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  • 1.
    Blomfors, Mattias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Larsson, Oskar
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Engineering Assessment Method for Anchorage in Corroded Reinforced Concrete2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment. Report, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 2109-2116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing need for reliable methods to assess load-carrying capacity and remaining service life of existing infrastructure. Several previous research projects have resulted in a verified, simple 1D model for assessment of anchorage in corroded reinforced concrete structures. Previous verification has involved both experiments and detailed 3D NLFE analyses. To further develop the 1D model it needs to be extended to comprise more practical situations. In order to facilitate an efficient extension procedure in the future, the size of 3D NLFE model that is required to capture the bond behaviour between corroded reinforcement and concrete is investigated. Beam-end models and models of sub-sections were studied, and the results in terms of bond stress and crack pattern were compared. Preliminary results indicate good agreement for some situations; however for some cases a section model seems to overestimate the capacity.

  • 2.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Vennetti, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Własak, Lech
    Structural Concept of Novel RPC Sandwich Façade Elements with GFRP Connectors2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment. Report, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 2172-2186Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SESBE research project aims to develop novel smart sandwich façade elements with high insulating capabilities while providing a reduced thickness in conjunction with superior mechanical and durability properties. The present paper mainly focuses on the verification of the mechanical performance of the glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) connectors in the façade element composed of reactive powder concrete (RPC) panels with foam concrete insulation between them. Because of the reduced thickness of the large façade elements, the performance of the connectors is critical for the entire structural concept. A description of structural performance and results based on experimental methods and finite element (FE) analysis are presented.

  • 3.
    Holmgren, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Johansson, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Svensson, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Inter-laboratory comparison of a fatigue test2005In: Materialprüfung, Vol. 47, p. 529-533Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Kjell, G. B.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Estimating the total risk for a sun-kink by measuring wave propagation in the track2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 230, no 3, p. 734-746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to estimate the stress-free temperature in a rail by exciting the complete track has been theoretically investigated, by both simple beam theory and by a finite element model. For frequencies below a cut-off frequency, bending waves cannot propagate in the track. The cut-off frequency primarily depends on the stiffness of the lateral ballast. For a given ballast stiffness, the wavelength (or speed) of propagating waves depends on the axial stress in the rail. By first determining the cut-off frequency, the ballast stiffness can be determined. Then, the actual stress can be estimated by measuring the wave speed. By knowing the actual rail temperature, the stress-free temperature is then easily calculated. It is found that stress-free temperatures of 5 °Cshould cause measurable changes in the speed of wave propagation. It is determined that variations in damping of the ballast and stiffness of the pads in the rail clamps do not influence the results. Field measurements show that a track can be excited and propagating waves detected. © Institution of Mechanical Engineers. © IMechE 2014.

  • 5.
    Kjell, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Measuring axial forces in rail by forced vibrations - experiences from a full scale laboratory experiment2009In: IMechE, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit., Vol. 223, no 3, p. 241-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The longitudinal load in rail caused by thermal expansion must be regularly monitored in order to avoid buckling or rail fracture. Different methods of monitoring with benefits and drawbacks are used or suggested. In this paper one of the proposed methods is investigated by a full-scale experiment. The aim is to measure the change in wavelength of the bending wave caused by the longitudinal load. In contrast to other vibration methods, this method does not require knowledge of the boundary conditions. However, it requires very accurate measurements, advanced finite element (FE) calculations, and sophisticated data analyses. The full-scale experiment shows that this is a method with potential. On the basis of the results of the full-scale experiment the required accuracy of the different steps in the method are clarified. Influence of measurement accuracy, loosened clamps at the sleepers, FE mesh size, degree of wear of the rail, and inaccuracy in the material parameters is considered.

  • 6.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    New models for calculating maximum gas temperatures in large tunnel fires2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this report focuses on estimating maximum gas temperatures at ceiling level during large tunnel fires. Gas temperature is an important parameter to consider when designing the fire resistance of a tunnel structure. Earlier work by the authors has established correlations between excess ceiling gas temperature and effective tunnel height, ventilation rate, and heat release rate. The maximum possible excess gas temperature was set as 1350°C, independent of the tunnel structure and local combustion conditions. As a result of this research, two models have been developed to better estimate possible excess maximum gas temperatures for large tunnel fires in tunnels with differing lining materials and structure types (e.g. rock, concrete). These have been validated using both model- and full-scale tests. Comparisons of predicted and measured temperatures show that both models correlate well with the test data. However, Model I is better and more optimal, due to the fact that it is more conservative and easier to use. The fire duration and flame volume are found to be related to gas temperature development. In reality, the models could also be used to estimate temperatures in a fully developed compartment fire.

