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  • 1.
    Abugabbara, Marwan
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gehlin, Signhild
    Swedish Geoenergy Center, Sweden.
    Lindhe, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden; Alfa Laval Corporate AB, Sweden.
    Axell, Monica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Holm, Daniel
    Vasakronan AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Hans
    Umeå ProjektEnergi AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Mattsson, Annika
    Granitor Properties, Sweden.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Vasakronan AB, Sweden.
    Puttige, Anjan
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Berglöf, Klas
    ClimaCheck Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Claesson, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hofmeister, Morten
    VIA University College, Denmark.
    Janson, Ulla
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jensen, Axel
    Region Midtjylland,Denmark; Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Termén, Jens
    Energy Machines, Sweden.
    Javed, Saqib
    Lund University, Sweden.
    How to develop fifth-generation district heating and cooling in Sweden?: Application review and best practices proposed by middle agents2023Ingår i: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 9, s. 4971-4983Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has an ambitious plan to fully decarbonise district heating by 2030 and to contribute with negative emissions of greenhouse gases in 2050. The vagaries of the energy market associated with climate, political, and social changes entail cross-sectoral integration that can fulfill these national targets. Fifth-generation district heating and cooling (5GDHC) is a relatively new concept of district energy systems that features a simultaneous supply of heating and cooling using power-to-heat technologies. This paper presents best practices for developing 5GDHC systems in Sweden to reach a consensus view on these systems among all stakeholders. A mixed-method combining best practice and roadmapping workshops has been used to disseminate mixed knowledge and experience from middle agents representing industry professionals and practitioners. Four successful implementations of 5GDHC systems are demonstrated and the important learned lessons are shared. The best practices are outlined for system planning, system modeling and simulation, prevailing business models for energy communities, and system monitoring. A roadmap from the middle agents’ point of view is composed and can be utilised to establish industry standards and common regulatory frameworks. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 2.
    Amiandamhen, Stephen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Adl-Zarrabi, Bijan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yin, Haiyan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Recycling sawmilling wood chips, biomass combustion residues, and tyre fibres into cement-bonded composites: Properties of composites and life cycle analysis2021Ingår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 297, artikel-id 123781Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the properties and sustainability of cement-bonded composites containing industrial residues such as wood chips, tyre fibres and biomass combustion residues, i.e. bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA). The effect of cement-to-raw material (wood/tyre fibre) ratio (C/RM) and the aggregate content (BA and FA) on thermal and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and life cycle analysis (LCA) were also conducted. The results revealed that as the aggregate content increased in wood composites, the mechanical properties also increased. The mean thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of tyre composite samples were 0.37 W/mK and 1.2 MJ/m3K respectively, while the respective values for wood composite samples were 0.29 W/mK and 0.81 MJ/m3K. SEM analysis showed adequate bonding between wood/tyre fibres and cement matrix. LCA revealed that the materials share of the total primary energy use was about 60% for all analysed composites. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 3.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Methanol production via pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification: Techno-economic comparison of integrated vs. stand-alone production2014Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 64, s. 256-268Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective with this work was to investigate techno-economically the opportunity for integrated gasification-based biomass-to-methanol production in an existing chemical pulp and paper mill. Three different system configurations using the pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification (PEBG) technology were studied, one stand-alone plant, one where the bark boiler in the mill was replaced by a PEBG unit and one with a co-integration of a black liquor gasifier operated in parallel with a PEBG unit. The cases were analysed in terms of overall energy efficiency (calculated as electricity-equivalents) and process economics. The economics was assessed under the current as well as possible future energy market conditions. An economic policy support was found to be necessary to make the methanol production competitive under all market scenarios. In a future energy market, integrating a PEBG unit to replace the bark boiler was the most beneficial case from an economic point of view. In this case the methanol production cost was reduced in the range of 11-18 Euro per MWh compared to the stand-alone case. The overall plant efficiency increased approximately 7%-units compared to the original operation of the mill and the non-integrated stand-alone case. In the case with co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers, an equal increase of the system efficiency was achieved, but the economic benefit was not as apparent. Under similar conditions as the current market and when methanol was sold to replace fossil gasoline, co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers was the best alternative based on received IRR.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Tamm, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Berg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Bio-CCS från biogasanläggningar2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    BECCS from biogas production

    Global CO₂ emissions amount to about 40 Gtonnes/year and they need to be rapidly reduced if we are to meet adopted climate targets. To achieve this, a variety of measures is needed, such as more electrification, reduced use of fossil energy, more renewable energy, energy efficiency improvements and CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage). However, this will not be enough, but will also require so-called negative emissions, which means that CO₂ is removed from the atmosphere through, for example, increased afforestation, increased carbon storage in soil (e.g. biochar), or by capturing and storing CO₂ of biogenic origin in geological formations, also known as bio-CCS or BECCS. At global level, the need for negative emissions is estimated to be in the order of several billion tonnes of CO₂ per year if it shall be possible to reach the 1.5-degree target and net zero emissions by 2050. At national level, Sweden’s target is to achieve net zero emissions by 2045 and from then on to be climate positive. This means that territorial emissions from the 1990 level must be reduced by at least 85% by 2045 and that the remaining 15 % will be eliminated by means of so-called supplementary measures including bio-CCS as an important measure.

    The need for bio-CCS is significant and the actors who can deliver biogenic CO₂ at the right quality and at low cost will have good business opportunities in an expected future global marketplace for negative emissions. With this project, we have investigated the opportunities CO₂ from biogas production has to contribute to bio-CCS in Sweden. At biogas plants that produce vehicle gas, there is already equipment to separate CO₂ from biogas, so-called upgrading technologies. By modifying and extending this technology, pure liquid CO₂ can be generated. The CO₂ is then transported to terminals in Swedish ports while waiting for transport by ship to the place for permanent storage.

    The project has studied gas purification and liquefaction based on the four most common upgrading techniques: water scrubber, PSA (pressure swing adsorption), membrane separation and amine scrubber. The residual gas (the CO₂-rich gas leaving the upgrading equipment) differs between different upgrading technologies, which affects the need for subsequent purification steps. Results from modelling and simulation have led to two proposed technology chains. For amine scrubbers, a simple process of compression, drying and liquefaction is sufficient to achieve the CCS specification of the liquid CO₂. PSA, membranes and water scrubbers require more advanced gas purification including a two-phase separation and recirculation of gases with low dew point, such as O₂ and CH4. The recirculated gas is recycled to the inlet of the upgrading process, leading to the double benefit of increased amount of valuable CH₄ product and further reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. A side effect is that the need for conventional residual gas management is eliminated.

    Cost calculations have been carried out for biogas plants with a production capacity of 20, 50 and 120 GWh/year. With an availability of 95% and a CO₂ content of 39% in raw biogas (gas before upgrading), this equates to a CO₂ production of 2,400, 5,900 and 14,200 tons/year, respectively. A starting point for the study has been that systems for large-scale bio-CCS/CCS will be established and that this will lead to the construction of several CO₂ terminals in Swedish ports. Furthermore, it is assumed that these terminals allow third-party access where a supplementary volume of biogenic CO₂ from biogas plants can constitute a portion of the total managed amount. Around each terminal, clusters of biogas plants are estimated to emerge, which each can deliver approximately 20,000–100,000 tons CO₂ per year. The distribution from biogas plants to port terminals may be done by truck transport where the loading capacity amounts to 34 tons of CO₂. After the terminal, CO₂ is transported by ship to the place for permanent storage.

    The cost of producing liquid CO₂ from biogas depends on local conditions such as CO₂ flow, O₂ content, upgrading technology, new or existing plant, transport distance to terminal, etc. In order to determine what the cost will be for each individual biogas plant, it is necessary to adapt the calculations to local conditions. Through the project, generic calculations have been carried out which show that large biogas plants have good opportunities to produce liquid CO₂ at competitive costs, but also that there is a strong scaling effect. For example, the cost is about SEK 200–300/tonne CO₂ for new plants with 120 GWh in annual biogas production. With investment support, the cost drops to about SEK 150–200/tonne. For new plants in the intermediate segment (50 GWh/year), the cost is slightly higher, SEK 300–450/tonne (without capital grants) and SEK 190–275/tonne (with capital grants). For smaller plants (20 GWh/year), the cost rises significantly, especially for water scrubbers.

    The transport cost up to the terminal is affected by the distance and amount of CO₂ handled. For example, the cost of truck transport from larger biogas plants is about SEK 200/tonne at 100 km one-way to terminal. The total cost of bio-CCS from biogas including terminal handling, ship transport and final storage is affected by many parameters and there are uncertainties in cost estimates along the entire chain. In a calculation example for a biogas plant with membrane upgrading, 100 km of truck transport one way to terminal in Gothenburg and transport and final storage according to Northern Light's concept, the total cost was estimated at SEK 830–1020/tonne CO₂ for larger biogas plants (120 GWh/year).

    When the bio-CCS from biogas is introduced, negative emissions arise from two sources, firstly from the final storage itself, which is the main part, and secondly by reducing CH₄ emissions from the upgrading plants, which is a smaller, but not negligible part. The total CO₂ efficiency of the value chain is determined by energy consumption, transport distance, selected storage solution and CH₄ slip before the introduction of bio-CCS. Emissions from truck transport are small in this context. In total, CO₂ efficiency in many cases amounts to close to 100%, i.e. net emissions in the value chain up to final storage are close to zero. For plants that initially had relatively high CH₄ emissions from the upgrading unit, the climate benefit is even greater, with CO₂ efficiency throughout the chain being well over 100%.

