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  • 1. Agnihotri, S.
    et al.
    Johnsen, I.A
    Böe, M.S.
    Öyaas, Karin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Moe, S.
    Ethanol organosolv pretreatment of softwood (Picea abies) and sugarcane bagasse for biofuel and biorefinery applications2015In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 881-896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol derived from biomass has the potential to be a renewable transportation fuel that can replace gasoline. This work was carried out to establish an optimized ethanol organosolv pretreatment of Norway spruce (Picea abies) for bioethanol production (63 wt% EtOH, pH 3.5 in aqueous phase, 170–240 °C, 90 min) utilizing hydrolytic enzymes in the saccharification step. To test the generality of the method, a series of ethanol organosolv pretreatments were also performed on sugarcane bagasse (50 wt% EtOH, pH 3.5 in aqueous phase, 155–210 °C, 90–120 min). The degree of delignification increased with increasing temperature during pretreatment, and the fastest increase was observed with sugarcane bagasse. The pretreatments were carried out in a batch mode. The maximum degree of delignification of 65 % was reached at 235 °C for Norway spruce, while sugarcane bagasse reached 80 % at 210 °C. Cellulose was subjected to degradation (5–10 % points) at these temperatures. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis (30 FPU/g cellulose, 32 pNPGU/g cellulose, 50 °C, 48 h) of ethanol organosolv-pretreated biomass achieved complete conversion for both raw materials at the highest degrees of delignification.

  • 2.
    Aldaeus, F.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Schweinebarth, H.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Törngren, P.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jacobs, A.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Simplified determination of total lignin content in kraft lignin samples and black liquors2011In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, no 4, p. 601-604Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Printed electronics.
    Displays and Transistors Printed on Flexible Substrates and Integrated into Versatile Applications2012In: Large-Area, Organic and Printed Electronics Convention (LOPE-C) 2012 (June 19th-21st), accepted for oral presentation, Munich, Germany, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Printed electronics.
    Displays and Transistors Printed on Flexible Substrates and Integrated into Versatile Applications2012In: LOPE-C 2012 Conference Proceedings, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Printed electronics.
    Electrolyte-gated transistors used in printed organic electronic applications2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Integration of printed electronic components into versatile systems on flexible substrates2013In: Innovative Printed Smart Objects (IPSO), invited oral presentation, Gardanne, France, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A technology platform based on electrochemical transistors and electrochromic displays printed from organic materials on flexible substrates is presented. The devices are manufactured by using standard printing tools and operated below 3 V, and the device manufacturing is further simplified by that only a small set of materials is employed. Examples of printed electronic systems will be presented, such as active and passive matrix addressed displays, touchless sensor interfaces, secure user authentication applications and a novel approach to obtain reconfigurable systems utilizing self-adhesive active materials.

  • 7.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Integration of printed electronic components into versatile systems on flexible substrates2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Printed electronics.
    Roll to roll printable technology platform consisting of electrolyte-based components2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Printed electronics.
    Kawahara, J
    Roll to roll printable technology platform consisting of electrolyte-based components2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Multiscale Reactor Network Simulation of an Entrained Flow Biomass Gasifier: Model Description and Validation2017In: Energy Technology, ISSN 2194-4288, Vol. 5, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development of a multiscale equivalent reactor network model for pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification to quantify the effect of operational parameters on the gasification process, including carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency, and syngas methane content. The model, implemented in the commercial software Aspen Plus, includes chemical kinetics as well as heat and mass transfer. Characteristic aspects of the model are the multiscale effect caused by the combination of transport phenomena at particle scale during heating, pyrolysis, and char burnout, as well as the effect of macroscopic gas flow, including gas recirculation. A validation using experimental data from a pilot-scale process shows that the model can provide accurate estimations of carbon conversion, concentrations of main syngas components, and cold gas efficiency over a wide range of oxygen-to-biomass ratios and reactor loads. The syngas methane content was most difficult to estimate accurately owing to the unavailability of accurate kinetic parameters for steam methane reforming.

  • 11.
    Bannow, J.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Benjamins, J. -W
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces.
    Wohlert, J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Löbmann, K.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Svagan, A. J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Solid nanofoams based on cellulose nanofibers and indomethacin—the effect of processing parameters and drug content on material structure2017In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 526, no 1-2, p. 291-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unique colloidal properties of cellulose nanofibers (CNF), makes CNF a very interesting new excipient in pharmaceutical formulations, as CNF in combination with some poorly-soluble drugs can create nanofoams with closed cells. Previous nanofoams, created with the model drug indomethacin, demonstrated a prolonged release compared to films, owing to the tortuous diffusion path that the drug needs to take around the intact air-bubbles. However, the nanofoam was only obtained at a relatively low drug content of 21 wt% using fixed processing parameters. Herein, the effect of indomethacin content and processing parameters on the foaming properties was analysed. Results demonstrate that a certain amount of dissolved drug is needed to stabilize air-bubbles. At the same time, larger fractions of dissolved drug promote coarsening/collapse of the wet foam. The pendant drop/bubble profile tensiometry was used to verify the wet-foam stability at different pHs. The pH influenced the amount of solubilized drug and the processing-window was very narrow at high drug loadings. The results were compared to real foaming-experiments and solid state analysis of the final cellular solids. The parameters were assembled into a processing chart, highlighting the importance of the right combination of processing parameters (pH and time-point of pH adjustment) in order to successfully prepare cellular solid materials with up to 46 wt% drug loading.