  • 7.
    Li, Zhiyuan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Performance assessment of the crashworthiness of corroded ship hulls.2017In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Marine Structures (MARSTRUCT2017), Lisbon, Portugal, May 2017, 2017, p. 523-532Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Lindell, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Vibrationsreducering med avstämda vibrationsdämpare i icke resonant område2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9. Miccoli, L.
    et al.
    Drougkas, A.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    In-plane behaviour of rammed earth under cyclic loading: Experimental testing and finite element modelling2016In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 125, p. 144-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to numerically simulate the in-plane behaviour of rammed earth walls under cyclic shear-compression tests. The experimental testing allowed obtaining the maximum horizontal loads, the displacement capacity and the level of non-linear behaviour of the respective load-displacement relationships as well as the failure modes. The calibration of the numerical model (finite element method) was carried out based on the experimental results. Within this framework, a micro-modelling approach was considered. The behaviour of the rammed earth material was simulated using a total strain rotating crack model. A Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was used to reproduce the behaviour of the interfaces between the layers. Although the numerical results achieved a satisfactory agreement with the experimental results a sensitivity analysis of the parameters involved was performed. The sensitivity analysis aimed at determining which parameters of the model have a significant impact in the model's results. As expected the sensitivity analysis pointed out that the sliding failure occurrence is mainly influenced by two parameters of the interface elements: the interface tensile strength fit and the friction angle φ. Moreover the cohesion c and the layers thickness showed a limited effect on the shear behaviour. It should be noted that the results mentioned above are related to the cases where a significant level of vertical compressive stress σ is employed.

  • 10. Plos, Mario
    et al.
    Shu, Jiangpeng
    Lundgren, Karin
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    A multi-level structural assessment strategy for analysis of RC bridge deck slabs2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment. Report, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 1559-1566Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-level structural assessment strategy for evaluation of response and load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete bridges deck slabs are presented [1]. The strategy is based on the principle of successively improved analysis methods in structural assessment. It provides a structured approach to the use of simplified as well as advanced non-linear finite element analysis methods. The proposed methods were used for analysis of previously tested slabs subjected to bending and shear type of failures. As expected, the advanced methods gave an improved understanding of the structural response and were capable of demonstrating higher, yet conservative, predictions of the load-carrying capacity. The proposed strategy clearly provides the engineering community a framework for using successively improved structural analysis methods for enhanced assessment in a straightforward manner.

  • 11.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Zhang, Meng
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yu, Y
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shock analysis of a stern ramp using dynamic design analysis method2017In: Proceedings of the ASME 2017 36th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE2017), Trondheim, Norway, June 25-30 2017., 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shock load caused by underwater explosion in naval battles can lead to malfunction of the equipment on-board naval vessels. It makes the ships vulnerable and they can lose the ability to accomplish their missions. This study presents a shock analysis, using the dynamic design analysis method (DDAM), of a naval ship stern ramp subjected to a non-contact underwater explosion. The objective is to evaluate the performance of the ramp subjected to a shock load, identify areas for structural improvements and recommend design changes. The DDAM in the commercial software ANSYS is used in the evaluation of the ramp. The structural response to the shock load is estimated by combined modal and response spectrum analyses. The shock load is applied in three directions (vertical, fore and aft, athwart ships) and the results show that the vertical direction is the most severe loading direction and critical to the functionality of the ramp. A parametric study is presented which shows which parameters that influence the most the structural response. The results from this study are used to suggest improvements of the ramp structure to make it more resistant to shock loads.

  • 12.
    Sandström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Johannesson, Pär
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mikael, Sidenmark
    Ocean Harvesting Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Reliability analysis with VMEA of a rack and pinion mechanism in a wave energy gravity accumulator2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The method Variation and Mode Effect Analysis (VMEA) is successfully implemented for the AGMA based gear design of the rack pinion mechanism. The rack and pinion is a feature in Ocean Harvesting Technologies (OHT) gravity accumulator device. The purpose of it is to make the electrical power output to the grid more uniform. This is a novel technology where previous experience in designing is absent. The VMEA method is there for useful for incorporating all known uncertainties to estimate the uncertainty and reliability of the technology. This allows for adequate safety factors to be set so the desired reliability can be achieved.

