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  • 1. Andersson, J.
    et al.
    Lundgren, J.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Methanol production via pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification: Techno-economic comparison of integrated vs. stand-alone production2014In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 64, p. 256-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective with this work was to investigate techno-economically the opportunity for integrated gasification-based biomass-to-methanol production in an existing chemical pulp and paper mill. Three different system configurations using the pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification (PEBG) technology were studied, one stand-alone plant, one where the bark boiler in the mill was replaced by a PEBG unit and one with a co-integration of a black liquor gasifier operated in parallel with a PEBG unit. The cases were analysed in terms of overall energy efficiency (calculated as electricity-equivalents) and process economics. The economics was assessed under the current as well as possible future energy market conditions. An economic policy support was found to be necessary to make the methanol production competitive under all market scenarios. In a future energy market, integrating a PEBG unit to replace the bark boiler was the most beneficial case from an economic point of view. In this case the methanol production cost was reduced in the range of 11-18 Euro per MWh compared to the stand-alone case. The overall plant efficiency increased approximately 7%-units compared to the original operation of the mill and the non-integrated stand-alone case. In the case with co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers, an equal increase of the system efficiency was achieved, but the economic benefit was not as apparent. Under similar conditions as the current market and when methanol was sold to replace fossil gasoline, co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers was the best alternative based on received IRR. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 2.
    Apruzzese, Paola
    et al.
    Imperial College London, UK.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP.
    Falzon, Brian
    Monash University, Australia.
    Modelling the postbuckling behaviour of impacted composite structures2009In: Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Composite Materials (ICCM-17), 2009, article id F7:11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two approaches to modelling the effects of embedded defects and impact damage in composite aerostructures are presented. These differ in the manner in which the damage is represented; one as an equivalent delamination and the other as a soft inclusion with non-linear homogenized material properties. These techniques are applied to study the effects of defects and impact damage on the performance of composite panels.

  • 3. Bartkowiak, T.
    et al.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Brown, C.A.
    Establishing functional correlations between areal curvature and coefficient of friction for machined surfaces2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Belov, Ilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Nordh, Andreas
    Zigrid AB, Sweden.
    Salomonsson, Kent
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Fin‐Tube and Plate Heat Exchangers – Evaluation ofTransient Performance2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Machining Equipment Life Cycle Costing Model with Dynamic Maintenance Cost2016In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 48, p. 102-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents how a Life cycle cost or Total cost of ownership analysis has been performed on machining equipment in a Swedish company. Life cycle cost models used in case studies are compared to an empirical model, used at the company, where dynamic energy, fluid, and maintenance cost are included. Linear and variable factors in the models are analyzed and discussed regarding data availability and estimation, especially with emphasis on maintenance. The life cycle cost aspect of the equipment give guidelines to consider operation, maintenance, tools, energy, and fluid cost in addition to acquisition cost, when designing/specifying the equipment.

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  • 6.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Athley, Karin
    RISE, Innventia.
    Thomsson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia.
    Advanced techniques to study filler flocs in high shear environments2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Blomfors, Mattias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Engineering Assessment Method for Anchorage in Corroded Reinforced Concrete2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 2109-2116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing need for reliable methods to assess load-carrying capacity and remaining service life of existing infrastructure. Several previous research projects have resulted in a verified, simple 1D model for assessment of anchorage in corroded reinforced concrete structures. Previous verification has involved both experiments and detailed 3D NLFE analyses. To further develop the 1D model it needs to be extended to comprise more practical situations. In order to facilitate an efficient extension procedure in the future, the size of 3D NLFE model that is required to capture the bond behaviour between corroded reinforcement and concrete is investigated. Beam-end models and models of sub-sections were studied, and the results in terms of bond stress and crack pattern were compared. Preliminary results indicate good agreement for some situations; however for some cases a section model seems to overestimate the capacity.