  • 12. Berggren, M
    et al.
    Forchheimer, R
    Bobacka, J
    Svensson, P-O
    Nilsson, D
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Printed electronics.
    Larsson, O
    Ivaska, A
    PEDOT:PSS-based Electrochemical Transistors for Ion-to-Electron Transduction and Sensor Signal Amplification2008In: Organic Semiconductors in Sensor Applications, p. 263-280Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13. Blyberg, Louise
    et al.
    Lang, Maria
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Schander, Matilda
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Serrano, Erik
    Silfverhielm, Magnus
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Glass, timber and adhesive joints: Innovative load bearing building components2014In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 55, p. 470-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural glass-timber composite beams and shear wall elements were investigated in terms of their mechanical behaviour, energy performance and their LCA performance. The load bearing components were manufactured using annealed float glass which was adhesively bonded to the timber with different adhesives. The results show, among other things, that is is possible to join the two materials glass and timber and obtaining a non-brittle failure of the beams. The shear wall elements have the potential of being used as stabilising elements and load bearing walls in buildings of up to 4 storeys height. It is possible to combine glass and timber in a load bearing shear wall without loss of energy performance of a building or without loosing LCA performance. In addition to these benefits, the timber glass composite wall has, of course the benefit of being transparent. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Boubitsas, Dimitrios
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg. Lund University, Lund Institute of Technology, Division of Building Materials.
    Chloride transport and chloride threshold values: studies on concretes and mortars with Portland cement and limestone blended cement2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used building materials and if it is properly designed and produced, it is an extremely durable material with a service life up to 100 years. However, under certain environmental conditions the service life of reinforced concrete structures is more limited. Deterioration ofconcrete structure is in most cases caused by the penetration of aggressive media from the surrounding environment. Chloride initiated reinforcement corrosion is one of the major causes of deterioration of Concrete structures. One conflicting issue is how replacing Portland cement with mineral additions influences chlorideinitiated reinforcement corrosion. This issue is of immediate interest, as there is a steady growth in the use of cement blended with mineral additions, such as blast-furnace slag, fly ash and limestone filler. This is done by the cement and concrete industry to reduce the CO2 emissions linked to Portland cement manufacturing, bylimiting the use of clinker in the cement.The main objective of this work has been to further clarify the role of limestone filler as partial substitute to Portland cement on the two main decisive parameters for chloride induced reinforcement corrosion: chloride ingress rate and chloride threshold values. In the first part of this work the chloride ingress was studied both with accelerated laboratory methods and also after field exposure. The initial focus for the second part of the study was to determine the chloride threshold values for the binders investigated in the first part, so a comprehensive view of the effect of limestone addition on chloride initiated corrosion could be presented.However, during the work the need for the development of a practice-related method for determining the chloride threshold values was identified and the focus of the research was redirected to meet that need.The efficiency of limestone filler concerning chloride ingress showed to be dependent on replacement ratio, time (age) and on the test method. It was not possible to draw any rigid conclusion of the limestone filler’s efficiency regarding chloride ingress. But part of the inconsistency in the results was identified to be that limestone filler has two opposite effects on chloride ingress, on one hand contribute to a refinement of microstructure and on the other hand diminishing the chloride binding.The steel surface condition was shown to have a strong effect on the corrosion initiation, and can likely be one of the most decisive parameters attributing to the variability in the reported chloride threshold values obtained in laboratory experiments. The chloride threshold value for the sulphate resistant Portland cement fromthe laboratory experiments was estimated to be about 1% by weight of binder. For the concrete with limestone blended cement (CEM II/A-LL 42.5R) tested in this work the chloride threshold value was at the same level as for the sulphate resistant Portland cement. From the field study but with a somewhat different definition ofchloride threshold value, a chloride threshold value of about 1% by weight of binder was also estimated for ordinary Portland cement and sulphate resistance Portland with 5% silica fume exposed to marine environment.

  • 15. Bradley, E. L.
    et al.
    Honkalampi-Hämäläinen, U.
    Weber, A.
    Andersson, M. A.
    Bertaud, F.
    Castle, L.
    Dahlman, O.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Hakulinen, P.
    Hoornstra, D.
    Lhuguenot, J. -C
    Mäki-Paakkanen, J.
    Salkinoja-Salonen, M.
    Speck, D. R.
    Severin, I.
    Stammati, A.
    Turco, L.
    Zucco, F.
    von Wright, A.
    The BIOSAFEPAPER project for in vitro toxicity assessments: Preparation, detailed chemical characterisation and testing of extracts from paper and board samples2008In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 2498-2509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nineteen food contact papers and boards and one non-food contact board were extracted following test protocols developed within European Union funded project BIOSAFEPAPER. The extraction media were either hot or cold water, 95% ethanol or Tenax, according to the end use of the sample. The extractable dry matter content of the samples varied from 1200 to 11,800 mg/kg (0.8-35.5 mg/dm2). According to GC-MS the main substances extracted into water were pulp-derived natural products such as fatty acids, resin acids, natural wood sterols and alkanols. Substances extracted into ethanol particularly, were diisopropylnaphthalenes, alkanes and phthalic acid esters. The non-food contact board showed the greatest number and highest concentrations of GC-MS detectable compounds. The extracts were subjected to a battery of in vitro toxicity tests measuring both acute and sublethal cytotoxicity and genotoxic effects. None of the water or Tenax extracts was positive in cytotoxicity or genotoxicity assays. The ethanol extract of the non-food contact board gave a positive response in the genotoxicity assays, and all four ethanol extracts gave positive response(s) in the cytotoxicity assays to some extent. These responses could not be pinpointed to any specific compound, although there appeared a correlation between the total amount of extractables and toxicity.

