil can be homogenized by adding moderate amounts of alcohol and that some of the blends are stable longer than two months. Alcohol addition also improves essential product properties for pyrolysis oils as heating fuels. This work forms part of the ReShip Project partly funded by the Research Council of Norway (The ENERGIX programme).

  • 31.
    Chen, Fei
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE., Innventia.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Unusual effects of monocarboxylic acids on the structure and on the transport and mechanical properties of chitosan films2015Inngår i: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 132, s. 419-429, artikkel-id 10041Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to study the transport of monocarboxylic acids in chitosan films, since this is important for understanding and predicting the drying kinetics of chitosan from aqueous solutions. Despite the wealth of data on chitosan films prepared from aqueous monocarboxylic acid solutions, this transport has not been reported. Chitosan films were exposed to formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acid vapours, it was found that the rate of uptake decreased with increasing molecular size. The equilibration time was unexpectedly long, especially for propionic and butyric acid, nine months. A clear two-stage uptake curve was observed for propionic acid. Evidently, the rate of uptake was determined by acid-induced changes in the material. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy indicated that the structure of the chitosan acetate and buffered chitosan films changed during exposure to acid and during the subsequent drying. The dried films previously exposed to the acid showed less crystalline features than the original material and a novel repeating structure possibly involving acid molecules. The molar mass of the chitosan decreased on exposure to acid but tensile tests revealed that the films were always ductile. The films exposed to acid vapour (propionic and butyric acid) for the longest period of time were insoluble in the size-exclusion chromatography eluent, and they were also the most ductile/extensible of all samples studied.

  • 32.
    Chen, Fei
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE., Innventia.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael Stefan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Chitosan extrusion at high solids content: An orthogonal experimental design study2014Inngår i: Polymers from Renewable Resources, ISSN 2045-1377, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 1-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For economic reasons and to save time there is a need to shorten the drying operation associated with the production of chitosan materials. Hence it is of interest to extrude chitosan at as high a solids content as possible. This is, to our knowledge, the first systematic study of the extrusion of chitosan at high solids content (60 wt%). An orthogonal experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of processing conditions and material factors on the extrudability of chitosan. This, together with the examination of the evenness and surface finish of the extrudate, made it possible to determine the best conditions for obtaining a readily extrudable high quality material. It was observed that a 1/1 ratio of chitosans with molar masses of 12 and 133 kDa, a process liquid containing 30 wt% acetic acid and 70 wt% water, and extrusion at 50 rpm and 50°C were the optimal material and processing conditions. Materials processed under these conditions were evaluated mechanically at different times after extrusion (stored at 50% RH) in order to see when the properties stabilized. Most mass loss occurred within the first three days after extrusion and this governed the mechanical properties (stiffness and extensibility), which also exhibited the largest changes within these three days (an increase in modulus from 18 to 830 MPa and a decrease in elongation at break from 17 to 3%).

  • 33.
    Chen, Genqiang
    et al.
    Donghua University, China; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Wu, Guochao
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioekonomi, Processum.
    Wang, Wei
    Donghua University, China.
    Hong, Feng F.
    Donghua University, China.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Bioconversion of waste fiber sludge to bacterial nanocellulose and use for reinforcement of CTMP paper sheets2017Inngår i: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikkel-id 458Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilization of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) for large-scale applications is restricted by low productivity in static cultures and by the high cost of the medium. Fiber sludge, a waste stream from pulp and paper mills, was enzymatically hydrolyzed to sugar, which was used for the production of BNC by the submerged cultivation of Komagataeibacter xylinus. Compared with a synthetic glucose-based medium, the productivity of purified BNC from the fiber sludge hydrolysate using shake-flasks was enhanced from 0.11 to 0.17 g/(L × d), although the average viscometric degree of polymerization (DPv) decreased from 6760 to 6050. The cultivation conditions used in stirred-tank reactors (STRs), including the stirring speed, the airflow, and the pH, were also investigated. Using STRs, the BNC productivity in fiber-sludge medium was increased to 0.32 g/(L × d) and the DPv was increased to 6650. BNC produced from the fiber sludge hydrolysate was used as an additive in papermaking based on the chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) of birch. The introduction of BNC resulted in a significant enhancement of the mechanical strength of the paper sheets. With 10% (w/w) BNC in the CTMP/BNC mixture, the tear resistance was enhanced by 140%. SEM images showed that the BNC cross-linked and covered the surface of the CTMP fibers, resulting in enhanced mechanical strength.