  • 8.
    Blomqvist, Urban
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Flink, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Maskinstyrningar i praktiken2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Machinery directive gives the requirements for safe machinery, and safe machine control, within the European Union. This report explains some of the requirements, especially for safety-related machine control systems. Practical examples with aspects on machine control are given in annexes to the report.

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  • 9. Boman, Christoffer
    et al.
    Nordin, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Westerholm, R.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Evaluation of a constant volume sampling setup for residential biomass fired appliances: Influence of dilution conditions on particulate and PAH emissions2005In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 258-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased concerns about particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) emissions from residential biomass combustion and their potential health effects, motivates detailed emission measurements under controlled conditions. Traditional sampling in raw flue gases can suffer from drawbacks mainly related to transient flows and the condensable nature of organic compounds. Whole flow dilution with constant volume sampling (CVS) is an alternative method but different sampling conditions may, however, influence the emission characteristics. The objective was to design a CVS system for emission measurements in residential biomass fired appliances and determine the influence of dilution sampling conditions on the characteristics and distributions of PM and PAH. Softwood pellets were combusted in a pellet stove with variations in; dilution ratio (3-7x), sampling temperature (45-75°C), dilution tunnel residence time (2-4 s) and fuel load (2.3 and 4.8 kW) according to a statistical experimental design. The sampling conditions did not influence either the emission concentrations of PM, CO and NO or the particle size distribution. Variations in residence time had no significant effect on any studied emission parameter. However, increased concentrations of organic gaseous carbon (OGC) and PAH were observed with increased dilution ratio. The distribution between particulate and semivolatile phase was influenced for 12 of the 37 analyzed PAH compounds, mainly by increased fractions of semivolatile material at higher sampling temperature. No influence of sampling temperature was observed for the concentrations of PAHtot or the dominating PAH compounds, i.e. phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The results together with practical considerations also suggest sampling at 50±5°C and 3-4 times dilution as robust and applicable conditions in the presently designed setup. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10. Boman, Christoffer
    et al.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Westerholm, R.
    Bostrom, D.
    Nordin, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Stove performance and emission characteristics in residential wood log and pellet combustion: Part 1: Pellet stoves2011In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 307-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stove performance, characteristics, and quantities of gaseous and particulate emissions were determined for two different pellet stoves, varying fuel load, pellet diameter, and chimney draft. This approach aimed at covering variations in emissions from stoves in use today. The extensive measurement campaign included CO, NOx, organic gaseous carbon, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total particulate matter (PMtot) as well as particle mass and number concentrations, size distributions, and inorganic composition. At high load, most emissions were similar. For stove B, operating at high residual oxygen and solely with primary air, the emissions of PMtot and particle numbers were higher while the particles were smaller. Lowering the fuel load, the emissions of CO and hydrocarbons increased dramatically for stove A, which operated continuously also at lower fuel loads. On the other hand for stove B, which had intermittent operation at lower fuel loads, the emissions of hydrocarbons increased only slightly lowering the fuel load, while CO emissions increased sharply, due to high emissions at the end of the combustion cycle. Beside methane, dominating VOCs were ethene, acetylene, and benzene and the emissions of VOC varied in the range 1.1-42 mg/MJfuel. PAH emissions (2-340 μg/MJfuel) were generally dominated by phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The PM tot values (15-45 mg/MJfuel) were in all cases dominated by fine particles with mass median diameters in the range 100-200 nm, peak mobility diameters of 50-85 nm, and number concentrations in the range 4 × 1013 to 3 × 1014 particles/MJfuel. During high load conditions, the particulate matter was totally dominated by inorganic particles at 15-25 mg/MJfuel consisting of potassium, sodium, sulfur, and chlorine, in the form of K2SO4, K 3Na(SO4)2, and KCl. The study shows that differences in operation and modulation principles for the tested pellet stoves, relevant for appliances in use today, will affect the performance and emissions significantly, although with lower scattering in the present study compared to compiled literature data. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  • 11.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Enger, Johanna
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Hiller, Carolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Bright Communication: Belysningskommunikation med fokus på perception och energi2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to promote an efficient use of energyfor lighting, while putting the user's perception and light comfort in focus,this project has developed methods and tools to communicate light and lighting.To ensure that light environments are designed from a user perspective,existing definitions of light quality, which are mainly based on technicalterms, have been supplemented with concepts and definitions of visual and emotionalcharacter of light. The lighting industry and professional purchasers have beeninvolved in all phases of the project in order to develop methods and toolsthat are well-grounded and applicable by different actors involved in theprocess from light planning to the implementation of lighting environments. Lighting accounts for a significant part of the total energy use in buildings,about 20 per cent for households and 40 per cent for premises. The energysaving potential is thus high. Moreover, Europe is facing a shift towards moreenergy efficient lighting as a result of both regulations and technologydevelopment. Still, Swedish consumers tend to prefer incandescent light, as itis perceived to provide better comfort compared to modern light sources.Therefore, in order to motivate property owners and consumers to convert tomore energy-efficient products, it is necessary to focus more on the visual andemotional qualities of light. Today, however, knowledge, concepts and tools to communicateand measure visual light quality are lacking. This challenge has been the motivationand starting point for the development of methods for assessing objective andsubjective light qualities for light sources, luminaires and light environmentswithin this project and to translate the results into tools targeting theindustry. The project has developed a draft communication tool based on the humanperception of light quality. The tool aims to constitute a neutralcommunication point and to supports both the lighting industry and professionalpurchaser, and thus also the end user. By reducing misunderstandings andincreasing the consensus between actors in different parts of the process fromlight planning to implementation, the tool is expected to promote lightenvironments that are both energy-efficient and provide attractive perceptionand comfort.