    The uncertainty and reliability analysis is performed for different OHT designs and methods where the reliability is calculated. This calculation can be used as basis for further analysis when more design details are determined and modifications are made, thus allowing for more optimized and reliable design to be made.

  • 13.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Burton, David
    Sustainable use of natural stone as paving material2011In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, European Geosciences Union (EGU), 2011, Vol. 13, article id EGU2011-9358Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is not only a matter of choosing durable stone types for a specific application. It is also about theenergy consumed during the production, transportation and placing of the stone. It is also about dimensioningand shaping of the stone properly for the actual construction and the stone together with other materials in theconstruction. This contribution deals with the latter and is a case study on a failed paving construction.Stone paving is the collective expression for the use of stone slabs, setts and kerbs for exterior paving purposes.There are three European product standards in force; EN 1341, 1342 and 1343 respectively. These standardsdescribe e.g. how to denominate the products, the allowed dimensional tolerances and which technical propertiesto validate. There is little or no information on the actual usage of these products. Such information has generallyto be elaborated by each country.The standard way of construction for pavements is non-bonded laying of elements in crushed sand/splitmixtures. Under special loads and cleaning requirements this traditional, unbound construction method easily failsand a bound construction is needed. The structural integrity of an unbound pavement construction is maintainedon the basis of friction and mechanical interlock. Energy from traffic loading enters the structure via the surfacecourse, some of this energy is dissipated within the surface course itself and some is transmitted into the beddingcourse and thereafter the supporting base layers beneath. There are two structural elements in the surface course,the setts and the jointing medium. The jointing medium has physical properties which are important to consider,such as stiffness modulus, resistance to shear et al, which crucially affect the manner in which the pavementresponds to applied loads.Sufficient friction between the various components is crucial but is not generated and mechanical interlock notexercised without movement of the component parts of the structural model. The unbound paving is not a rigidconstruction and the various parts of this structural model must be mobilised in order that friction is generated.The paving is therefore also heavily dependant upon the unseen surface finishing of the setts (and slabs). In orderto adequately generate friction between the paving element and both bedding and jointing materials the unseensurfaces have to be rough, preferably a cleft or riven surface, to function properly.There are two distinct categories of setts, shallow setts and full setts, each requiring a different approach:Shallow setts are those having depth less than width.Specifying shallow setts makes a more economical use of the raw material used in their manufacture but thepavement construction requires to designed more carefully and there is an upper limit to the level of traffic whichcan be carried. A concrete base must be provided when specifying shallow setts.Full setts are those having depth not less than width.For many centuries the "golden rule" was that setts must be at least as deep as they are wide. The heavier thetraffic loading, the deeper the sett in relation to its width. Before the advent of concrete and mortar, when jointing,bedding and supporting base were all unbound, this rule was very necessary. Even with the development of highperformance mortars and reinforced concrete for a base, we need to use full setts when the traffic loading exceedsa given maximum.The deeper the sett in relation to its width, the more the strength of the pavement is taken by the joints between thesetts. So, with deep, full setts we can sometimes lay over an unbound or a bituminous base, even for heavy traffic.As can be seen, these simple rules given above depend on proper definition of the traffic loads. i.e. numberof vehicles per day and the weight of them. When the general rules are not followed the stones start to move inan uncontrolled manner. Some cases and one in particular will be detailed in this presentation. The case studiesdemonstrate the importance of the necessary knowledge needed to build a paving that can cope with the dynamicand static traffic loads. In addition, it shows the problem that may arise due to a poorly defined border betweensetts and slabs.

  • 14. Shu, J.
    et al.
    Plos, M.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Johansson, M.
    Numerical prediction of punching behavior of RC slabs using 3D non-linear FE analysis2016In: Maintenance, Monitoring, Safety, Risk and Resilience of Bridges and Bridge Networks - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management, IABMAS 2016, 2016, p. 1607-1611Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted by carrying out nonlinear FE analysis of RC slabs subjected to punching failure, using three-dimensional (3D) continuum elements. The influence of several modelling choices for concrete material were investigated by comparing results such as load-carrying capacity, load-deflection response and crack pattern from the FE analyses with available experimental data. The analyses of the tested slabs show possibility to accurately predict the load-carrying capacity and realistically simulate the behavior of slabs using the proposed method.