  • 34.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Johansson, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion.
    Heggset, Ellinor B
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Leirset, Ingebjørg
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Björn, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Agrenius, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Characterization and Antibacterial Properties of Autoclaved Carboxylated Wood Nanocellulose.2021Inngår i: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 22, nr 7, s. 2779-2789Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were obtained by applying a chemical pretreatment consisting of autoclaving the pulp fibers in sodium hydroxide, combined with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl-mediated oxidation. Three levels of sodium hypochlorite were applied (2.5, 3.8, and 6.0 mmol/g) to obtain CNF qualities (CNF_2.5, CNF_3.8, and CNF_6.0) with varying content of carboxyl groups, that is, 1036, 1285, and 1593 μmol/g cellulose. The cytotoxicity and skin irritation potential (indirect tests) of the CNFs were determined according to standardized in vitro testing for medical devices. We here demonstrate that autoclaving (121 °C, 20 min), which was used to sterilize the gels, caused a modification of the CNF characteristics. This was confirmed by a reduction in the viscosity of the gels, a morphological change of the nanofibrils, by an increase of the ultraviolet-visible absorbance maxima at 250 nm, reduction of the absolute zeta potential, and by an increase in aldehyde content and reducing sugars after autoclaving. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering complemented an extensive characterization of the CNF gels, before and after autoclaving. The antibacterial properties of autoclaved carboxylated CNFs were demonstrated in vitro (bacterial survival and swimming assays) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Importantly, a mouse in vivo surgical-site infection model on S. aureus revealed that CNF_3.8 showed pronounced antibacterial effect and performed as good as the antiseptic Prontosan wound gel.

  • 35.
    Dahlman, Olof
    et al.
    STFI.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Nordström, Maria
    STFI.
    Characterisation of hemicelluloses from wood employing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisationtime-of-flight mass spectrometry2003Inngår i: Hemicelluloses: Science and technology, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2003, chapter 6, s. 80-93Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 36.
    Danielsson, Sverker
    RISE., Innventia.
    Sorption and desorption of black liquor xylan onto cellulose fibers2014Inngår i: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 48, nr 9-10, s. 819-823Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of xylan as a polymer in different new materials is large and not yet utilized. The availability in kraft pulp mills is large as the polymeric xylan dissolved in process liquors corresponds to up to 160 kg/adt and is today burnt to recover energy. A pre-requisite for using black liquor xylan in high-value products is to purify it from inorganic material and lignin in a technically effective and economical feasible way. This study combines two known properties of xylan: its affinity to cellulose and its solubility in alkali. The aim is to design an efficient separation process to produce black liquor xylan of high purity. A very pure xylan was reached with as low lignin contents as 1%. The hydroxide ion concentration was varied in the sorption step and it was found that an increase in hydroxide ion concentration resulted in a decreased amount of isolated xylan, decreased degree of substitution of uronic acids, but no effect on the lignin content and ash content was seen.

  • 37.
    Dedic, Dina
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Teresia
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Iversen, Tommy
    RISE., Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tomas
    RISE., Innventia.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Analysis of lignin and extractives in the oak wood of the 17th century warship Vasa2014Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 68, nr 4, s. 419-425Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The wood in the 17th century Swedish warship Vasa is weak. A depolymerization of the wood's cellulose has been linked to the weakening, but the chemical mechanisms are yet unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the lignin and tannin moieties of the wood to clarify whether the depolymerization of cellulose via ongoing oxidative mechanisms is indeed the main reason for weakening the wood in the Vasa. Lignin was analyzed by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance [cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C NMR] and by means of wet chemical degradation (thioacidolysis) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the products. No differences could be observed between the Vasa samples and the reference samples that could have been ascribed to extensive lignin degradation. Wood extracts (tannins) were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) combined with time-of-flight (TOF) MS and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The wood of the Vasa contained no discernible amounts of tannins, whereas still-waterlogged Vasa wood contained ellagic acid and traces of castalagin/vescalagin and grandinin. The results indicate that the condition of lignin in the Vasa wood is similar to fresh oak and that potentially harmful tannins are not present in high amounts. Thus, oxidative degradation mechanisms are not supported as a primary route to cellulose depolymerization.