  • 16.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Wolf, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Techno-economic assessment of catalytic gasification of biomass powders for methanol production2017In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 237, p. 167-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the techno-economic performance and potential benefits of methanol production through catalytic gasification of forest residues and lignin. The results showed that while catalytic gasification enables increased cold gas efficiencies and methanol yields compared to non-catalytic gasification, the additional pre-treatment energy and loss of electricity production result in small or no system efficiency improvements. The resulting required methanol selling prices (90–130 €/MWh) are comparable with production costs for other biofuels. It is concluded that catalytic gasification of forest residues can be an attractive option as it provides operational advantages at production costs comparable to non-catalytic gasification. The addition of lignin would require lignin costs below 25 €/MWh to be economically beneficial.

  • 17. Celaya Romeo, Javier
    et al.
    Wernersson Brodin, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Toven, Kai
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Re-homogenization of phase separated forest residue pyrolysis oil by blending2016In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 163, p. 60-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wood processing industry generates large amounts of forest residues like branches and tops which represent a significant unexploited resource for sustainable biofuel production. A feasible thermochemical route to valorise these residues is fast pyrolysis. However, the main product of this technology, pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, shows several disadvantages in comparison with conventional fuels. One of the main drawbacks of bio-oil is its instability which results in liquid phase separation in many cases. The purpose of this study is to verify whether homogenous single-phase heating fuels for district heating etc. can be formed from aged, phase separated forest residue pyrolysis oils by blending. Aged, phase separated pyrolysis oils were blended with either methanol or 1-butanol and the amount of alcohol needed to form homogeneous and storage stable fuel blends was evaluated. Homogeneity of the fuel blends was analysed by water concentration profile analysis and image analysis. Storage stability was analysed by analysing homogeneity as function of storage time. Essential fuel characteristics were analysed. The results revealed that phase separated forest residue pyrolysis oil can be homogenized by adding moderate amounts of alcohol and that some of the blends are stable longer than two months. Alcohol addition also improves essential product properties for pyrolysis oils as heating fuels. This work forms part of the ReShip Project partly funded by the Research Council of Norway (The ENERGIX programme).

  • 18. Chen, F.
    et al.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, R. T.
    Gedde, U. W.
    Hedenqvist, M. S.
    Unusual effects of monocarboxylic acids on the structure and on the transport and mechanical properties of chitosan films2015In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 132, p. 419-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to study the transport of monocarboxylic acids in chitosan films, since this is important for understanding and predicting the drying kinetics of chitosan from aqueous solutions. Despite the wealth of data on chitosan films prepared from aqueous monocarboxylic acid solutions, this transport has not been reported. Chitosan films were exposed to formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acid vapours, it was found that the rate of uptake decreased with increasing molecular size. The equilibration time was unexpectedly long, especially for propionic and butyric acid, nine months. A clear two-stage uptake curve was observed for propionic acid. Evidently, the rate of uptake was determined by acid-induced changes in the material. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy indicated that the structure of the chitosan acetate and buffered chitosan films changed during exposure to acid and during the subsequent drying. The dried films previously exposed to the acid showed less crystalline features than the original material and a novel repeating structure possibly involving acid molecules. The molar mass of the chitosan decreased on exposure to acid but tensile tests revealed that the films were always ductile. The films exposed to acid vapour (propionic and butyric acid) for the longest period of time were insoluble in the size-exclusion chromatography eluent, and they were also the most ductile/extensible of all samples studied.

  • 19. Chen, F.
    et al.
    Nilsson, F.
    Gällstedt, M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hedenqvist, M.S.
    Chitosan extrusion at high solids content: An orthogonal experimental design study2014In: Polymers from Renewable Resources, ISSN 2045-1377, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Chen, Genqiang
    et al.
    Donghua University, China ; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Wu, Guochao
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Processum.
    Wang, Wei
    Donghua University, China.
    Hong, Feng F.
    Donghua University, China.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Bioconversion of waste fiber sludge to bacterial nanocellulose and use for reinforcement of CTMP paper sheets2017In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 9, no 9, article id 458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilization of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) for large-scale applications is restricted by low productivity in static cultures and by the high cost of the medium. Fiber sludge, a waste stream from pulp and paper mills, was enzymatically hydrolyzed to sugar, which was used for the production of BNC by the submerged cultivation of Komagataeibacter xylinus. Compared with a synthetic glucose-based medium, the productivity of purified BNC from the fiber sludge hydrolysate using shake-flasks was enhanced from 0.11 to 0.17 g/(L × d), although the average viscometric degree of polymerization (DPv) decreased from 6760 to 6050. The cultivation conditions used in stirred-tank reactors (STRs), including the stirring speed, the airflow, and the pH, were also investigated. Using STRs, the BNC productivity in fiber-sludge medium was increased to 0.32 g/(L × d) and the DPv was increased to 6650. BNC produced from the fiber sludge hydrolysate was used as an additive in papermaking based on the chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) of birch. The introduction of BNC resulted in a significant enhancement of the mechanical strength of the paper sheets. With 10% (w/w) BNC in the CTMP/BNC mixture, the tear resistance was enhanced by 140%. SEM images showed that the BNC cross-linked and covered the surface of the CTMP fibers, resulting in enhanced mechanical strength.