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  • 12.
    Borgqvist, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ågren, Thomas
    ICA Fastigheter, Sweden.
    Westman, Bo
    INCERT, Sweden.
    Swartz, Harry
    Hållbar miljö & strategi, Sweden.
    Certifierad energikonsult livsmedelsbutiker2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna förstudie har undersökt förutsättningarna för en frivillig, ej ackrediterad certifiering av energikonsulter för livsmedelsbutiker. Det långsiktiga målet är att butiker med hjälp av certifierade energikonsulter skall få effektiva och kvalitativa energikartläggningar som innefattar såväl fastighetens som verksamhetens energianvändning och hur de olika delarna kan samverka för största möjliga energieffektivisering.

    Det finns en mycket stor potential att spara energi i butiker. Dagens genomsnittsbutik kan minska sin energianvändning med en tredjedel. Idag finns också en ökad miljömedvetenhet hos svenska livsmedelsbutiker, och med ett större behov av kyld mat har energifrågorna fått en allt större betydelse. Medlemmar i BELIVS Innovationskluster har länge efterfrågat en certifiering av energikonsulter för livmedelsbutiker, som utgår ifrån beställarnas behov. Detta för att öka andelen butiker med låg energianvändning, säker drift och liten miljöpåverkan.

    Förstudiens resultat består av; identifierade behov ur ett beställarperspektiv, en kravspecifikation som beskriver certifieringens kompetenskrav, en beskrivning av hur en certifiering är tänkt att gå till, samt ett exempel på hur ett certifieringsprov kan se ut. Dessutom har fyra stycken testcertifieringar genomförts, där exempelprovet har testats av energikonsulter. Tanken är att förstudiens resultat skall kunna användas som underlag för att ta fram ett färdigt certifieringsprogram.

    Den generella slutsatsen från förstudien är att certifieringen av energikonsulter för livsmedelsbutiker är genomförbar, men beställarna behöver efterfråga certifieringen i sina upphandlingar av konsulter om denna skall slå på marknaden. Baserat på diskussioner med representanter från konsultsidan, bedömer projektgruppen att det finns ett intresse för certifieringen så länge beställarna kommer att efterfråga detta. Att få fler beställare bakom den föreslagna certifieringen är den viktigaste åtgärden i ett nästa steg.