  • 38. Edén, Mattias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    The split network analysis for exploring composition-structure correlations in multi-component glasses: II. Multinuclear NMR studies of alumino-borosilicates and glass-wool fibers2011Inngår i: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, ISSN 0022-3093, E-ISSN 1873-4812, Vol. 357, nr 6, s. 1587-1594Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The preceding part [M. Edén, J. Non.-Cryst. Solids, 357, (2011) 1595-1602] introduced the "split network" strategy for estimating the network polymerization degree (r A) and mean number of bridging oxygen (BO) atoms (N̄BOA) for a network former A, given that these parameters are known for all other network builders in the multi-component oxide glass. However, as the detailed ordering of BO and non-bridging oxygen (NBO) species is often difficult to assess experimentally, we summarize some "rules of thumb" for predicting the coordination number and tendency to accept NBO ions for Al 3+, B 3+, Si 4+ and P 5+ cations: they are helpful in scenarios devoid of experimental data. Using the parameters r and N̄BO, we present expressions for the BO/NBO distributions among tetrahedrally coordinated cations, as predicted from the binary and random models. Multinuclear 11B, 27Al and 29Si solid-state NMR is exploited to derive the split network representations of a set of Na-Ca-(Al)-(B)-Si-O glasses. These results are subsequently used to gain structural insight into two commercial glass-wool fibers that constitute alumino-borosilicate networks modified by Na +, K +, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  • 39.
    Ejenstam, Lina
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Corrosion protection by hydrophobic silica particle-polydimethylsiloxane composite coatings2015Inngår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 99, s. 89-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the time-dependent corrosion protection ability of 10-15. μm thin polydimethylsiloxane-nanoparticle composite coatings was evaluated using mainly open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The best result was obtained for the coating containing 20. wt% hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, where it was possible to achieve protection for almost 80 days in 3. wt% NaCl solution. The protective properties offered by this coating are suggested to be due to a synergistic effect of the hydrophobicity of the polydimethylsiloxane matrix and the prolonged diffusion path caused by addition of hydrophobic silica particles.

  • 40.
    Ejenstam, Lina
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Haapanen, Janne
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Mäkelä, Jyrki M.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Long-term corrosion protection by a thin nano-composite coating2015Inngår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 357, nr Part B, s. 2333-2342Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report and discuss the corrosion protective properties of a thin nano-composite coating system consisting of an 11μm thick polyester acrylate (PEA) basecoat, covered by an approximately 1-2μm thick layer of TiO2 nanoparticles carrying a 0.05μm thick hexamethyl disiloxane (HMDSO) top coat. The corrosion protective properties were evaluated on carbon steel substrates immersed in 3wt% NaCl solution by open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The protective properties of each layer, and of each pair of layers, were also evaluated to gain further understanding of the long-term protective properties offered by the nano-composite coating. The full coating system showed excellent corrosion protective properties in the corrosive environment of 3wt% NaCl-solution for an extended period of 100 days, during which the coating impedance, at the lower frequency limit (0.01Hz), remained above 108 Ωcm2. We suggest that the excellent corrosion protective properties of the complete coating system is due to a combination of (i) good adhesion and stability of the PEA basecoat, (ii) the surface roughness and the elongated diffusion path provided by the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles, and (iii) the low surface energy provided by the HMDSO top coat.

  • 41.
    Fast, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Lang, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nygren, Kristian
    Impact Coatings AB, Sweden.
    Bodén, Andreas
    PowerCell AB, Sweden.
    Baumann Ofstad, Axel
    PowerCell AB, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Successful Development of Coating for Bipolar Plates for Proton exchange Membrane Fuel Cell2015Inngår i: EAST Forum 2015, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 42.
    Filippov, Andrei
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gnezdilov, Oleg I.
    Kazan Federal University, Russia.
    Hjalmarsson, Nicklas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Antzutkin, Oleg N.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Glavatskih, Sergei B.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Ghent University, Belgium.
    Furó, István
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Yta, process och formulering. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Acceleration of diffusion in ethylammonium nitrate ionic liquid confined between parallel glass plates2017Inngår i: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 19, nr 38, s. 25853-25858Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion of EAN confined between polar glass plates separated by a few micrometers is higher by a factor of ca. 2 as compared to bulk values. Formation of a new phase, different to the bulk, was suggested. © the Owner Societies 2017.

  • 43.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Fighting flameless fires: Initiating and extinguishing self-sustainedsmoldering fires in wood pellets2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires represent domestic, environmental and industrial hazards. This flameless form of combustion is more easily initiated than flaming, and is also more persistent and difficult to extinguish. The growing demand for non-fossil fuels has increased the use of solid biofuels such as biomass. This represents a safety challenge, as biomass self-ignition can cause smoldering fires, flaming fires or explosions.

    Smoldering and extinguishment in granular biomass was studied experimentally. The set-up consisted of a cylindrical fuel container of steel with thermally insulated side walls. The container was closed at the bottom, open at the top and heated from below by a hot surface. Two types of wood pellets were used as fuel, with 0.75-1.5 kg samples.