    A driving hypothesis in the project has been that CO₂ from biogas can be the CO₂ stream in society that is one of the lowest-hanging fruits and that the value chain is well placed to be more cost-effective than other concepts for bio-CCS. Based on the results of the project, we can conclude that the hypothesis is likely to hold. The cost up to the terminal will in many cases likely be lower compared to capture and liquefaction from large point sources. With efficient technology and distribution solutions, biogas producers should be able to contribute to bio-CCS to a fairly large extent, up to about 10% of Sweden's need for negative emissions. For biogas operators, this would mean a broadening of the business where CO₂ is seen as a valuable product which complements the revenues from the production of biomethane. 

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  • 5.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Saagi, Ramesh
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wärff, Christoffer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Värmeåtervinning ur avloppsvatten: Energiåtervinning och påverkan på avloppssystemet2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppvärmning av tappvarmvatten utgör lejonparten av den totala energianvändningen i den urbana vattencykeln, upp till 90 procent. Uppskattningar visar att 780 till 1 150 kWh per person och år används i svenska hushåll i form av varmvatten. Denna energi hamnar huvudsakligen i avloppsvattnet. Variationerna i varmvattenanvändning är stora och det går att göra besparingar på brukarnivå. Ändå finns det stor potential för energieffektivisering genom värmeåtervinning ur avloppsvatten med värmeväxlare och värmepumpar.

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  • 6.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillämpad mekanik.
    Bacquart, Thomas
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Schröter, Karin
    EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Switzerland.
    Carré, Martine
    Air Liquide, France.
    Gozlan, Bruno
    Air Liquide, France.
    Beurey, Claire
    Air Liquide, France.
    Blondeel, Claire
    Air Liquide, France.
    Detection of contaminants in hydrogen fuel for fuel cell electrical vehicles with sensors—available technology, testing protocols and implementation challenges2022Ingår i: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe’s low-carbon energy policy favors a greater use of fuel cells and technologies based on hydrogen used as a fuel. Hydrogen delivered at the hydrogen refueling station must be compliant with requirements stated in different standards. Currently, the quality control process is performed by offline analysis of the hydrogen fuel. It is, however, beneficial to continuously monitor at least some of the contaminants onsite using chemical sensors. For hydrogen quality control with regard to contaminants, high sensitivity, integration parameters, and low cost are the most important requirements. In this study, we have reviewed the existing sensor technologies to detect contaminants in hydrogen, then discussed the implementation of sensors at a hydrogen refueling stations, described the state-of-art in protocols to perform assessment of these sensor technologies, and, finally, identified the gaps and needs in these areas. It was clear that sensors are not yet commercially available for all gaseous contaminants mentioned in ISO14687:2019. The development of standardized testing protocols is required to go hand in hand with the development of chemical sensors for this application following a similar approach to the one undertaken for air sensors. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 7.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Francini, Lorena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Sampling methods for renewable gases and related gases: challenges and current limitations2022Ingår i: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 414, s. 6285-6294Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable gases, hydrogen and biomethane can be used for the same applications as natural gas: to heat homes, power vehicles and generate electricity. They have the potential to contribute to the decarbonisation of the gas grid. Hydrogen blending with existing natural gas pipelines is also proposed as a means to increase the performance of renewable energy systems. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) and carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) technologies can be an answer to the global challenge of significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Due to production methods, these gases typically contain species in trace amounts that can negatively impact the equipment they come into contact with or pipelines when injected into the gas grid. It is therefore necessary to ensure proper (and stable) gas quality that meets the requirements set out in the relevant standards. The gas quality standards require the collection and transport of a representative gas sample from the point of use to the analytical laboratory; i.e., no compounds may be added to or removed from the gas during sampling and transport. To obtain a representative sample, many challenges must be overcome. The biggest challenge is material compatibility and managing adsorption risks in the sampling systems (sampling line and sampling vessels). However, other challenges arise from the need for flow measurement with non-pure gases or from the nature of the matrix. Currently, there are no conclusive results of short-term stability measurements carried out under gas purity conditions (suitable pressure, matrix, appropriate concentrations, simultaneous presence of several species). © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 8.
    Aslanidou, Ioanna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Zaccaria, Valentina
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Rahman, Moksadur
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Oostveen, Mark
    Micro Turbine Technology bv, Netherlands.
    Olsson, Tomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Towards an Integrated Approach for Micro Gas Turbine Fleet Monitoring, Control and Diagnostics2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the Global Power and Propulsion Society (GPPS) Forum 2018, Zurich, Switzerland, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Belov, Ilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Nordh, Andreas
    Zigrid AB, Sweden.
    Salomonsson, Kent
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Fin‐Tube and Plate Heat Exchangers – Evaluation ofTransient Performance2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Beurey, Claire
    et al.
    Air Liquide Paris Innovation Campus, France .
    Gozlan, Bruno
    Air Liquide Paris Innovation Campus, France .
    Carré, Martine
    Air Liquide Paris Innovation Campus, France .
    Bacquart, Thomas
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Morris, Abigail
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Moore, Niamh
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Meuzelaar, Heleen
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Persijn, Stefan
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Rojo, Andres
    Centro Español de Metrología, Spain.
    Murugan, Arul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Review and Survey of Methods for Analysis of Impurities in Hydrogen for Fuel Cell Vehicles According to ISO 14687:20192021Ingår i: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 8, artikel-id 615149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaseous hydrogen for fuel cell electric vehicles must meet quality standards such as ISO 14687:2019 which contains maximal control thresholds for several impurities which could damage the fuel cells or the infrastructure. A review of analytical techniques for impurities analysis has already been carried out by Murugan et al. in 2014. Similarly, this document intends to review the sampling of hydrogen and the available analytical methods, together with a survey of laboratories performing the analysis of hydrogen about the techniques being used. Most impurities are addressed, however some of them are challenging, especially the halogenated compounds since only some halogenated compounds are covered, not all of them. The analysis of impurities following ISO 14687:2019 remains expensive and complex, enhancing the need for further research in this area. Novel and promising analyzers have been developed which need to be validated according to ISO 21087:2019 requirements.  © 2021 Beurey, Gozlan, Carré, Bacquart, Morris, Moore, Arrhenius, Meuzelaar, Persijn, Rojo and Murugan.

  • 11.
    Björnsson, Lars-Henrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Edvall, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Persson, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Strandberg, Ted
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektrifiering och pålitlighet.
    Emmanouilidis, Dimitris
    Axess Logistics, Sweden.
    Envik, Christel
    Axess Logistics, Sweden.
    Löfqvist, Jonas
    Axess Logistics, Sweden.
    Örn, Mattias
    Axess Logistics, Sweden.
    Renström, Håkan
    CTEK, Sweden.
    Svedlund, Jerry
    CTEK, Sweden.
    Laddinfrastruktur och frekvensreglering: en fallstudie2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att elnätet ska fungera måste frekvensen hållas inom snäva gränser och därför handlar Svenska Kraftnät upp olika typer av stödtjänster för frekvensreglering. De senaste åren har kostnaderna för dessa tjänster ökat kraftigt, bland annat till följd av en allt högre andel intermittent elproduktion. Behoven är prognostiserade att öka ytterligare under de kommande åren. Detta har skapat ett ökat intresse för batterier och deras möjligheter att stödja elnätet. Men batterier och tillhörande kraftelektronik är kostsamt. Samtidigt finns en stor och alltjämt växande batterikapacitet i landets elbilar och med hjälp av dubbelriktad laddning, så kallad vehicle-to-grid öppnas nya möjligheter att komma åt denna potential för att på ett mer resurseffektivt sätt balansera elnätet. Projektets övergripande mål har varit att utreda hur standardisering kan användas för att påskynda och öka användandet av elbilar som resurs för flexibilitetstjänster till elnätet. Bland annat har en fallstudie genomförts av Axess Logistics anläggning i Malmö hamn och möjligheterna för att deras långtidsparkerade elbilar ska kunna leverera frekvensreglering till elnätet har studerats. Resultaten visar på att studerade standarder i stort inte utgör ett direkt hinder för användandet av elbilar för frekvensreglering men att förändringar av exempelvis ISO15118 skulle kunna öka möjligheterna att använda elbilar för att leverera frekvensreglering. Till exempel genom införande av krav på mätnoggrannhet på aktiv effekt, förkortning av tillåtna svarstider, krav på lokal frekvensmätning med god noggrannhet. För långtidsparkerade bilar vore det framförallt värdefullt att arbeta fram, och i standard beskriva, en funktion där elbilens BMS kan uppmanas av EVSE att hålla batteriet i ett tillstånd där det kan användas för att snabbt svara på en begäran om i-/urladdning. Detta så att elbilen kan vara förberedd för frekvensreglering även om den för stunden inte aktivt laddar eller matar effekt till elnätet. Detta en åtgärd som skulle kunna ha stor positiv påverkan på möjligheterna för långtidsparkerade elbilar att leverera frekvensreglering. Exemplifierande användarcykler för långtidsparkerade bilar har studerats för FCR-N och FCR-D. Resultaten visar att den förväntade cyklingen skiljer stort mellan dessa olika frekvensregleringstjänster och antyder att valet av frekvensregleringstjänst behöver studeras utifrån både förväntad ekonomi och eventuellt batterislitage. Överslagsräkningar på eventuella intäkter från deltagande i frekvensreglering har genomförts och de preliminära resultaten visar att investering av dyrare laddinfrastruktur som klarar Vehicle-to-Grid skulle kunna återbetalas inom ett år med 2022 års nivåer av ersättning för frekvensreglering. I en framtid där nya elbilar antas ha stöd för Vehicle-to-Grid har potentialen för att använda långtidsparkerade elbilar på logistikanläggningar till frekvensreglering preliminärt bedömts ligga mellan 110 och 165 MW för svenska förhållanden. Detta motsvarar ca 5-8% av den nordiska FCR-marknaden. På sikt kan också långtidsparkerade bilar hos återförsäljare, flygplatser med mera att utgöra en betydande potential.