  • 15. Shu, J.
    et al.
    Plos, M.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Johansson, M.
    Nilenius, F.
    Prediction of punching behaviour of RC slabs using continuum non-linear FE analysis2016In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 125, p. 15-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Failure of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs without shear reinforcement in punching has been a challenging problem for nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis. To improve the analysis approach, this study was conducted by developing a nonlinear FE analysis method for slabs subjected to punching failure without shear reinforcement, using three-dimensional continuum elements. The influence of several modelling choices were investigated by comparing such results as loadcarrying capacity, load-deflection response and crack pattern from the FE analyses with available experimental data. The proposed method shows the possibility of accurately predicting the load-carrying capacity and realistically describing the behaviour of slabs.

  • 16. Shu, Jiangpeng
    et al.
    Plos, Mario
    Nilenius, Filip
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Johansson, Morgan
    Prediction of punching behaviour of RC slabs using continuum nonlinear FE analysis2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment. Report, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 1624-1631Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Failure of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs in punching has been a challenging problem for nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis. To improve the analysis approach, this study was conducted by developing a nonlinear FE analysis method for slabs subjected to punching failure, using three-dimensional continuum elements. The influence of several modelling choices were investigated by comparing such results as load carrying capacity, load-deflection response and crack pattern from the FE analyses with available experimental data. The proposed method show the possibility of accurately predicting the load-carrying capacity and realistically describing the behaviour of slabs.

  • 17.
    Tahershamsi, M.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fernandez, I.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, K.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Investigating correlations between crack width, corrosion level and anchorage capacity2017In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 1294-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In assessing existing structures, inspection results need to be linked to the effects on load-carrying capacity; to provide such information, this study has investigated the correlation between splitting crack width, corrosion level and anchorage capacity. The study was based on 13 reinforced concrete beams that had been exposed to natural corrosion for 32 years, 11 beams with splitting cracks and 2 without. The crack pattern and widths were documented before undergoing structural testing of anchorage capacity. Thereafter, the reinforcement bars were extracted and their corrosion levels measured using two methods, gravimetric weight loss and 3D scanning. The corrosion level from the weight loss method was approximately twice as large; possible reasons are horizontal or subsurface corrosion pits, and the cleaning method. Further, for the same corrosion level, the specimens in this study had much larger crack widths and slightly lower bond capacity than the artificially corroded tests in the literature; a possible reason is that these specimens had been subjected to combined corrosion and freezing. However, the corrosion level and reduction in bond capacity related to crack width were both lower in the present than in previous studies in the literature. Thus, by formulating a damage indicator from the damage visible in the form of crack widths from artificial test data, the structural capacity is estimated to be on the safe side.

  • 18.
    Widlund, Ola
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Snygg, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Load classification of scaffolding systems: Using numerical modelling to show compliance with regulatory requirements2017In: Proceedings of NAFEMS World Congress 2017, Stockholm 11-14 June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden., 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nyholm Thrane, Lars
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flexural behaviour of textile reinforced concrete composites: experimental and numerical evaluation2017In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile reinforced concrete (TRC) is an innovative high performance composite material which has revealed many promising attributes in various applications but test methods and reliable numerical models need to be established to reduce uncertainty and the need for extensive experimental studies. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the flexural behaviour of carbon textile reinforced TRC slabs both experimentally and numerically along with the characterization of the material and interaction level properties. The experimental results characterizing the bond behaviour were linked to the experimental behaviour of a rectangular TRC slab in bending through numerical analyses. A 2D macro-scale FE-model of the tested TRC slab was developed based on the related experimental input. Comparison of the numerical results to the experiments revealed that the flexural failure was governed by bond, and reasonable agreement was obtained in terms of crack development, deflections, maximum load, and failure mode. Accordingly, the experiments further indicated that the flexural behaviour of TRC slabs is greatly influenced by the bond quality.

  • 20.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Wlasak, Lech
    GFRP connectors in textile reinforced concrete sandwich elements2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment. Report, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 1331-1338Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, both experimental and numerical methods are presented to gain an understanding of the structural behaviour related to a TRC sandwich panel with a glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) plate connection system. Double shear tests were conducted on component-scale sandwich panels to characterize the available shear capacity provided by the connectors and panel configuration. Three-dimension (3D) non-linear Finite Element Analysis (NLFEA) was applied to develop a model for the design of TRC sandwich panels while focusing on the connectors. The experimental outcome of the shear tests was applied to validate the corresponding numerical model developed in this work. The need for further modifications to the design of the shear connectors or other parameters such as panel thickness can be established accordingly. This developed FE model can essentially be applied as a design tool to further predict the structural behaviour of the full-scale sandwich elements.

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