    Logistic regression was used to determine the transition region between non-smoldering and self-sustained smoldering experiments, and to determine the influence of parameters. Duration of external heating was most important for initiation of smoldering. Sample height was also significant, while the type of wood pellet was near-significant and fuel container height was not.

    The susceptibility of smoldering to changes in air supply was studied. With a small gap at the bottom of the fuel bed, the increased air flow in the same direction as the initial smoldering front (forward air flow) caused a significantly more intense combustion compared to the normal set-up with opposed air flow.

    Heat extraction from the combustion was studied using a water-cooled copper pipe. Challenges with direct fuel-water contact (fuel swelling, water channeling and runoff) were thus avoided. Smoldering was extinguished in 7 of 15 cases where heat extraction was in the same range as the heat production from combustion. This is the first experimental proof-of-concept of cooling as an extinguishment method for smoldering fires.

    Marginal differences in heating and cooling separated smoldering from extinguished cases; the fuel bed was at a heating-cooling balance point. Lower cooling levels did not lead to extinguishment, but cooling caused more predictable smoldering, possibly delaying the most intense combustion. Also observed at the balance point were pulsating temperatures; a form of long-lived (hours), macroscopic synchronization not previously observed in smoldering fires.

    For practical applications, cooling could be feasible for prevention of temperature escalation from self-heating in industrial storage units. This study provides a first step towards improved fuel storage safety for biomass. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Mikalsen_DoctoralThesis_FightingFlamelessFires
  • 44.
    Flodberg, Göran
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Helland, Irene
    Norner Innovation AS, Norway.
    Thomson, Lars
    RISE., Innventia.
    Bodil Fredriksen, Siw
    Norner Innovation AS, Norway.
    Barrier properties of polypropylene carbonate and poly(lactic acid) cast films2015Inngår i: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 63, s. 217-226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study of the barrier properties of cast film of polypropylene carbonate (PPC) and cast film of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has been made in this paper. Dynamic transmission measurements were conducted to obtain the barrier properties for oxygen transmission and for water vapour transmission. A special algorithm fminsearch in Matlab was used to adapt an exponential expression to the measured values. In this way the time needed to reach a 95% level of steady state was made possible to identify. The oxygen permeability was lower for PPC compared to PLA and this could be explained by a much higher positive enthalpy of solution for oxygen in PPC. The enthalpy of diffusion was close to similar for both PPC and PLA and was higher than for enthalpy of solution. The enthalpy of water vapour permeability was higher for PPC compared to PLA and this resulted in substantially higher water vapour permeability for PLA. The uptake of water vapour was also higher for PLA compared to PPC as shown by dynamic vapour sorption measurements. Differential scanning calorimetry confirmed that PPC is an amorphous polymer and that the PLA used in this study had a minimum of crystallinity which made it comparable to PPC.

  • 45.
    Fredriksson, Hans
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Persson, Stellan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    FlatFlame-brännare i degelugn2001Inngår i: Glasteknisk Tidskrift, Vol. 56, nr 2, s. 41-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 46.
    Giordanetto, Fabrizio
    et al.
    AstraZeneca, Sweden; Shaw Research, USA.
    Knerr, Laurent
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Peter A.
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Pettersen, Daniel
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Selmi, Nidhal
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Beisel, Hans Georg
    AstraZeneca, Sweden; Medivir AB, Sweden.
    de la Motte, Hanna
    Månsson, Åsa
    AstraZeneca, Sweden; Alfa Laval AB, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Mikael
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Broddefalk, Johan
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Saarinen, Gabrielle
    AstraZeneca, Sweden; SCA Hygiene Products AB, Sweden.
    Klingegård, Fredrik
    AstraZeneca, Sweden; SciLifeLab, Sweden.
    Hurt-Camejo, Eva
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Rosengren, Birgitta
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Wikström, Johannes
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Maria
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Brengdahl, Johan
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Rohman, Mattias
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Sandmark, Jenny
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Åkerud, Tomas
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Roth, Robert G.
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Jansen, Frank
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Ahlqvist, Marie
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Design of Selective sPLA2-X Inhibitor (-)-2-{2-[Carbamoyl-6-(trifluoromethoxy)-1 H-indol-1-yl]pyridine-2-yl}propanoic Acid2018Inngår i: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters, ISSN 1948-5875, E-ISSN 1948-5875, Vol. 9, nr 7, s. 600-605Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A lead generation campaign identified indole-based sPLA2-X inhibitors with a promising selectivity profile against other sPLA2 isoforms. Further optimization of sPLA2 selectivity and metabolic stability resulted in the design of (-)-17, a novel, potent, and selective sPLA2-X inhibitor with an exquisite pharmacokinetic profile characterized by high absorption and low clearance, and low toxicological risk. Compound (-)-17 was tested in an ApoE-/- murine model of atherosclerosis to evaluate the effect of reversible, pharmacological sPLA2-X inhibition on atherosclerosis development. Despite being well tolerated and achieving adequate systemic exposure of mechanistic relevance, (-)-17 did not significantly affect circulating lipid and lipoprotein biomarkers and had no effect on coronary function or histological markers of atherosclerosis.