  • 21.
    Danielsson, S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sorption and desorption of black liquor xylan onto cellulose fibers2014In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 48, no 9-10, p. 819-823Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Dedic, D.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sandberg, T.
    Iversen, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Larsson, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ek, M.
    Analysis of lignin and extractives in the oak wood of the 17th century warship Vasa2014In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 419-425Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Edén, Mattias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    The split network analysis for exploring composition-structure correlations in multi-component glasses: II. Multinuclear NMR studies of alumino-borosilicates and glass-wool fibers2011In: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, ISSN 0022-3093, E-ISSN 1873-4812, Vol. 357, no 6, p. 1587-1594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preceding part [M. Edén, J. Non.-Cryst. Solids, 357, (2011) 1595-1602] introduced the "split network" strategy for estimating the network polymerization degree (r A) and mean number of bridging oxygen (BO) atoms (N̄BOA) for a network former A, given that these parameters are known for all other network builders in the multi-component oxide glass. However, as the detailed ordering of BO and non-bridging oxygen (NBO) species is often difficult to assess experimentally, we summarize some "rules of thumb" for predicting the coordination number and tendency to accept NBO ions for Al 3+, B 3+, Si 4+ and P 5+ cations: they are helpful in scenarios devoid of experimental data. Using the parameters r and N̄BO, we present expressions for the BO/NBO distributions among tetrahedrally coordinated cations, as predicted from the binary and random models. Multinuclear 11B, 27Al and 29Si solid-state NMR is exploited to derive the split network representations of a set of Na-Ca-(Al)-(B)-Si-O glasses. These results are subsequently used to gain structural insight into two commercial glass-wool fibers that constitute alumino-borosilicate networks modified by Na +, K +, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  • 24.
    Ejenstam, Lina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Pan, J.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. Department of Chemistry Surface and Corrosion Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Corrosion protection by hydrophobic silica particle-polydimethylsiloxane composite coatings2015In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 99, p. 89-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the time-dependent corrosion protection ability of 10-15. μm thin polydimethylsiloxane-nanoparticle composite coatings was evaluated using mainly open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The best result was obtained for the coating containing 20. wt% hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, where it was possible to achieve protection for almost 80 days in 3. wt% NaCl solution. The protective properties offered by this coating are suggested to be due to a synergistic effect of the hydrophobicity of the polydimethylsiloxane matrix and the prolonged diffusion path caused by addition of hydrophobic silica particles.

  • 25.
    Ejenstam, Lina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Haapanen, J.
    Mäkelä, J. M.
    Pan, J.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. Department of Chemistry Surface and Corrosion Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Long-term corrosion protection by a thin nano-composite coating2015In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 357, no Part B, p. 2333-2342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report and discuss the corrosion protective properties of a thin nano-composite coating system consisting of an 11μm thick polyester acrylate (PEA) basecoat, covered by an approximately 1-2μm thick layer of TiO2 nanoparticles carrying a 0.05μm thick hexamethyl disiloxane (HMDSO) top coat. The corrosion protective properties were evaluated on carbon steel substrates immersed in 3wt% NaCl solution by open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The protective properties of each layer, and of each pair of layers, were also evaluated to gain further understanding of the long-term protective properties offered by the nano-composite coating. The full coating system showed excellent corrosion protective properties in the corrosive environment of 3wt% NaCl-solution for an extended period of 100 days, during which the coating impedance, at the lower frequency limit (0.01Hz), remained above 108 Ωcm2. We suggest that the excellent corrosion protective properties of the complete coating system is due to a combination of (i) good adhesion and stability of the PEA basecoat, (ii) the surface roughness and the elongated diffusion path provided by the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles, and (iii) the low surface energy provided by the HMDSO top coat.

  • 26.
    Fast, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Lang, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nygren, Kristian
    Impact Coatings AB.
    Bodén, Andreas
    Power Cell AB.
    Ofstad, A.B.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Jönköping University.
    Successful Development of Coating for BipolarPlates for Proton exchange Membrane Fuel Cell2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg.
    Fighting flameless fires: Initiating and extinguishing self-sustainedsmoldering fires in wood pellets2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires represent domestic, environmental and industrial hazards. This flameless form of combustion is more easily initiated than flaming, and is also more persistent and difficult to extinguish. The growing demand for non-fossil fuels has increased the use of solid biofuels such as biomass. This represents a safety challenge, as biomass self-ignition can cause smoldering fires, flaming fires or explosions.

    Smoldering and extinguishment in granular biomass was studied experimentally. The set-up consisted of a cylindrical fuel container of steel with thermally insulated side walls. The container was closed at the bottom, open at the top and heated from below by a hot surface. Two types of wood pellets were used as fuel, with 0.75-1.5 kg samples.

    Logistic regression was used to determine the transition region between non-smoldering and self-sustained smoldering experiments, and to determine the influence of parameters. Duration of external heating was most important for initiation of smoldering. Sample height was also significant, while the type of wood pellet was near-significant and fuel container height was not.

    The susceptibility of smoldering to changes in air supply was studied. With a small gap at the bottom of the fuel bed, the increased air flow in the same direction as the initial smoldering front (forward air flow) caused a significantly more intense combustion compared to the normal set-up with opposed air flow.

    Heat extraction from the combustion was studied using a water-cooled copper pipe. Challenges with direct fuel-water contact (fuel swelling, water channeling and runoff) were thus avoided. Smoldering was extinguished in 7 of 15 cases where heat extraction was in the same range as the heat production from combustion. This is the first experimental proof-of-concept of cooling as an extinguishment method for smoldering fires.

    Marginal differences in heating and cooling separated smoldering from extinguished cases; the fuel bed was at a heating-cooling balance point. Lower cooling levels did not lead to extinguishment, but cooling caused more predictable smoldering, possibly delaying the most intense combustion. Also observed at the balance point were pulsating temperatures; a form of long-lived (hours), macroscopic synchronization not previously observed in smoldering fires.