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  • 12.
    Björnsson, Lars-Henrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Morell, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    van Noord, Michiel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Pettersson, Ida
    Ecogain, Sweden.
    En kartläggning av solcellsparker i Sverige 20212022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to map the largest groundbased solar farms in Sweden to better understand how they are usually designed; on what type of land they are built and how they can interact with other types of activities such as agriculture and measures to improve conditions for biodiversity. Mid-2021, the typical solar farm with at least 1 MW installed power is built on arable land, can be restored and, as a rule, avoids protected and designated natural areas according to this study, which is mainly based on survey responses. Solar panels are typically directed to the south with a 30-35 degree tilt and are anchored with piles. Generally, the distance between the rows is greater than 3 meters. The most common factors determining the location of the park are the costs for land purchases/leases and proximity to electricity grid. About half of the facilities surveyed are combined with some measure intended to benefit biodiversity. Combining the photovoltaic system with grazing (25%) or cultivation (10%) is still relatively uncommon. The results show that there is an awareness of issues related to biodiversity and opportunities to combine photovoltaic installations with other activities. The increasing pace of expansion of photovoltaic capacity suggests that a deeper understanding of how photovoltaic systems are best adapted to their surroundings will increase in importance.

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  • 13. Boman, Christoffer
    et al.
    Nordin, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Westerholm, R.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Evaluation of a constant volume sampling setup for residential biomass fired appliances: Influence of dilution conditions on particulate and PAH emissions2005Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 258-268Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased concerns about particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) emissions from residential biomass combustion and their potential health effects, motivates detailed emission measurements under controlled conditions. Traditional sampling in raw flue gases can suffer from drawbacks mainly related to transient flows and the condensable nature of organic compounds. Whole flow dilution with constant volume sampling (CVS) is an alternative method but different sampling conditions may, however, influence the emission characteristics. The objective was to design a CVS system for emission measurements in residential biomass fired appliances and determine the influence of dilution sampling conditions on the characteristics and distributions of PM and PAH. Softwood pellets were combusted in a pellet stove with variations in; dilution ratio (3-7x), sampling temperature (45-75°C), dilution tunnel residence time (2-4 s) and fuel load (2.3 and 4.8 kW) according to a statistical experimental design. The sampling conditions did not influence either the emission concentrations of PM, CO and NO or the particle size distribution. Variations in residence time had no significant effect on any studied emission parameter. However, increased concentrations of organic gaseous carbon (OGC) and PAH were observed with increased dilution ratio. The distribution between particulate and semivolatile phase was influenced for 12 of the 37 analyzed PAH compounds, mainly by increased fractions of semivolatile material at higher sampling temperature. No influence of sampling temperature was observed for the concentrations of PAHtot or the dominating PAH compounds, i.e. phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The results together with practical considerations also suggest sampling at 50±5°C and 3-4 times dilution as robust and applicable conditions in the presently designed setup. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14. Boman, Christoffer
    et al.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Westerholm, R.
    Bostrom, D.
    Nordin, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Stove performance and emission characteristics in residential wood log and pellet combustion: Part 1: Pellet stoves2011Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 307-314Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stove performance, characteristics, and quantities of gaseous and particulate emissions were determined for two different pellet stoves, varying fuel load, pellet diameter, and chimney draft. This approach aimed at covering variations in emissions from stoves in use today. The extensive measurement campaign included CO, NOx, organic gaseous carbon, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total particulate matter (PMtot) as well as particle mass and number concentrations, size distributions, and inorganic composition. At high load, most emissions were similar. For stove B, operating at high residual oxygen and solely with primary air, the emissions of PMtot and particle numbers were higher while the particles were smaller. Lowering the fuel load, the emissions of CO and hydrocarbons increased dramatically for stove A, which operated continuously also at lower fuel loads. On the other hand for stove B, which had intermittent operation at lower fuel loads, the emissions of hydrocarbons increased only slightly lowering the fuel load, while CO emissions increased sharply, due to high emissions at the end of the combustion cycle. Beside methane, dominating VOCs were ethene, acetylene, and benzene and the emissions of VOC varied in the range 1.1-42 mg/MJfuel. PAH emissions (2-340 μg/MJfuel) were generally dominated by phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The PM tot values (15-45 mg/MJfuel) were in all cases dominated by fine particles with mass median diameters in the range 100-200 nm, peak mobility diameters of 50-85 nm, and number concentrations in the range 4 × 1013 to 3 × 1014 particles/MJfuel. During high load conditions, the particulate matter was totally dominated by inorganic particles at 15-25 mg/MJfuel consisting of potassium, sodium, sulfur, and chlorine, in the form of K2SO4, K 3Na(SO4)2, and KCl. The study shows that differences in operation and modulation principles for the tested pellet stoves, relevant for appliances in use today, will affect the performance and emissions significantly, although with lower scattering in the present study compared to compiled literature data. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  • 15.
    Borgqvist, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Ågren, Thomas
    ICA Fastigheter, Sweden.
    Westman, Bo
    INCERT, Sweden.
    Swartz, Harry
    Hållbar miljö & strategi, Sweden.
    Certifierad energikonsult livsmedelsbutiker2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna förstudie har undersökt förutsättningarna för en frivillig, ej ackrediterad certifiering av energikonsulter för livsmedelsbutiker. Det långsiktiga målet är att butiker med hjälp av certifierade energikonsulter skall få effektiva och kvalitativa energikartläggningar som innefattar såväl fastighetens som verksamhetens energianvändning och hur de olika delarna kan samverka för största möjliga energieffektivisering.

    Det finns en mycket stor potential att spara energi i butiker. Dagens genomsnittsbutik kan minska sin energianvändning med en tredjedel. Idag finns också en ökad miljömedvetenhet hos svenska livsmedelsbutiker, och med ett större behov av kyld mat har energifrågorna fått en allt större betydelse. Medlemmar i BELIVS Innovationskluster har länge efterfrågat en certifiering av energikonsulter för livmedelsbutiker, som utgår ifrån beställarnas behov. Detta för att öka andelen butiker med låg energianvändning, säker drift och liten miljöpåverkan.

    Förstudiens resultat består av; identifierade behov ur ett beställarperspektiv, en kravspecifikation som beskriver certifieringens kompetenskrav, en beskrivning av hur en certifiering är tänkt att gå till, samt ett exempel på hur ett certifieringsprov kan se ut. Dessutom har fyra stycken testcertifieringar genomförts, där exempelprovet har testats av energikonsulter. Tanken är att förstudiens resultat skall kunna användas som underlag för att ta fram ett färdigt certifieringsprogram.

    Den generella slutsatsen från förstudien är att certifieringen av energikonsulter för livsmedelsbutiker är genomförbar, men beställarna behöver efterfråga certifieringen i sina upphandlingar av konsulter om denna skall slå på marknaden. Baserat på diskussioner med representanter från konsultsidan, bedömer projektgruppen att det finns ett intresse för certifieringen så länge beställarna kommer att efterfråga detta. Att få fler beställare bakom den föreslagna certifieringen är den viktigaste åtgärden i ett nästa steg.

    RISE har drivit projektet tillsammans med INCERT, ICA Fastigheter, Coop och Hållbar Miljö & Strategi. Projektgruppen har haft kontakt med Bergendahls och Axfood vilka har deltagit vid enstaka arbetsmöten.

    Finansiärer av förstudien är Energimyndigheten, INCERT, ICA Fastigheter, Coop samt Bergendahls.