  • 47.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Gustafsson Coppel, Ludovic
    RISE., Innventia.
    Eita, Mohamed
    RISE., Innventia.
    De Mayolo, Eduardo Antunez
    RISE., Innventia.
    Arwin, Hans
    RISE., Innventia.
    Wågberg, Lars Göran
    RISE., Innventia.
    Dynamics of moisture interaction with polyelectrolyte multilayers containing nanofibrillated cellulose2012Inngår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 496-499Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent findings have shown that it is possible to use the Layer-by-Layer technique to create nanofibrillated cellulose / polyethyleneimine interference films whose colour change with relative humidity. This study uses different optical models to describe spectral ellipsometry measurements data of interference films and how the film properties alter in dry and humid environments. The results indicate that water condensation initially is filling the surface pores within seconds whereas relaxation of the film to adjust to the added water is a slower process that reaches a steady state after ~20 min. The maximum swelling ratio of the LbL films is almost independent of the number of layers within the film, but decreases considerably by crosslinking via heat treatment. The films show a distinct birefringence with optical axis perpendicular to the surface. Analysis of the moisture response with different optical models indicates that the films swell uniformly in the thickness direction with no separate water film on top. The results provide important understanding for the design of NFC based LbL films for visual moisture sensors and interactive security paper.

  • 48. Grund, Lina
    et al.
    Jonson, Bo
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    The influence of basicity on oxygen activity and antimony oxide fining efficiency in alkali alkaline earth aluminosilicate glasses2009Inngår i: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 50, nr 5, s. 241-246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of bubbles was monitored in antimony oxide fined R 2O-MxOy-SiO2 and R 2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses (R=Na, K; M=Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Zn, B, Al, Ti, x=1 or 2, y=1, 2 or 3) in order to evaluate the fining efficiency. Electrochemical measurements of oxygen activity were used to, in situ, monitor the fining characteristics and conditions in some of the investigated glass melts. The results showed that an increase of the calculated optical basicity was related to an increased number of bubbles in the glass samples. The oxygen activity in the melt during fining decreased with increased optical basicity.

  • 49. Guadagnino, E.
    et al.
    Corumluoglu, O.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Influence of some parameters on the approximation of European Pharmacopoeia and ISO Standard 4802: Reasons for harmonization - a collaborative study of ICG/TC2, `Chemical Durability and Analysis'2000Inngår i: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 91-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The most widely used Standards to test the inner surface of glass containers for pharmaceutical use, European Pharmacopoeia and ISO 4802, may differ significantly in the results because of relevant differences in the procedures. In this study the rinsing procedures, effect of prolonging the cooling time to 95 °C, as prescribed by EN norms on safe operation practice, and the combination of the two factors were investigated. Nine laboratories participated in the collaborative study, the resulting extract solutions were analyzed both by titration and flame photometry. Results were evaluated by two way ANOVA with the aim of estimating three sources of variation: between procedures, between laboratories and random variation due to experimental error. For soda-lime-silica glass there is evidence that the different procedures influence the hydrolytic resistance of the inner surface of glass containers whichever method is used. Differences between laboratories were, however, much greater and results vary more due to which laboratory conducted the measurement rather than which procedure is employed. For borosilicate glass variations between procedures were found not to be significant. It is strongly recommended that ISO and EP shall adopt measures to minimize those factors that proved to exert great influence on reproducibility of results.

  • 50. Guadagnino, E.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Brochot, D.
    A collaborative study into the determination of boron in glass using x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy2006Inngår i: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 103-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    XRF spectrometry is extensively used for production factory control because of its high precision and rapidity of response. For very accurate boron determinations in glass, classical wet chemical methods are still the preferred method of choice as the x-ray irradiation of light elements produces only a weak fluorescent response. However, the new generation XRF instruments employing enhanced matrix correction models plus the greater availability of certified reference materials may significantly improve the analytical performance of XRF spectrometers for the determination of "difficult" elements like boron.

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