    For practical applications, cooling could be feasible for prevention of temperature escalation from self-heating in industrial storage units. This study provides a first step towards improved fuel storage safety for biomass. 

  • 28.
    Flodberg, Göran
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Helland, I.
    Thomsson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bodil Fredriksen, S.
    Barrier properties of polypropylene carbonate and poly(lactic acid) cast films2015In: European Polymer Journal, Vol. 63, p. 217-226Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Fredriksson, Hans
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Persson, Stellan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    FlatFlame-brännare i degelugn2001In: Glasteknisk Tidskrift, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 41-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Coppel, L.G.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Eita, M.
    De, Mayolo E.A.
    Arwin, H.
    Wågberg, L.
    Dynamics of moisture interaction with polyelectrolyte multilayers containing nanofibrillated cellulose2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, no 2, p. 496-499Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Grund, Lina
    et al.
    Jonson, Bo
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    The influence of basicity on oxygen activity and antimony oxide fining efficiency in alkali alkaline earth aluminosilicate glasses2009In: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 241-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of bubbles was monitored in antimony oxide fined R 2O-MxOy-SiO2 and R 2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses (R=Na, K; M=Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Zn, B, Al, Ti, x=1 or 2, y=1, 2 or 3) in order to evaluate the fining efficiency. Electrochemical measurements of oxygen activity were used to, in situ, monitor the fining characteristics and conditions in some of the investigated glass melts. The results showed that an increase of the calculated optical basicity was related to an increased number of bubbles in the glass samples. The oxygen activity in the melt during fining decreased with increased optical basicity.

  • 32. Guadagnino, E.
    et al.
    Corumluoglu, O.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Influence of some parameters on the approximation of European Pharmacopoeia and ISO Standard 4802: Reasons for harmonization - a collaborative study of ICG/TC2, `Chemical Durability and Analysis'2000In: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 91-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most widely used Standards to test the inner surface of glass containers for pharmaceutical use, European Pharmacopoeia and ISO 4802, may differ significantly in the results because of relevant differences in the procedures. In this study the rinsing procedures, effect of prolonging the cooling time to 95 °C, as prescribed by EN norms on safe operation practice, and the combination of the two factors were investigated. Nine laboratories participated in the collaborative study, the resulting extract solutions were analyzed both by titration and flame photometry. Results were evaluated by two way ANOVA with the aim of estimating three sources of variation: between procedures, between laboratories and random variation due to experimental error. For soda-lime-silica glass there is evidence that the different procedures influence the hydrolytic resistance of the inner surface of glass containers whichever method is used. Differences between laboratories were, however, much greater and results vary more due to which laboratory conducted the measurement rather than which procedure is employed. For borosilicate glass variations between procedures were found not to be significant. It is strongly recommended that ISO and EP shall adopt measures to minimize those factors that proved to exert great influence on reproducibility of results.

  • 33. Guadagnino, E.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Brochot, D.
    A collaborative study into the determination of boron in glass using x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy2006In: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    XRF spectrometry is extensively used for production factory control because of its high precision and rapidity of response. For very accurate boron determinations in glass, classical wet chemical methods are still the preferred method of choice as the x-ray irradiation of light elements produces only a weak fluorescent response. However, the new generation XRF instruments employing enhanced matrix correction models plus the greater availability of certified reference materials may significantly improve the analytical performance of XRF spectrometers for the determination of "difficult" elements like boron.

  • 34. Guadagnino, E.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Corumluoglu, O.
    A collaborative study on the determination of hexavalent chromium in container glasses: A report of ICGITC2 "Chemical Durability and Analysis"2001In: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 148-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enforcement of the Packaging Directive 62194 has required the development of reliable reference methods for the determination of heavy metals in glass. After considering Pb, Cd and Hg TC2 has undertaken a collaborative study for the determination of hexavelent chromium. In this recommended procedure the glass sample is digested with a mixture of sulphuric acid and ammonium hydrogen fluoride at room temperature, then diphenylcarbazide is added to form a violet complex which is measured with a spectrophotometer. Decomposition efficiency, matrix effect and interferences produced by foreign ions are discussed. For container glasses of common production no alteration of the chromium valence state was highlighted due to the dissolution process. This is not assured for glasses containing other redox pairs that should be examined case by case. The final round robin conducted on a glass containing given amounts of barium, did not reveal any significant absorption of hexavalent chromium on the low soluble salts that are formed during the dissolution process. The method is sensible down to 2 mgCr6+/kg of glass.

  • 35.
    Guo, Juan
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Yin, Jiangping
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Zhang, Yonggang
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Yin, Yafang
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Effects of thermo-hygro-mechanical (THM) treatment on the viscoelasticity of in-situ lignin2017In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 455-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For producing wood products without fractures based on thermo-hygro-mechanical (THM) treatments, it is essential to understand how steaming and compression change the wood softening and cell wall components. In this paper, the effects of compression combined with steam treatment (CS) on the viscoelasticity of the in-situ lignin of Chinese fir has been investigated through dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) under fully saturated conditions. Several variations were studied, such as the softening temperature (Tg) and apparent activation energy (ΔHa) of the softening process in response to CS treatment conditions (such as steam temperature and compression ratio) under separate consideration of earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW). No difference between EW and LW with respect to the viscoelasticity was noted. Tg and ΔHa of the lignin softening were nearly unaffected by the compression ratio, but were highly influenced by the steam temperature. The Tg decreased significantly with CS treatments at or above 160oC, but showed no appreciable change, compared to the native wood, at the lower steaming temperature of 140oC. ΔHa increased at higher steam temperatures, while ΔHa showed a decreasing tendency with decreasing Tg. This indicates that lignin undergoes a simultaneous depolymerization as well as a condensation during CS treatment.