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  • 16. Brus, E.
    et al.
    Ohman, M.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Nordin, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Bostrom, D.
    Hedman, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Eklund, A.
    Bed agglomeration characteristics of biomass fuels using blast-furnace slag as bed material2004Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 1187-1193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agglomeration of bed material may cause severe operating problems during fluidized bed combustion. The attack or coating layers that are formed on the bed particles during combustion play an important role in the agglomeration process. To reduce bed agglomeration tendencies, alternative bed materials may be used. In this paper, bed agglomeration characteristics during the combustion of biomass fuels using a relatively new bed material (iron blast-furnace slag) as well as ordinary quartz sand were determined. Controlled agglomeration tests lasting 40 h, using five representative biomass fuels (bark, olive residue, peat, straw, and reed canary grass) were conducted in a bench-scale fluidized bed. The bed materials and agglomerates were analyzed using SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction. Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed to interpret the experimental findings. The results showed that blast-furnace slag had a lower tendency to agglomerate than quartz sand for most of the fuels. The quartz particles showed an inner attack layer more often than did the blast-furnace slag. The blast-furnace slag had a lower tendency to react with elements from the fuel. The outer coating layer had similar characteristics and thickness for both bed materials when the same fuel was combusted. However, the inner attack layer thickness was larger for quartz particles. SEM/EDS analyses of the agglomerates showed that the inner Ca-K-silicate-rich attack layer was responsible for the agglomeration of quartz sand. The composition of blast-furnace slag agglomerate was similar to the outer coating layer. Chemical equilibrium calculations showed that the original composition of the blast-furnace slag was close to the equilibrium composition, and hence there was no major driving force for reactions between that bed material and K and Ca from the fuel. The homogeneous silica-rich attack layer (with a low melting temperature) was not formed to the same extent for blast-furnace slag, thus explaining the lower bed agglomeration tendency. © 2004 American Chemical Society.

  • 17.
    Bräck, Thomas
    et al.
    Meva Energy, Sweden.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Hedman, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Sepman, Alexeu
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Replace fossil gas in industrial burners with renewable biogas2018Ingår i: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018: proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland , 2018, s. 73-73Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Gronberg, C.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Risberg, M.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Öhrman, Olov .G.W
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Spatially resolved measurements of gas composition in a pressurised black liquor gasifier2009Ingår i: Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1944-7442, E-ISSN 1944-7450, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 316-323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Black liquor gasification is a new process for recovery of energy and chemicals in black liquor from the Kraft pulping process. The process can be combined with catalytic conversion of syngas into motor fuels. The potential for motor fuel production from black liquor in Sweden is to replace about 25% of the current consumption ofgasoline and diesel. For Finland the figure is even higher while for Canada it is about 14% and for the USA about 2%. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 28: 316-323, 2009.

  • 19.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Iisa, K
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Computational fluid dynamics simulations of raw gas composition from a black liquor Gasifier: Comparison with experiments2011Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 25, nr 9, s. 4122-4128Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressurized entrained flow high temperature black liquor gasification can be used as a complement or a substitute to the Tomlinson boiler used in the chemical recovery process at kraft pulp mills. The technology has been proven on the development scale, but there are still no full scale plants. This work is intended to aid in the development by providing computational tools that can be used in scale up of the existing technology. In this work, an existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model describing the gasification reactor is refined. First, one-dimensional (1D) plug flow reactor calculations with a comprehensive reaction mechanism are performed to judge the validity of the global homogeneous reaction mechanism used in the CFD simulations in the temperature range considered. On the basis of the results from the comparison, an extinction temperature modification of the steam-methane reforming reaction was introduced in the CFD model. An extinction temperature of 1400 K was determined to give the best overall agreement between the two models. Next, the results from simulations of the flow in a 3 MW pilot gasifier with the updated CFD model are compared to experimental results in which pressure, oxygen to black liquor equivalence ratio, and residence time have been varied. The results show that the updated CFD model can predict the main gas components (H 2, CO, CO2) within an absolute error of 2.5 mol %. CH 4 can be predicted within an absolute error of 1 mol %, and most of the trends when process conditions are varied are captured by the model. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  • 20.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center. SINTEF Energy Research AS, Norway.
    Ma, Charlie
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Molinder, Roger
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öhrman, Olov .G.W
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Slag formation during oxygen-blown entrained-flow gasification of stem wood2014Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 28, nr 11, s. 6941-6952Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stem wood powders were fired in a mullite-lined pilot-scale oxygen-blown pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. During repeated campaigns involving increases in fuel load and process temperature, slag formations that eventuated in the blockage of the gasifier outlet were observed. These slags were retrieved for visual and chemical characterization. It was found that the slags had very high contents of Al and, in particular, high Al/Si ratios that suggest likely dissolution of the mullite-based refractory of the gasifier lining due to interactions with the fuel ash. Possible causes for the slag formation and behavior are proposed, and practical implications for the design of future stem wood entrained-flow gasifiers are also discussed.

  • 21.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Experiments and mathematical models of black liquor gasification: Influence of minor gas components on temperature, gas composition, and fixed carbon conversion2010Ingår i: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 9, nr 9, s. 15-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, predictions from a reacting Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of a gasification reactor are compared to experimentally obtained data from an industrial pressurized black liquor gasification plant. The data consists of gas samples taken from the hot part of the gasification reactor using a water cooled sampling probe. During the considered experimental campaign, the oxygen-to-black liquor equivalence ratio (λ was varied in three increments, which resulted in a change in reactor temperature and gas composition. The presented numerical study consists of CFD and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations in the considered λ-range using boundary conditions obtained from the experimental campaign. Specifically, the influence of methane concentration on the gas composition is evaluated using both CFD and thermodynamic equilibrium. The results show that the main gas components (H 2, CO, CO2) can be predicted within a relative error of 5% using CFD if the modeled release of H2S and CH4 are specified a priori. In addition, the calculations also show that the methane concentration has large influence on the reactor outlet temperature and final carbon conversion.

  • 22.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Grönberg, C.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Lidman, M.
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Experimental investigation of an industrial scale black liquor gasifier: Part 1: The effect of a reactor operation parameters on product gas composition2010Ingår i: Fuel, Vol. 89, s. 4025-4034Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Cea, B.
    et al.
    Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Fraboulet, I.
    Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Feuger, O.
    Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Hugony, F.
    ENEA, Italy.
    Morreale, C.
    Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per l'Industria S.r.l, Italy.
    Migliavacca, G.
    Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per l'Industria S.r.l, Italy.
    Andersen, J. S.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Warming-Jespersen, M. G.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Development and Evaluation of an Innovative Method Based on Dilution to Sample Solid and Condensable Fractions of Particles Emitted by Residential Wood Combustion2021Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 35, nr 23, s. 19705-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An innovative and simple method based on dilution, named as the dilution chamber (DC), allowing the measurement of solid and condensable fractions of particulate matter emitted by residential wood combustion appliances has been developed, and its performances have been evaluated. The DC method was then tested by five European institutes (Ineris, ISSI/ENEA, DTI, and RISE) on advanced residential wood log/pellet stoves, under nominal output and low output combustion conditions and using different fuel types. The aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of the DC method to collect the condensable fraction. The DC method was compared with another manual method used to collect the solid and condensable fractions at the same time, the dilution tunnel (DT), on four sampling platforms. A third method, a combining heated filter and impinger filled in with isopropanol collection (SPC-IPA), was also used by Ineris only for comparison with the DC method. PM measurements based on the DC method globally showed a linear correlation with PM measurements based on DT (R2 ranged between 0.81 and 0.99, p < 0.05) specifically for the residential wood stoves under low output conditions when the condensable fraction contributes the most. An analysis and quantification of PAHs related to the total mass of PM of samples taken by the DC method and performed by ENEA/ISSI showed that it produces a condensation effect of semivolatile species comparable or even greater than the DT method. PM emission factors calculated from PM measurements based on the DC method were (i) about 2- to 20-fold higher for the residential wood stoves (EF ranged between 201 to 2420 g GJ-1) compared to those obtained for the residential pellet stoves (EF ranged between 108 to 556 g GJ-1) and (ii) of the same magnitude of PM emission factors from the literature or the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook.