    RISE har drivit projektet tillsammans med INCERT, ICA Fastigheter, Coop och Hållbar Miljö & Strategi. Projektgruppen har haft kontakt med Bergendahls och Axfood vilka har deltagit vid enstaka arbetsmöten.

    Finansiärer av förstudien är Energimyndigheten, INCERT, ICA Fastigheter, Coop samt Bergendahls.

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  • 13.
    Brolin, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Case, Keith
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Kitting as an information source in manual assembly2012In: Advances in Ergonomics in Manufacturing / [ed] Stefan Trzcieliński & Waldemar Karwowski, CRC Press, 2012, p. 346-353Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In manual assembly, a strategy to meet the goal of efficient production is the increased use of kitting as a material supply principle. Even though kitting is already implemented in industry, there are still uncertainties regarding the effects of introducing kits, particularly from a human factors perspective.

    This paper presents initial steps in the development of a method to be used for the evaluation of kitting. This from an information source point of view and for studying effects related to productivity and quality. The methodology is projected to act as a foundation for how to carry out a subsequent comprehensive case study. The purpose of the case study is to explore how kitting affects the cognitive workload compared to the ordinary material rack combined with part numbers used in the current manufacturing industry. This is done by measuring productivity; time spent on assembling a product, and quality; number of assembly errors. One step in the methodology development process, which is described in this paper, was to conduct a pilot study, primarily to test the methodology related to the selection of measurement parameters, as well as for getting experiences from running the methodology with real test subjects.

  • 14. Brus, E.
    et al.
    Ohman, M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Nordin, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Bostrom, D.
    Hedman, Henry
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Eklund, A.
    Bed agglomeration characteristics of biomass fuels using blast-furnace slag as bed material2004In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 1187-1193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agglomeration of bed material may cause severe operating problems during fluidized bed combustion. The attack or coating layers that are formed on the bed particles during combustion play an important role in the agglomeration process. To reduce bed agglomeration tendencies, alternative bed materials may be used. In this paper, bed agglomeration characteristics during the combustion of biomass fuels using a relatively new bed material (iron blast-furnace slag) as well as ordinary quartz sand were determined. Controlled agglomeration tests lasting 40 h, using five representative biomass fuels (bark, olive residue, peat, straw, and reed canary grass) were conducted in a bench-scale fluidized bed. The bed materials and agglomerates were analyzed using SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction. Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed to interpret the experimental findings. The results showed that blast-furnace slag had a lower tendency to agglomerate than quartz sand for most of the fuels. The quartz particles showed an inner attack layer more often than did the blast-furnace slag. The blast-furnace slag had a lower tendency to react with elements from the fuel. The outer coating layer had similar characteristics and thickness for both bed materials when the same fuel was combusted. However, the inner attack layer thickness was larger for quartz particles. SEM/EDS analyses of the agglomerates showed that the inner Ca-K-silicate-rich attack layer was responsible for the agglomeration of quartz sand. The composition of blast-furnace slag agglomerate was similar to the outer coating layer. Chemical equilibrium calculations showed that the original composition of the blast-furnace slag was close to the equilibrium composition, and hence there was no major driving force for reactions between that bed material and K and Ca from the fuel. The homogeneous silica-rich attack layer (with a low melting temperature) was not formed to the same extent for blast-furnace slag, thus explaining the lower bed agglomeration tendency. © 2004 American Chemical Society.