  • 36.
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hale, Sarah
    Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway ; Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway ; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Activated carbon from kraft lignin: A sorbent for in situ remediation of contaminated sediments2017In: Environmental technology and innovation, ISSN 23521864, Vol. 7, p. 160-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new type of activated carbon derived from Kraft lignin, separated from black liquor in the paper pulp process, was evaluated for its use as an alternative sorbent to commercial powdered activated carbons (AC) from anthracite (ACCOAL) or coconut (ACBIO) for remediation in situ of contaminated sediments. Two types of kraft lignins (KL): (1) softwood (SKL), (2) hardwood (HKL) were first evaluated for their sorption to PAHs using assays in water with passive samplers (POMs). Results showed that without further chemical modifications the two kraft lignins tested had lower sorption coefficients than commercial ACCOAL or ACBIO and are not good sorbents for remediation. Following these initial tests a new type of AC derived from softwood (ACSKL) was produced in the lab using activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH) (lignin:KOH, 1:3 by dry weight) and pyrolysis at 700 °C. Sorption properties of the new ACSKL was compared to the other ACs in water spiked with PAHs and in water with PAH-contaminated sediment. Sorption results were also compared to bioavailability measurements, using digestive fluid extraction (DFE) in vitro, a method that mimics the solubilization of contaminants that occurs in the gut of a sediment-ingesting invertebrate. ACSKL was found to have similar surface area, pore volume and sorption coefficients as ACCOAL and ACBIO and thus offers a new potential sorbent for remediation, based on a more renewable biomass-derived source than AC from coal. Sediment amendment with 1% AC-SKL reduced the bioavailability of larger PAHs on average by 54% (measured by DFE), and reduced pore water concentrations of ΣPAH by 80% (measured with passive samplers). Our results show that a new type of AC based on softwood kraft lignin, a renewable and locally produced biomass material, could be used as an alternative sorbent for sediment and water remediation provided it is produced in sufficient amount and at a competitive price compared to other traditional ACs.

  • 37. Hedberg, Y. S.
    et al.
    Pradhan, S.
    Cappellini, F.
    Karlsson, M. -E
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. Department of Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, H. L.
    Odnevall Wallinder, I.
    Hedberg, J. F.
    Electrochemical surface oxide characteristics of metal nanoparticles (Mn, Cu and Al) and the relation to toxicity2016In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 212, p. 360-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most metal nanoparticles (NPs), except noble metal NPs, rapidly form a thin surface oxide in ambient conditions. The protective properties of these oxides improve or worsen depending on the environment, e.g., the human lung. Several properties, including the chemical/electrochemical stability and defect density, determine the capacity of these surface oxides to hinder the bulk metal from further oxidation (corrosion). The aim of this study was to investigate whether electrochemical surface oxide characterization of non-functionalized base metal NPs of different characteristics (Al, Mn and Cu) can assist in understanding their bioaccessibility (metal release) in cell media (DMEM+) and their cytotoxic properties following exposure in lung epithelial (A549) cells. The composition and valence states of surface oxides of metal NPs and their electrochemical activity were investigated using an electrochemical technique based on a graphite paste electrode to perform cyclic voltammetry in buffer solutions and open circuit potential measurements in DMEM+. The electrochemical surface oxide characterization was complemented and verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The open circuit potential trends in DMEM+ correlated well with metal release results in the same solution, and provided information on the kinetics of oxide dissolution in the case of Cu NPs. Extensive particle agglomeration in cell medium (DMEM+) was observed by means of photon-cross correlation spectroscopy for all metal NPs, with sedimentation taking place very quickly. As a consequence, measurements of the real dose of added non-functionalized metal NPs to cell cultures for cytotoxicity testing from a sonicated stock solution were shown necessary. The cytotoxic response was found to be strongly correlated to changes in physico-chemical and electrochemical properties of the surface oxides of the metal NPs, the most potent being Cu NPs, followed by Mn NPs. No cytotoxicity was observed for Al NPs. The electrochemical surface oxide characterization corresponded well with other tools commonly used for nanotoxicological characterization and provided additional information.

  • 38. Heggset, E. B.
    et al.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    ֘yaas, Karin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Novel pretreatment pathways for dissolution of lignocellulosic biomass based on ionic liquid and low temperature alkaline treatment2016In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 93, p. 194-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pretreatment, fractionation and hydrolysis remains costly and challenging process steps in biochemical conversion of softwoods. Here, ionic liquid pretreatment using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM-OAc) at high temperature (100 °C, 6 h) and alkali based (NaOH/urea) pretreatment at sub-zero temperature (−18 °C, 24 h) were compared and combined in studies of Norway Spruce biomass deconstruction. Both treatments significantly improved the enzymatic digestibility of the biomass. EMIM-OAc gave higher glucan than mannan digestibility, indicating a more pronounced effect on the cellulose polymer than on the hemicellulose polymer. In contrast, low temperature alkali pretreatment using NaOH or NaOH + urea gave a more pronounced effect on mannan than on glucan digestibility. By combining the two methods the total monosugar yield after enzymatic hydrolysis was improved by 20–50% as compared to using ionic liquid or alkali based pretreatment alone. Lignin dissolution was low for both methods under the conditions studied.