  • 24. Chacha, N.
    et al.
    Toven, K.
    RISE., Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Mtui, G.
    Katima, J.
    Mrema, G.
    Steam pretreatment of pine (Pinus patula) for fuel ethanol production in Tanzania2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Chen, Tao
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Sjöblom, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ström, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    A reactor-scale CFD model of soot formation during high-temperature pyrolysis and gasification of biomass2021Ingår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 303, artikel-id 121240Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soot generation is an important problem in high-temperature biomass gasification, which results in both air pollution and the contamination of gasification equipment. Due to the complex nature of biomass materials and the soot formation process, it is still a challenge to fully understand and describe the mechanisms of tar evolution and soot generation at the reactor scale. This knowledge gap thus motivates the development of a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) soot formation algorithm for biomass gasification, where the soot precursor is modeled using a component-based pyrolysis framework to distinguish cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The model is first validated with pyrolysis experiments from different research groups, after which the soot generation during biomass steam gasification in a drop-tube furnace is studied under different operating temperatures (900–1200 °C) and steam/biomass ratios. Compared with the predictions based on a detailed tar conversion model, the current algorithm captures the soot generation more reasonably although a simplified tar model is used. Besides, the influence of biomass lignin content and the impact of tar and soot consumptions on the soot yield is quantitatively studied. Moreover, the impact of surface growth on soot formation is also discussed. The current work demonstrates the feasibility of the coupled multiphase flow algorithm in the prediction of soot formation during biomass gasification with strong heat/mass transfer effects. In conclusion, the model is thus a useful tool for the analysis and optimization of industrial-scaled biomass gasification. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 26.
    Cornander, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Emissionfree non-road mobile machinery2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Jonasson, Anna
    E.ON., Sweden.
    Vatten RUI, Marius Haakon
    NOAH.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Tekedo, Sweden.
    Östrem, Sofie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Minimering av vätgasrelaterade risker från avfallseldade CFB-pannor2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns driftparametrar som påverkar reaktiviteten på flygaskan från avfallseldade CFB-pannor. Det finns också goda skäl att tänka ett par varv extra kring säkerhetsfrågor i miljöer där dessa askor kommer i kontakt med, eller har kommit i kontakt med, vatten! Det är tidigare känt att askor från avfallseldade CFB-pannor kan bilda vätgas när de kommer i kontakt med vatten. Det övergripande syftet med projektet har varit att minska de vätgasrelaterade arbetsmiljöriskerna förknippade med dessa flygaskor samt att öka kunskapsnivån kring de vätgasrelaterade riskerna generellt. Projektet har undersökt vilka driftparametrar och mekanismer som kan påverka vätgasbildningen både sett till mängd och hastighet, undersökt mängden metalliskt aluminium i askor/beläggningar i pannan samt att genomfört en grovriskanalys för en tänkt logistikkedja med båt. Undersökningarna har fokuserats till P14 och P15 vid E.ON:s Händelöverk. Resultaten visade bland annat att det i litteraturen finns väldigt lite information direkt relaterad till frågeställningen i CFB-pannor. Istället får slutsatser och teorier byggas kring litteratur som hanterar närliggande frågeställningar i andra miljöer. De experimentella resultaten indikerar att det finns en skillnad i reaktivitet i flygaskan mellan de båda pannorna och att val av bäddmaterial är en driftparameter som tycks kunna påverka reaktiviteten. Vid inblandning av ilmenit i bäddmaterialet tycktes den maximala vätgasbildningen sjunka och/eller bli mer fördröjd i tiden. De övriga driftfall som studerades var: dellast, varierande tillsats av ammoniak i SNCR systemet samt lagring/åldring av aska i NID-filtret (rökgasreningen) när en del av filtret är ur drift. Det finns indikationer på att dessa driftfall också kan ha påverkan, men dataunderlaget är för litet för att med säkerhet fastslå något. Det tycks dock svårt att förutom med bäddmaterial påverka reaktiviteten med bibehållen funktion i driften i övrigt. Ask/beläggningsprover från olika delar av pannorna visade att halten metalliskt aluminium i ekonomiser är fullt jämförbar med de efter NID-filtret och därmed är det stor risk för vätgasbildning vid våt rengöring av dessa delar. God ventilation och utbildningsinsatser för att öka medvetenheten är viktiga rekommendationer för att minska/hantera risken. Slutsatserna från grovriskanalysen logistikkedjan lyfter faran med att generalisera vätgasbildningen från askorna eftersom den varierar så kraftigt. Det är också viktigt att ta hänsyn till att vätgasbildningen kan vara fördröjd och inte initieras förrän askan utsätts för mekanisk bearbetning. Den mekaniska bearbetningen utgör också en risk utifrån att den kan initiera gnistbildning. Denna gnistbildning kan i sin tur agera som tändkälla för bildad gas.

  • 28.
    Dimitriadis, Athanasios
    et al.
    CPERI & CERTH, Greece.
    Bergvall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Bezergianni, Stella
    CPERI & CERTH, Greece.
    Tourlakidis, Nikos
    CPERI & CERTH, Greece.
    Meca, Ludek
    Ranido sro, Czech Republic.
    Kukula, Pavel
    Ranido sro, Czech Republic.
    Raymakers, Leonard
    HyET Hydrogen BV, Netherlands.
    Biomass conversion via ablative fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing towards refinery integration: Industrially relevant scale validation2023Ingår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 332, artikel-id 126153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the use of fossil fuels is an ongoing and important effort considering the environmental impact and depletion of fossil-based resources. The combination of ablative fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing is explored as a pathway allowing bio-based intermediates (BioMates) integration in underlying petroleum refineries. The proposed technology is validated in industrially relevant scale, identifying pros and cons towards its commercialization. Straw from wheat, rye and barley was fed to ablative fast pyrolysis rendering Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil (FPBO) as the main product. The FPBO was stabilized via slurry hydroprocessing, rendering a stabilized FPBO (sFPBO) with 49 % reduced oxygen content, 71 % reduced carbonyl content and 49 % reduced Conradson carbon residue. Fixed bed catalytic hydroprocessing of sFPBO resulted in the production of BioMates, a high bio-content product to be co-fed in established refinery units. Compared to the starting biomass, BioMates has 83.6 wt% C content increase, 92.5 wt% O content decrease, 93.0 wt% water content decrease, while the overall technology has 20 wt% conversion yield (32 wt% carbon yield) from biomass to BioMates. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 29.
    Eneqvist, Erica
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Karlsson, Annelie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Vem är förorenare?: Allokering av utsläpp från energiåtrevinning2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    De intervjuade aktörerna ser avfallsminskning som en viktig men relativt ”ny” fråga. Tidigare har den dominerande frågan inom avfallsområdet varit sortering. Aktörerna är också intresserade av nyckeltal och statistik som visar såväl mängder av avfall som klimatpåverkan och ser att detta kan vara relevant att arbeta med.

    Målet med projektet har varit att undersöka attityder hos prioriterade målgrupper avseende på: 

    1. Avfallslämnarens roll och möjligheter att påverka mängden avfall. 
    2. Behovet och nyttan av att visualisera avfallslämnarens klimatpåverkan genom ett mätetal.
    3. Möjligheter kopplat till att fördela klimatutsläppen från energiåtervinning av avfall mellan energiprodukterna och avfallstjänsten.

    Syftet med arbetet har varit att undersöka attityder kring ovanstående frågor för att skapa en bättre förståelse för hur Avfall Sverige och Energiföretagen kan kommunicera kring omallokeringsfrågan till aktörer och intressenter inom prioriterade sektorer. Arbetet skall ligga till grund för en fortsatt diskussion kring avfallets klimatpåverkan och en eventuell förändring av fördelningen av klimatpåverkan mellan avfall och fjärrvärme. 

    Arbetet har genomförts genom ett antal intervjuer med huvudaktörer: avfallslämnare i form av civilsamhälle (kommuner, fastighetsägare), avfallslämnare i form av industri samt myndigheter och intresseorganisationer. 

    När det gäller en förändring av hur klimatpåverkan allokeras, från värme- och elkunden till avfallslämnaren är det en större skepticism som råder bland respondenterna. Det är flera aktörer som lyfter frågetecken kring en allokering av klimatpåverkan till avfallslämnaren. Argumenten rör att man inte tror att det har effekt för avfallsminskning utan att det är en krånglig väg för att uppnå en kommunikation kring avfallets klimatpåverkan. Det finns också farhågor kring allokering av klimatpåverkan till avfallslämnaren i form av att det är ett försök att göra fjärrvärmens klimatpåverkan lägre. Frågetecken lyfts kring huruvida det verkligen är avfallsminimering som är det yttersta syftet. 

    Det finns bland flera aktörer en önskan om att fjärrvärmeanläggningarna ska ställa större krav på avfallet som bränsle. Att anläggningarna genom kravställning sätter press på kommuner och andra avfallslämnare att sortera bättre och på så sätt minska avfallsmängderna. 

    Det finns också en skepticism mot att allokera klimatpåverkan till hushållen. Man menar att det inte är de som har påverkan på de stora utsläppen, och att de inte riktigt kan styra över avfallet. Att det snarare är till produktionsledet som klimatpåverkan bör räknas, och att det här är möjligt att påverka de stora mängderna. Det är flera respondenter som återkommer till industrins roll, och de som styr över exempelvis förpackningarna som sedan når hushållen. 

    Avfallsminimering och energiåtervinning är komplexa frågor och för att komma vidare i diskussionen kring avfallslämnarens roll, visualisering av klimatpåverkan från avfall samt en eventuell omfördelning av klimatutsläppen mellan energiprodukterna och avfallstjänsten föreslås två övergripande kommunikationsstrategier: 

    1. Höja kunskapsnivån
    2. Öka diskussionen om en förändring av klimatallokeringen
  • 30.
    Eriksen, Jon
    et al.
    Kunnskapsbyen Lillestrøm, Norway; Hystorsys, Norway.
    Gjerløv, Jan Carsten
    Kunnskapsbyen Lillestrøm, Norway.
    Vik, Kristian E.
    Kunnskapsbyen Lillestrøm, Norway.
    Halvorsen, Bjørn Gregert
    NEL Hydrogen, Norway.
    Rambeck, Eric Lyche
    Oslo kommune, Norway.
    Rød, Benjamin Myklebust
    ZERO, Norway.
    Wiberg, Erik
    Vätgas Sverige, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Björn
    Vätgas Sverige, Sweden.
    Aleryd, Henrik
    Innovatum, Sweden.
    Svedhem, S.
    Innovatum, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    The Blue Move for a Green Economy : Mulighetsstudie for hydrogen produksjon,industri, lagring og distribusjon 2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Blue Move har utarbeidet en rapport som belyser 12 ulike muligheter for produksjon, industri, lagring og distribusjon av hydrogen i ØKS-regionen.