  • 15.
    Bräck, Thomas
    et al.
    Meva Energy, Sweden.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Hedman, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Sepman, Alexeu
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Replace fossil gas in industrial burners with renewable biogas2018In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018: proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland , 2018, p. 73-73Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16. Carlsson, A.
    et al.
    Håkansson, K.
    Kvick, M.
    Lundell, F.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Söderberg, L.D.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Evaluation of steerable filter for detection of fibers in flowing suspensions2011In: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, E-ISSN 1432-1114, no 4, p. 987-996Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Gronberg, C.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Risberg, M.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Öhrman, Olov .G.W
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Spatially resolved measurements of gas composition in a pressurised black liquor gasifier2009In: Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1944-7442, E-ISSN 1944-7450, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 316-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Black liquor gasification is a new process for recovery of energy and chemicals in black liquor from the Kraft pulping process. The process can be combined with catalytic conversion of syngas into motor fuels. The potential for motor fuel production from black liquor in Sweden is to replace about 25% of the current consumption ofgasoline and diesel. For Finland the figure is even higher while for Canada it is about 14% and for the USA about 2%. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 28: 316-323, 2009.

  • 18.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Iisa, K
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Computational fluid dynamics simulations of raw gas composition from a black liquor Gasifier: Comparison with experiments2011In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 4122-4128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressurized entrained flow high temperature black liquor gasification can be used as a complement or a substitute to the Tomlinson boiler used in the chemical recovery process at kraft pulp mills. The technology has been proven on the development scale, but there are still no full scale plants. This work is intended to aid in the development by providing computational tools that can be used in scale up of the existing technology. In this work, an existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model describing the gasification reactor is refined. First, one-dimensional (1D) plug flow reactor calculations with a comprehensive reaction mechanism are performed to judge the validity of the global homogeneous reaction mechanism used in the CFD simulations in the temperature range considered. On the basis of the results from the comparison, an extinction temperature modification of the steam-methane reforming reaction was introduced in the CFD model. An extinction temperature of 1400 K was determined to give the best overall agreement between the two models. Next, the results from simulations of the flow in a 3 MW pilot gasifier with the updated CFD model are compared to experimental results in which pressure, oxygen to black liquor equivalence ratio, and residence time have been varied. The results show that the updated CFD model can predict the main gas components (H 2, CO, CO2) within an absolute error of 2.5 mol %. CH 4 can be predicted within an absolute error of 1 mol %, and most of the trends when process conditions are varied are captured by the model. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  • 19.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Ma, C.
    Molinder, Roger
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Ohman, M.,
    Öhrman, Olov .G.W
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Slag formation during oxygen-blown entrained-flow gasification of stem wood2014In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 6941-6952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stem wood powders were fired in a mullite-lined pilot-scale oxygen-blown pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. During repeated campaigns involving increases in fuel load and process temperature, slag formations that eventuated in the blockage of the gasifier outlet were observed. These slags were retrieved for visual and chemical characterization. It was found that the slags had very high contents of Al and, in particular, high Al/Si ratios that suggest likely dissolution of the mullite-based refractory of the gasifier lining due to interactions with the fuel ash. Possible causes for the slag formation and behavior are proposed, and practical implications for the design of future stem wood entrained-flow gasifiers are also discussed.

  • 20.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Experiments and mathematical models of black liquor gasification: Influence of minor gas components on temperature, gas composition, and fixed carbon conversion2010In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 15-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, predictions from a reacting Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of a gasification reactor are compared to experimentally obtained data from an industrial pressurized black liquor gasification plant. The data consists of gas samples taken from the hot part of the gasification reactor using a water cooled sampling probe. During the considered experimental campaign, the oxygen-to-black liquor equivalence ratio (λ was varied in three increments, which resulted in a change in reactor temperature and gas composition. The presented numerical study consists of CFD and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations in the considered λ-range using boundary conditions obtained from the experimental campaign. Specifically, the influence of methane concentration on the gas composition is evaluated using both CFD and thermodynamic equilibrium. The results show that the main gas components (H 2, CO, CO2) can be predicted within a relative error of 5% using CFD if the modeled release of H2S and CH4 are specified a priori. In addition, the calculations also show that the methane concentration has large influence on the reactor outlet temperature and final carbon conversion.