  • 39. Hynes, M.J.
    et al.
    Forde, S.
    Jonson, Bo
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Element migration from glass compositions containing no added lead2004In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 319, no 1, p. 39-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six crystal glass compositions without added lead were used to prepare standard beakers having a volume of ca. 240 ml. The experimentally determined concentrations of the elements in the glass beakers were in satisfactory agreement with the theoretically predicted values. The degree of leaching of selected elements from these beakers was determined using 4% acetic acid as described in the ISO 7086-1:2000 standard test. In addition, to the degree of leaching by 4% acetic acid, migration into cola, red wine, 40% ethanol and 0.3% citric acid was also determined. Elements tested included antimony, barium, bismuth and zinc as these were considered to be of most interest. The results show that it is possible to produce durable glass containing no added lead. The overall quality of the glasses was good and the concentrations of the various elements migrating (leaching) into the various test solutions used was very small and it is clear that they would not present a hazard to consumers in the event that they were to use glasses of any of these compositions for consumption of either alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverages. The original ISO7086-1:2000 test using a 4% acetic acid leaching solution was developed to test for lead migration from crystal containing added lead and ceramic ware containing lead glazes or colouring. This work also shows that it is an excellent leaching agent for assessing the safety of crystal containing no added lead as it gave the highest degree of migration for all the glass compositions and all the elements tested. In the case of glasses containing ZnO, it was shown that the degree of zinc migration was linearly related to the mole-% of ZnO in the glass. With respect to the durability of glasses, it was shown that the degree of attack increases when the degree of silica depolymerisation increases. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 40.
    Iotti, M.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Lenes, M.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Gregersen, Ø.
    Rheological studies of nanofibrillar cellulose water dispersions for industrial applications2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Gagne, Alain
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Kouisni, Lamfeddal
    FPInnovations, Canada ; University Mohammed VI Polytechnic, Marocco.
    Liitia, Tiina
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland.
    Mikkelson, Atte
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland.
    Paleologou, Michael
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Andersson, Sofia Regnell
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Tamminen, Tanja
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland.
    Mitigating trade barriers by standardized determination of lignin molar mass2017In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017, Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi , 2017, p. 98-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RISE Bioeconomy, FPInnovations and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd are working on a draft for an official ISO method for the determination of lignin molar mass. The draft will include two methods that can be used by different laboratories as reference methods, which are based on organic and aqueous size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Four samples of kraft lignin of different origin were analysed by three laboratories using the current in-house methods as well as a harmonised analytical setup. It was clear that the results differed largely between the different methods, for example, the weight average molar mass (Mw) for the LignoForce softwood lignin (LF-SW) ranged from 3,300 t0 11,100g/mol using the different methods. Harmonisation of aqueous SEC was successful. The method comprises SEC using 0l.1M sodium hydroxide as the mobile phase, a mobile phase flow rate of 0.5mL/min, Waters columns MCX 1,000A and 100,000A in series and calibration/calculation using polystyrene sulphonate standards using a linear fit. However, organic SEC was more complex and would require further investigations. Although the aqueous SEC analysis was repeatable, it was concluded that a strategy for data evaluation should be developed in order to achieve a method applicable for quality assessments.

  • 42. Jafarzadeh, S.
    et al.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. Department of Chemistry Surface and Corrosion Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Sundell, P. -E
    Tyrode, E.
    Pan, J.
    Active corrosion protection by conductive composites of polyaniline in a UV-cured polyester acrylate coating2016In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 90, p. 154-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyaniline doped with phosphoric acid (PANI-PA) was synthesized and characterized by impedance and Raman spectroscopy. Exposure to UV-light resulted in a slight decrease in the PANI's electrical conductivity and no significant change in the oxidation state (of an emeraldine salt). Composite coatings containing 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt.% PANI-PA in a UV-curable polyester acrylate (PEA) resin were prepared and applied on polished carbon steel. Closely packed PANI-PA particles of several tens of nanometers were observed inside the composite coating by scanning electron microscopy, and a connected conductive network across the film was detected by Peak Force TUNA atomic force microscopy. The evolution of open circuit potential and impedance data during long-term exposure to 3 wt.% NaCl electrolyte revealed that the short-term barrier-type corrosion protection provided by the insulating PEA coating can be turned into a long-term and active protection by addition of as little as 1 wt.% PANI-PA to the formulation. Stable ennoblement in the corrosive media was observed for the coatings containing conducting polymer up to 3 wt.%. However, higher content of PANI-PA (5 wt.%) led to poorer protective properties, probably due to the hydrophilicity of PANI-PA facilitating water transport in the coating and the presence of potentially weaker spots in the film. An iron oxide layer was found to fully cover the metal surface beneath the coatings containing PANI-PA after final failure observed by electrochemical testing.

  • 43. Javed, Asif
    et al.
    Ullsten, Henrik
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Järnström, Lars
    Study of starch and starch-PVOH blends and effects of plasticizers on mechanical and barrier properties of coated paperboard2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 499-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties of self-supporting films based on starch-plasticizer and starch-PVOH-plasticizer and the barrier properties of paperboard coated with solutions of these polymers have been studied. The plasticizers used were glycerol, polyethylene glycol and citric acid. It was shown that the addition of a plasticizer and PVOH to starch substantially increases the flexibility of starch films. It was seen that curing the self-supporting films led to a decrease in flexibility. After heat-treatment, a substantial increase in storage modulus was observed only in the starch-PVOH-citric-acid blend films. Tensile tests on the films indicate that citric acid did not cause any noticeable phase separation. Citric acid acted as a compatibilizer for starch-PVOH blends even though a similar enrichment of PVOH at the air-solid interface was observed with both citric acid and polyethylene glycol as plasticizer. The properties of barrier coatings greatly reflected the compatibility of starch-PVOH blends containing citric acid. The only plasticizer that resulted in a lower water vapour transmission rate through the starch and starch-PVOH coatings was citric acid, which suggests that cross-linking took place. With four layers, coatings based of starch-PVOH possessed the same oxygen- transmission rate with citric acid as without citric acid.