    Rapporten belyser ogs viktigheten av lav elavgift for hydrogenproduksjon gjennom beregninger gjort for en nyetablert hydrogenstasjon.

    Interreg-prosjektet Blue Move arbeider for å fremme økt bruk av fornybar energi som erstatning for fossile drivstoff i ØKS-regionen. Mulighetsstudien som er samlet i denne rapporten ser nærmere på hvilke produksjonsmetoder som er mest relevante, relatert til tilgjengelig fornybar kraft. Videre beskriver den hvordan hydrogenet kan anvendes utover veitransport, og på hvilken måte det kan ha betydning for veitransport at det også kommer andre anvendelsesområder.

  • 31. Eriksson, D.
    et al.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Hedman, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Stenberg, M.
    Öhrman, Olov .G.W
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Lestander, T.A.
    Bergsten, U.
    Ohman, M.
    Characterization of Scots pine stump-root biomass as feed-stock for gasification2012Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 104, s. 729-736Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective was to explore the potential for gasifying Scots pine stump-root biomass (SRB). Washed thin roots, coarse roots, stump heartwood and stump sapwood were characterized (solid wood, milling and powder characteristics) before and during industrial processing. Non-slagging gasification of the SRB fuels and a reference stem wood was successful, and the gasification parameters (synthesis gas and bottom ash characteristics) were similar. However, the heartwood fuel had high levels of extractives (≈19%) compared to the other fuels (2-8%) and thereby ≈16% higher energy contents but caused disturbances during milling, storage, feeding and gasification. SRB fuels could be sorted automatically according to their extractives and moisture contents using near-infrared spectroscopy, and their amounts and quality in forests can be predicted using routinely collected stand data, biomass functions and drill core analyses. Thus, SRB gasification has great potential and the proposed characterizations exploit it. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 32. Eriksson, G.
    et al.
    Hedman, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Bostrom, D.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Backman, Rainier
    Ohman, M.
    Combustion characterization of rapeseed meal and possible combustion applications2009Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 23, nr 8, s. 3990-3939Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A future shortage of biomass fuel can be foreseen. The production of rapeseed oil for a number of purposesis increasing, among others, for biodiesel production. A yproduct from the oil extraction process is rapeseed meal (RM), presently used as animal feed. Further increases in supply will make fuel use an option. Several energy companies have shown interest but have been cautious because of the scarcity of data on fuel properties, which led to the present study. Combustion-relevant properties of RM from several producers have been determined. The volatile fraction (74 ± .06%wt ds) is comparable to wood; the moisture content (6.2-11.8%wt) is low; and the ash content (7.41 ± 0.286%wt ds) is high compared to most other biomass fuels. The lower heating value is 18.2 ± 0.3 MJ/kg (dry basis). In comparison to other biomass fuels, the chlorine content is low (0.02-0.05%wt ds) and the sulfur content is high (0.67-0.74%wt ds). RM has high contents of nitrogen (5.0-6.4%wt ds), phosphorus (1.12-1.23%wt ds), and potassium (1.2-1.4%wt ds). Fuel-specific combustion properties of typical RM were determined through combustion tests, with an emphasis on gas emissions, ash formation, and potential ash-related operational problems. Softwood bark was chosen as a suitable and representative co-combustion (woody) fuel. RM was added to the bark at two levels: 10 and 30%wt ds. These mixtures were pelletized, and so was RM without bark (for durability mixed with cutter shavings, contributing 1%wt of the ash). Each of these fuels was combusted in a 5 kWfluidized bed and an underfed pellet burner (to simulate grate combustion). Pure RM was combusted in a powder burner. Emissions of NO and SO2 were high for all combustion tests, requiring applications with flue gas cleaning, economically viable only at large scale. Emissions of HCl were relatively low. Temperatures for initial bed agglomeration in the fluidized-bed tests were high for RM compared to many other agricultural fuels, thereby indicating that RM could be an attractive fuel from a bed agglomeration point of view. The results of grate combustion suggest that slagging is not likely to be severe for RM, pure or mixed with other fuels. Fine-mode particles from fluidized-bed combustion and grate combustion mainly contained sulfates of potassium, suggesting that the risk of problems caused by deposit formation should be moderate. The chlorine concentration of the particles was reduced when RM was added to bark, potentially lowering the risk of high-temperature corrosion. Particle emissions from powder combustion of RM were 17 times higher than for wood powder, and the fine-mode fraction contained mainly K-phosphates known to cause deposits, suggesting that powder combustion of RM should be used with caution. A possible use of RM is as a sulfur-containing additive to biomass fuels rich in Cl and K for avoiding ash-related operational problems in fluidized beds and grate combustors originated from high KCl concentrations in the flue gases © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  • 33.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Palm, Johannes
    Sigma Energy & Marine AB, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Pär
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Moura Paredes, Guilherme
    Universidade Lusófona do Porto, Portugal.
    Sensitivity analysis of extreme loads acting on a point-absorbing wave energy converter2022Ingår i: International Marine Energy Journal, ISSN 2631-5548, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 91-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many uncertainties associated with the estimation of extreme loads acting on a wave energy converter (WEC). In this study we perform a sensitivity analysis of extreme loads acting on the Uppsala University (UU) WEC concept. The UU WEC consists of a bottom-mounted linear generator that is connected to a surface buoy with a taut mooring line. The maximum stroke length of the linear generator is enforced by end-stop springs. Initially, a Variation Mode and Effect Analysis (VMEA) was carried out in order to identify the largest input uncertainties. The system was then modelled in the time-domain solver WEC-SIM coupled to the dynamic mooring solver Moody. A sensitivity analysis was made by generating a surrogate model based on polynomial chaos expansions, which rapidly evaluates the maximum loads on the mooring line and the end-stops. The sensitivities are ranked using the Sobol index method. We investigated two sea states using equivalent regular waves (ERW) and irregular wave (IRW) trains. We found that the ERW approach significantly underestimate the maximum loads. Interestingly, the ERW predicted wave height and period as the most important parameters for the maximum mooring tension, whereas the tension in IRW was most sensitive to the drag coefficient of the surface buoy. The end-stop loads were most sensitive to the PTO damping coefficient.

  • 34.
    Folkeson, Björn
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Vattenanvändning med energieffektiva blandare2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the short and long term impacts of domestic hot and cold water use and associated energy use when replacing conventional faucets in 100 apartments with energy efficient faucets labeled with energy class A-B according to the Swedish energy labeling system. The study included a behavioural study to increase the understanding of the users’ perception of the faucets and to investigate the underlying reasons for acceptance of the installed products.

     

    The results showed a reduction in domestic hot water use and energy use for domestic hot water of 28 %. No reduction of cold water use could be identified although changes in occupancy of the apartments might have contributed to this result. The savings in hot water use did not diminish over the measurement period.

     

    The acceptance of the energy efficient faucets did not increase over time, which was likely due to the lack of feedback on the assumption that the faucets provided the indicated savings. It was also indicated that the perception of the faucets differed between contexts in the home. The acceptance was also found to be linked to factors that could not be isolated from the faucet and its function.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    RISE-rapport 2017:50 Vattenanvändning med energieffektiva blandare - Teknisk rapport
  • 35.
    Fooladgar, Ehsan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Brackmann, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mannazhi, Manu
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ögren, Yngve
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Bengtsson, Per-Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Tóth, Pal
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi. University of Miskolc, Hungary.
    CFD modeling of pyrolysis oil combustion using finite rate chemistry2021Ingår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 299, artikel-id 120856Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the first Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model developed for biomass pyrolysis oil spray combustion using Finite-Rate Chemistry (FRC) approach. To make the CFD calculations feasible, a reduced mechanism for modeling the combustion of biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (FPO) based on the POLIMI 1412 mechanism and a model for eugenol oxidation was developed. The reduced mechanism consisted of 200 reactions and 71 species. This level of complexity was found to be a good tradeoff between predictive power and computational cost such that the reduced model could be used in CFD modeling. The predictive power of the reduced mechanism was demonstrated via 0D (adiabatic, premixed, constant pressure reactor), 1D (laminar counterflow flame) and 3D (CFD of a methane-air flat-flame piloted FPO spray flame) calculations. Results from CFD were compared against experimental data from non-intrusive optical diagnostics. The reduced model was successfully used in CFD calculations—the computational cost was approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of a simplified model. Using the reduced mechanism, the concentration of pollutants, minor combustion products, and flame radicals could be predicted—this is added capability compared to already existing models. The CFD model using the reduced mechanism showed quantitative predictive power for major combustion products, flame temperature, some pollutants and temperature, and qualitative predictive power for flame radicals and soot. © 2021 The Authors