  • 21.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Grönberg, C.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Lidman, M.
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Experimental investigation of an industrial scale black liquor gasifier: Part 1: The effect of a reactor operation parameters on product gas composition2010In: Fuel, Vol. 89, p. 4025-4034Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Chacha, N.
    et al.
    Toven, K.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Mtui, G.
    Katima, J.
    Mrema, G.
    Steam pretreatment of pine (Pinus patula) for fuel ethanol production in Tanzania2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Cooper, Peter K.
    et al.
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Li, Hua
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Webber, Grant B.
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Atkin, Rob
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Tribotronic control of friction in oil-based lubricants with ionic liquid additives2016In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 18, no 34, p. 23657-23662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that tribotronic control of friction using an external potential applied to a gold surface is possible for ionic liquid (IL) concentrations as low as 5 mol% in hexadecane. The IL used is trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate, in which both the cation and anion have surfactant-like structures, and is miscible with hexadecane in all proportions. For IL concentrations less than 5 mol% friction does not vary with applied potential, but for 5 mol% and above changing the potential changes the composition of the IL boundary layer from cation-enriched (negative potentials) to anion-enriched (positive potentials). As the lubricities of the cation-rich and anion-rich boundary layers differ, this enables active control of friction in oil-based lubricants.

  • 24.
    Cornander, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Emissionfree non-road mobile machinery2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Cornander, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Nilsson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Alexandersson, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Mörstam, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Persvik, Mats
    Göteborgs Stads Leasing AB, Sweden.
    Eriksen, Jon
    Kunnskapsbyen Lilleström, Norway.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    The Blue Move for a Green Economy : Behovsstudie och teknikkartläggning av arbetsmaskiner2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Blue Move project aims to generate an increased demand for hydrogen as a fuel and investigate the business potential of heavy machinery in the Öresund-Kattegatt- Skagerrak (ÖKS) region, contributing for renewable energy in the transport sector to increase. The use of heavy machinery generates significant carbon dioxide emissions and local air pollution. By using machines with batteries and/or fuel cells instead of combustion engines, local air pollution and climate impact from the machines can be reduced. Electrification also reduces noise and vibration problems, contributing to an improved local and working environment. Customers' requirements are changing and within the near future some clients will only buy zero-emission vehicles. For example, many municipalities have high environmental targets and aim to be climate neutral and fossil fuel-free by 2030. Setting the requirements for public procurement, municipalities and regions become very important players in the process of converting to fossil fuel-free working machines. Electrification is on the rise and the development is fast, which, in addition to the environmental benefits, allows many benefits such as increased service life and a reduced number of components. The cost and character of the service of the vehicles will also change. The choice between electrical operation with batteries or with fuel cells depends on the cost, weight and space requirement for the current energy need. When operating on fuel cells, the heavy machinery can be quickly fueled, and it has an unchanged performance from full to empty tank. The use of fuel cells is also space-saving compared with fullelectric machines since areas for charging or battery change are not required. Today there are both battery and fuel cell - electric heavy machinery available on the market. This report gives an overview of available equipment, but also prototype and demo machines. Both a continued technical development and an increased market share for emission-free vehicles are required to meet future environmental goals. In order to achieve success, it is important that customers and manufacturers meet.

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  • 26.
    Costa, Sergio
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Fagerström, Martin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gutkin, Renaud
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Validation and improvements of a mesoscale finite element constitutive model for fibre kinking growth2018In: Proc. 18th European Conf on Composite Materials, European Society for Composite Materials , 2018, article id 3.10(5)-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is focused on the computational challenges and further verification and validation of an advanced fibre kinking model. This model was previously developed by the authors and implemented in a Finite Element (FE) code with a mesh objective formulation. The previous validation in terms of comparison with an analytical and micromechanical model is herein extended to also encompass FE simulations in longitudinal compression and multiaxial stress states. In addition, numerical improvements have been added to the model targeting its computational efficiency and stability in order to handle multiaxial stress states and large structures.