  • 44.
    Johansson, Lars Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Optimised glass composition for improved production efficiency and glass quality1999In: International Glass Journal, ISSN 1123-5063, no 102, p. 138-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By use of data from both our own measurements in different Glafo projects and from literature its is possible to calculate optimised compositions. The main point is to be able to calculate the viscosity in a sufficiently exact way. This is possible by separating glass in different well defined glass systems. Comparisons between calculated data and measuring test results are made.

  • 45. Jonson, Bo
    et al.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Devitrification and dilatometric properties of low Tg unleaded silicate glasses2013In: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 108-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Candidate lead free glass enamels have been sought within the glass system described in general terms by the mole fractions 0·25R 2O.0·16(R'O, R2"O3). 0·59SiO2 where R=Li, Na, K; R'=Ba, Zn and R"=B, Bi. Glass compositions containing high mole fractions of Li2O were found to devitrify when they were heated to temperatures up to 530°C typical for the procedure used when fusing enamels to tableware glasses. The devitrification characteristics are complex and several peaks atributed to crystallisation were found by DSC characterisation. The thermal expansion coefficient(α) within the system ranges from 11-14×10-6 K-1 and the glass transition temperatures(Tg) between 410-460°C. The measured data could be fitted to the chemical composition by multiple regression analysis with a general equation of the form:(α, Tg)=K(α/T g)+Σ(cR×fR) in which K is a constant, c is the oxide mole fraction and f is an oxide specific factor. The statistical analysis correlation coefficients(r2) were around 0·9.

  • 46. Kaombe, D.D.
    et al.
    Lenes, M.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Toven, K.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Hägg, M.-B.
    Glomm, W. R.
    Turbiscan as a tool for studying phase separation tendency of pyrolysis oil2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Jonson, Bo
    Johansson, Marie
    Enquist, Bertil
    The effect of single-side ion exchange on the flexural strength of plain float glass and float glass containing a drilled hole2013In: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 66-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of single-side ion exchange (using a KNO3:KCl mixture) on the ring-on-ring flexural strength of float glass has been studied. Two ion exchanged series, treated at 450 and 515°C, were investigated. The ion exchanged samples showed approximately 160 respectively 100% increases in their arithmetic mean strength compared to as-received float glass. Furthermore, a series of samples containing drilled holes were studied in order to investigate the effect of singleside ion exchange on such common construction elements. The samples that contained drilled holes were ion exchanged at 450°C and showed around 140% increase of the fracture load compared to the untreated samples containing drilled holes. As a general observation, the ion exchange treatment induced ∼110 MPa compressive stresses (515°C) and ∼180 MPa compressive stresses (450°C). The ion exchanged samples showed no significant increase in stiffness.

  • 48.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Jonson, Bo
    Reibstein, Sindy
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Surface ruby colouring of float glass by sodium-copper ion exchange2013In: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 100-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, colouration of the tin side of commercial soda-lime-silica float glass by copper ion exchange is described and characterised. Data on the resulting concentration versus depth profiles, absorbance versus depth profiles, UV-Vis spectra and CIE-Lab colour coordinates are reported. Fundamental aspects of the process of colouration are described and discussed. Optimum saturation of the colour is achieved after ion exchange at 520°C for 10 h or at 500°C for 20 h. The depth of the coloured layer increases with increasing treatment time. At the same time, a linear dependency is found between the values of a and b in the CIE-Lab colour space for variations of treatment time and temperature. The later indicates broad tunability of colouration between different shades of ruby and varying colour saturation. It is shown that colour arises from a redox reaction between copper species and residual tin ions, and that the depth of the coloured layer is governed by the position of the tin hump. The critical concentration of tin and copper to achieve colour formation was found to be ∼0·25 mol% and >1 mol%, respectively.

  • 49.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Jonson, Bo
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    The technology of chemical glass strengthening: A review2010In: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 41-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The methods of chemical strengthening for improving the mechanical properties of oxide glasses are reviewed. Chemical strengthening is compared with thermal strengthening and different methods of measuring strength are discussed. Different ions, salts and other related methods for improving the ion exchange process and mechanical properties are described as well as applications of strengthening.

  • 50.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Jonson, Bo
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Surface analysis of float glass using surface ablation cell (SAC).: Part 2. Determination of the diffusion characteristics of K+-Na+ ion exchange2010In: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 55-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface ablation cell (SAC), a laboratory equipment for determining surface concentration profiles, has been utilised to characterise surface ion exchange processes in float glass. In this paper, single-side ion exchange is reported. Data on the ion concentration profiles were used to calculate diffusion coefficients as well as the activation energy for K +-Na+ ion exchange. The air-sides of float glass samples were treated with two different salt mixtures, (I) 2:1 KNO3:KCI, and (II) 1:2 KNO3:KCl, (both by weight), and heated to different temperatures below Tg, 460-520°C. The diffusion coefficients calculated using a Green's function approach were in the ranges (I) 1.4×10-11 to 6.8×10-11 and (II) 1.8×10-11 to 6.0×10-11 cm2/s while those calculated using Boltzmann-Matano were in the ranges (I) 5.7×10 -11 to 14×10-12 and (II) 3.4×10-12 to 6.0×10-12 cm2/s. Average values of the activation energies obtained through the Green's function were (I) 111.0 kJ/mol and (II) 99.8 kJ/mol for the different salt mixtures.

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