  • 36. Gabra, M.
    et al.
    Ohman, M.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Kjellstrom, B.
    Alkali retention/separation during bagasse gasification: A comparison between a fluidised bed and a cyclone gasifier2001Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 461-476Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass fuelled integrated gasification/gas turbines (BIG/GTs) have been found to be one of the most promising technologies to maximise electricity output in the sugar industry. However, biomass fuels contain alkali metals (Na and K) which may be released during the gasification processes and cause deleterious effects on the downstream hardware (e.g. the blades of gas turbines). Much research has therefore been focused on different kinds of gas cleaning. Most of these projects are using a fluidised bed gasifier and includes extensive gas cleaning which leads to a high capital investment. Increasing alkali retention/separation during the gasification may lead to improved producer gas quality and reduced costs for gas cleaning. However, very little quantitative information is available about the actual potential of this effect. In the present work, comparative bench-scale tests of bagasse gasification were therefore run in an isothermal fluidised bed gasifier and in a cyclone gasifier to evaluate which gasification process is most attractive as regards alkali retention/separation, and to try to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the retention. The alkali retention in the fluidised bed gasifier was found to be in the range of 12-4% whereas in the cyclone gasifier the alkali separation was found to be about 70%. No significant coating of the fluidised bed's bed material particles could be observed. The SEM/EDS and the elemental maps of the bed material show that a non-sticky ash matrix consisting of mainly Si, Al and K were distributed in a solid form separated from the particles of bed material. This indicates the formation of a high temperature melting potassium containing silicate phase, which is continuously scavenged and lost from the bed through elutriation. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 37. Gabra, M.
    et al.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Backman, Rainier
    Kjellstrom, B.
    Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue: Part 1: Gasification of bagasse2001Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 351-369Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for avoiding excessive amount of alkali compounds and carryover particles in producer gas from gasification of sugar cane residue has been studied and evaluated. The cane sugar residue is gasified in a two-stage combustor at atmospheric pressure, where the first stage is a cyclone gasifier. The cyclone works as particle separator as well. This paper covers the results obtained for gasification of bagasse. Bagasse powder was injected into the cyclone with air and steam as transport medium. The gasification tests were made with two feeding rates, 39 and 52 kg/h. Seven experiments were conducted with the equivalence ratio being varied. The heating values of the producer gas are sufficient for stable gas turbine combustion. About 60-70% of the alkali input with fuel was separated from the producer gas in the cyclone. However the total alkali contents of the producer gas was found to be higher than in ABB Stal PFBC gas turbines and at least an order of magnitude higher than what is required by most gas turbine manufacturers for operation of a gas turbine. The carryover particles concentrations in the producer gas were found to be in the range of that for PFBC gas turbines, but higher than what is required by most gas turbine manufacturers for operation of a gas turbine. Samples studied with scanning electronic microscope give indication that most of the carryover particles are below 10 μm in size. Fly ash-melting tests have not shown any major ash melting up to 1200°C, but it was found that some of the particles entrained with producer gas were partially melted. Integrated experiments with a gas turbine need to be done for accurate evaluation of the possibilities to use the producer gas from the gasification of bagasse to run a gas turbine without problems of hard deposits and corrosion on the turbine blades. In part 2 of this two-part paper the results from cane trash gasification tests are reported. © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 38. Gabra, M.
    et al.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Backman, Rainier
    Kjellstrom, B.
    Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue: Part 2: Gasification of cane trash2001Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 371-380Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Part 1 of this two-part paper, results from gasification of bagasse in a cyclone gasifier have been reported. In this paper results from gasification of cane trash in the same cyclone gasifier are presented. The cane trash powder is injected into the cyclone with air as transport medium. The gasification tests were made with two feeding rates, 39 and 46 kg/h at two equivalence ratios of 0.25 and 0.20 and the gasification temperature ranging from 820°C to 850°C. It was found that the heating value of the producer gas is in the range of 4.5-4.8 MJ/Nm3(dry gas), which is sufficient for stable gas turbine combustion. Significant alkali separation has been achieved in the cyclone stage. However, the alkali levels and carryover particle concentrations in the producer gas were found to be higher than allowable in a gas turbine. Despite high ash melting temperatures found by the TGA-DTA, deposition problems cannot be excluded since some carryover panicles in the producer gas seem to have been melted and since some gasification of K and Na compounds is indicated. As an overall assessment, cane trash appears as a more problematic fuel than bagasse for this application. Integrated experiments with a gas turbine need to be done for accurate evaluation of the possibilities to use the producer gas from the gasification of cane trash to run a gas turbine without problems of hard deposits and corrosion on the turbine blades. © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 39.
    Gebart, Bo Rikard
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Carlsson, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Grönberg, C.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Öhrman, Olov
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Recent advances in the understanding of pressurized black liquor gasification.2011Ingår i: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, Vol. 45, s. 521-526Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Risks with hydrogen in underground facilities2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    RISE has previously studied alternative fuels, such as batteries and gaseous fuels including liquid and compressed hydrogen (GH2). Each fuel has its unique risks. Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is a cryogenic fluid and is thus stored in cooled liquid form, which entails specific risks. The purpose of this report is to, based on the current state of research, map the risks of hydrogen in underground facilities in relation to conventional fuels and investigate which technical measures can be taken to reduce the risks. Unlike diesel, hydrogen (and for instance methane or gasoline) has such a low flash point that an emission can be ignited at normal temperature by a small ignition source. Hydrogen is also very buoyant, with strong diffusion and dispersion characteristics, accordingly it accumulates at high points in a subsurface environment. Hydrogen requires very low energy to ignite at or near stoichiometric mixing with air at around 30%. The lower flammability limit is, compared to other flammable fuel/air mixtures high at around 4%, which means that many smaller releases in ventilated spaces will be too lean. Explosions would require a higher hydrogen concentration, above 8% or more. In subsurface environments, containment contributes to a higher increase in pressure, as well as an increased risk of explosion for both GH2 and LH2. The handling of hydrogen underground can therefore be seen as problematic. When it comes to hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, however, there are safety measures to achieve equivalent safety with conventional vehicles. For example, the shut-off valve (mandatory in regulation) on each tank that reduces the risk of leakage, and through the development of explosion-free composite tanks (not mandatory in regulation) in the event of fire that provide a less dangerous fire scenario than a diesel or gasoline tank in case of fire. When it finally comes to transporting hydrogen, pipelines are the long-term sustainable (and safe) alternative. Transport of compressed hydrogen gives a low amount of gas per trailer and entails relatively higher risks than CNG underground, for example in tunnels. The usage of liquid hydrogen, so far, has an impressive safety record, events like BLEVE or fireballs appear to be rare. The transport of liquid hydrogen provides a larger amount of hydrogen per trailer (than for compressed hydrogen) with a relatively lower risk than, for example, LNG in the open, but a slightly higher risk for explosion of accumulated gas compared to GH2 in enclosed spaces. The safety requirements for transport of compressed hydrogen are less stringent than for road vehicles, e.g., with regard to shut-off valves and melt-fuses and could be improved. Several risk mitigation measures for tunnels and other underground facilities have been identified.

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  • 41.
    Godio, Michele
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Laboratory low-transmissivity tests on natural rock fracture under varying normal load2022Ingår i: Programme of Geological Society of Sweden 150 year Anniversary meeting., 2022Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited available data on natural rock fractures with low hydraulic transmissivity. In this study, we measured the transmissivity of a granite specimen with a 200×200 mm naturally-induced closed fracture under varying normal load. We repeated the measurements after opening the fracture to investigate how this affects its transmissivity. At each stage, we ensured laminar flows by setting Reynolds numbers << 1. Finally, we resorted to the parallel-plate theory to obtain the equivalent hydraulic aperture, that we compared to the mechanical aperture derived from the observed deformation.

  • 42. Gullberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Spray characterization of twin fluid external mix atomization of pyrolysis oil.2012Ingår i: Atomization and Sprays, Vol. 22, s. 897-919Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Habib, Mustapha
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ohlson Timoudas, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Ding, Yiyu
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Nord, Natasa
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Chen, Shuqin
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Wang, Qian
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Uponor AB, Swedenz§.
    A hybrid machine learning approach for the load prediction in the sustainable transition of district heating networks2023Ingår i: Sustainable Cities and Society, E-ISSN 2210-6715, Vol. 90, artikel-id 104892Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Current district heating networks are undergoing a sustainable transition towards the 4th and 5th generation of district heating networks, characterized by the integration of different types of renewable energy sources (RES) and low operational temperatures, i.e., 55°C or lower. Due to the lower temperature difference between supply and return, it is necessary to develop novel methods to understand the loads accurately and provide operation scenarios to anticipate demand peaks and increase flexibility in the energy network, both for long- and short-term horizons. In this study, a hybrid machine-learning (ML) method is developed, combining a clustering pre-processing step with a multi-input artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict heat loads in buildings cluster-wise. Specifically, the impact of time-series data clustering, as a pre-processing step, on the performance of ML models was investigated. It was found that data clustering contributes effectively to the reduction of data training costs by limiting the training processes to representative clusters only instead of all datasets. Additionally, low-quality data, including outliers and large measurement gaps, are excluded from the training to enhance the overall prediction performance of the models.

  • 44. Haggstrom, C.
    et al.
    Ohrman, O.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Rownaghi, A.A.
    Hedlund, J.
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Catalytic methanol synthesis via black liquor gasification2012Ingår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 94, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuel production from gasified black liquor is an interesting route to decrease green house gas emissions. The only pressurised black liquor gasifier currently in pilot operation is located in Sweden. In this work, synthesis gas was taken online directly from this gasifier, purified from hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds and for the first time catalytically converted to methanol in a bench scale equipment. Methanol was successfully synthesised during 45 h in total and the space time yield of methanol produced at 25 bar pressure was 0.16-0.19 g methanol/(g catalyst h). The spent catalyst exposed to gas from the gasifier was slightly enriched in calcium and sodium at the inlet of the reactor and in boron and nickel at the outlet of the reactor. Calcium, sodium and boron likely stem from black liquor whereas nickel probably originates from the stainless steel in the equipment. A slight deactivation, reduced surface area and mesoporosity of the catalyst exposed to gas from the gasifier were observed but it was not possible to reveal the origin of the deactivation. In addition to water, the produced methanol contained traces of hydrocarbons up to C 4, ethanol and dimethyl ether. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 45.
    Hallquist, Lukas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Alguren, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Kalkylverktyg – Hållbarhetseffekter av Ljus som tjänst2022Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom projektet Hinder och drivkrafter för cirkulär belysning som RISE har genomfört med projektparterna Brighteco, Chalmers industriteknik, Castellum, Tierpsbyggen och LED Lease, finansierat med hjälp av Energimyndigheten, har RISE tagit fram ett kalkylverktyg för att beräkna hållbarhetseffekter av affärsmodellen ljus som tjänst.

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  • 46.
    Haugen, N. E. L.
    et al.
    SINTEF Energy Research, Norway.
    Bugge, M.
    SINTEF Energy Research, Norway.
    Mack, A.
    Stuttgart University, Germany.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU, Norway.
    Skreiberg, Ø.
    Bed Model for Grate-Fired Furnaces: Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling and Comparison to Experiments2022Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 36, nr 11, s. 5852-5867Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed but still central processing unit (CPU)-efficient bed model for grate-fired combustion of biomass and waste is developed. Simulations of wood chip combustion are performed, and the results are compared to experiments. The so-called layer model is used to track the development of the thermally thick representative fuel particles in the bed. As an efficient way of handling a large number of physical fuel particles, each representative fuel particle represents a number of physical particles with the exact same properties. The motion of the fuel bed is handled in a way that requires negligible CPU power, while for wastes and other fuels with less defined shapes and structure, it still yields accuracy similar to the much more CPU-intensive collision-based models. In this work, the bed model is coupled with ANSYS Fluent and used to simulate one of the test campaigns performed at the grate-fired pilot unit at the University of Stuttgart. It is found that for the test campaign of interest, burning wood chips, the fuel bed is ignited from below, and it is explained how this is due to the thermal properties of the grate and how important the numerical handling of the grate is for an accurate prediction of the bed behavior.

  • 47.
    Hedayati, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sefidari, Hamid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Kienzl, Norbert
    BEST Bioenergy and Sustainable Technologies GmbH, Austria.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ash transformation during single-pellet gasification of agricultural biomass with focus on potassium and phosphorus2021Ingår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 217, artikel-id 106805Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural biomasses and residues can play an important role in the global bioenergy system but their potential is limited by the risk of several ash-related problems such as deposit formation, slagging, and particle emissions during their thermal conversion. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the ash transformation reactions is required for this type of fuels. The present work investigates ash transformation reactions and the release of critical ash-forming elements with a special focus on K and P during the single-pellet gasification of different types of agricultural biomass fuels, namely, poplar, grass, and wheat grain residues. Each fuel was gasified as a single pellet at three different temperatures (600, 800, and 950 °C) in a Macro-TGA reactor. The residues from different stages of fuel conversion were collected to study the gradual ash transformation. Characterization of the residual char and ash was performed employing SEM-EDS, XRD, and ICP with the support of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations (TECs). The results showed that the K and P present in the fuels were primarily found in the residual char and ash in all cases for all studied fuels. While the main part of the K release occurred during the char conversion stage, the main part of the P release occurred during the devolatilization stage. The highest releases – less than 18% of P and 35% of K – were observed at the highest studied temperature for all fuels. These elements were present in the residual ashes as K2Ca(CO3)2 and Ca5(PO4)3OH for poplar; K-Ca-rich silicates and phosphosilicates in mainly amorphous ash for grass; and an amorphous phase rich in K-Mg-phosphates for wheat grain residues. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 48.
    Hillberg, Emil
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Pihl, Hjalmar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Edvall, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Hallhagen, Stina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Olof
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Martin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mirz, Markus
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Schäfer, Bettina
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Csőre, Máté
    E.ON, Hungary.
    Tóth, Ádám
    E.ON, Hungary.
    Táczi, István
    E.ON, Hungary.
    Gábor, Mihály Péter
    E.ON, Hungary.
    Rosvall, Jörgen
    E.ON, Sweden.
    Hancock, Neil
    E.ON, Sweden.
    Weber, Johannes
    Lumenaza GmbH, Germany.
    Borges, Tereza
    Lumenaza GmbH, Germany.
    Fagerberg, Lars-Gunnar
    Municipality of Borgholm, Sweden.
    Jältås, Martin
    Municipality of Borgholm, Sweden.
    Berazaluce, Inigo
    E.ON, Germany.
    Tambavekar, Sanjana
    E.ON, Germany.
    Active Network Management for All: ANM4L a collaborative research project2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Developments of the power system are driven by the need to decrease the environmental footprint, to meet international climate goals, pushing for fossil‐free energy system. The transition towards clean energy will require power systems to adapt on a global scale with significant investments needed in fossil‐free electricity generation and transport. Renewable Energy Sources (RES) play an increasingly important role in the power system and may become the dominant sources of electricity. 

    Significant RES are integrated in distribution grids globally, resulting in an increased need for distribution grids to perform new and complex tasks necessary for continued grid stability. The rapidity of small‐scale investments calls for agile, alternative grid development solutions. This agility is furthermore necessary to meet challenges arising from demand scenarios encompassing intermittent renewables along with electrification of transport and heat sectors. New technologies and markets are emerging to provide flexibility in consumption, generation, and power transfer capacity. 

    Active Network Management (ANM) solutions provides alternative methods for planning and operation of the power system, through monitoring and control of multiple grid assets. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing project ANM4L, where a toolbox will be developed to support operation and planning of distribution grids.

    The project ANM4L (Active network management for all - anm4l.eu), will develop and demonstrate innovative ANM solutions for increasing integration of distributed generation in electricity distribution systems. ANM solutions will consider management of active and reactive power to avoid overload situations and maintain voltage limits. The goal is to decrease the need of curtailment of renewable energy, theoretically enabling further integration of distributed generation potentially even above the current design limitations of the electricity network. 

    Core research and development activities of the ANM4L project include development of: 

     ANM methods for local energy systems. 

     Economic considerations to provide decision support. 

     A toolbox to support the planning and operation. 

    The toolbox, methods and business models for ANM will be demonstrated in real life distribution grids in both Sweden and Hungary. Furthermore, the project will consider the replicability and scalability necessary for these ANM solutions to be applied across the EU. 

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  • 49.
    Holgersson, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Mälarporten, termiska lager i fjärrvärmesystemet2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I området Mälarporten har en storskalig förändring påbörjats. Området har tidigare bestått av gamla, till viss del nedlagda industrier, och kommer till stor del ersättas med bostäder, men också i viss mån kontor. Energi- och effektbehovet i området kommer att förändras mot tidigare vilket innebär att även fjärrvärmesystemet behöver förnyas. Vidare är det troligt att fjärrvärmenätet kommer arbeta med lägre temperaturer då nya fastigheter är av lågenergityp.

    Uppdraget i denna studie är att komplettera Mälarenergis arbete kring det kommande fjärrvärmenätet i området Mälarporten, Västerås med en kort utredning av termiska lager. Studien syftar till att öka kunskapen kring termiska lagers funktion i fjärrvärmenät inför ombyggnationen av fjärrvärmenätet i Mälarporten. Övergripande belyses teknik, viktiga parametrar och nuläget.

    Det finns flera tillämpningar på termiska lager i fjärrvärmesystem. Dels för att utjämna dygnsvariationerna i lasten i nätet, men också variationen över säsong. Vidare finns potential att använda ett termiskt lager i områden där det inte är möjligt med höga termiska effektuttag.

    De flesta installerade lagren idag är av typen sensibla lager men utvecklingen av latenta och termokemiska lager går fort. De latenta lagren är mer tillämpbara än de termokemiska som mestadels befinner sig på forskningsstadiet. Ett exempel på latent lager är snö vilket tillämpas idag i Sundsvall för fjärrkyla. En positiv bieffekt är att ett sådant lager kan underlätta rening av smältvattnet i en stad.

    Både KTH och Chalmers bedriver forskning för att utveckla latenta lagers tillämpningar i fjärrvärme/fjärrkylasystem. Det borde också vara intressant för Mälarenergi att titta närmare på SaltX installation i Berlin samt borrhålslagret i Linköping och befintliga groplager i Malung och Danmark.

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  • 50.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Modelling of a vented corn starch dust explosion using an open source code2021Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust explosion is a constant threat to industries which deal with combustible powders e.g. woodworking, metal processing, food and feed, pharmaceuticals and additive industries. Physics-based, well-verified and well-validated models and numerically efficient codes are important tools for designing dust explosion protection systems where the current standards are not applicable. This work aims at (i) presenting a physics-based dust explosion model based on an open source code OpenFOAM, (ii) comparing the computed pressure traces with the measured ones for a vented corn starch dust explosion in a 11.5 m3 vessel, and (iii) highlighting the future work.

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