  • 27.
    Danielsson, Sverker
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Holm, Richard
    RISE, Innventia.
    Öhman, Fredrik
    Lipnizki, Frank
    A novel approach for applied membrane filtration on processing flows2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Dominic, Chris
    RISE, Innventia.
    Supply and demand chain integration:: A case study conducted in the packaging industry2013In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, no 1, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Duvefelt, Kenneth
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Carl Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Skedung, Lisa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Model for contact between finger and sinusoidal plane to evaluate adhesion and deformation component of friction2016In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 96, p. 389-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main parameters affecting finger friction, friction-induced vibrations in the finger, and consequently tactility is surface topography. Recently Skedung et al. performed finger friction measurements on fine controlled surfaces. These surfaces were sinusoidal with wavelengths from 0.27 to 8.8 μm and amplitudes from 0.007 to 6 μm. Building on those tests an analytical model for the contact was developed to explain the differences in friction coefficient. The contact was modelled as trapezoids in a circular pattern pressed against a sinusoidal plane. Results showed that the calculated contact area and therefore friction coefficient corresponded well with the measurements. This model can be used to see how the different surface parameters influence friction.

  • 30.
    Edström, Adam
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Målberg, Sofia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    The Strategic Research Agenda for the Swedish Additive Metal Manufacturing Industry2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 31.
    Enerbäck, Oscar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Dolins, Sigma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    S3 – Shared Shuttle Services: Fas 1 (2017-05-03 – 2019-12-31)2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    S3-projektet handlar om att testa delade, elektrifierade och automatiserade skyttelbussar för att demonstrera hur dessa nya transportlösningar kan stimulera och stödja en förtätning av staden.Inom projektet har stadsutvecklare, näringsliv, akademi och offentlig sektor samlats för att gemensamt utforma och prova nya mobilitetskoncept för den första- och sista kilometern av resan. Rapporten beskriver den första fasen av projektet, från maj 2017 till och med december 2019, där skyttelbussarna testats vid Lindholmen Science Park, Chalmers campus Johanneberg samt i Härryda centrum. För att stärka projektet har arbete även utförts kring kompletterande mobilitetstjänster, öppen innovation, utvärdering, affärsmodell, färdplan, molninfrastruktur samt event och kommunikation kopplat till initiativet. Efter utmanande processer av projektering och tillståndsansökan lyckades testerna genomföras på vad som av teknik- och fordonsleverantörerna ansågs vara den mest utmanande rutten i världen som dessa fordon hittills kört på. Samtidigt är mognadsgraden för teknik och helhetstjänst fortfarande relativt låg, och kombinerat med givna säkerhetsprioriteringar lämnas en del att önska vad gäller grundläggande parametrar som hastighet och komfort. Dessutom innebär nuvarande tillståndskrav på säkerhetsoperatör ombord på fordonen begränsningar vad gäller till exempel hållbara affärsmodeller och möjligheten att studera vissa användarförhållanden. Tack till medverkande parter och finansiärer med ett särskilt tack till Vinnova, Drive Sweden och Lindholmen Science Park som gjort detta projekt möjligt. Tack till Transportstyrelsen, Trafikkontoret, Polisen och Chalmersfastigheter för snabba beslutsvägar och till Atrium Ljungberg för lånet av garageplats. Slutligen önskar projektet rikta ett stort tack till samtliga som varit med och testat skyttlarna.

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  • 32.
    Eriksen, Jon
    et al.
    Kunnskapsbyen Lillestrøm, Norway; Hystorsys, Norway.
    Gjerløv, Jan Carsten
    Kunnskapsbyen Lillestrøm, Norway.
    Vik, Kristian E.
    Kunnskapsbyen Lillestrøm, Norway.
    Halvorsen, Bjørn Gregert
    NEL Hydrogen, Norway.
    Rambeck, Eric Lyche
    Oslo kommune, Norway.
    Rød, Benjamin Myklebust
    ZERO, Norway.
    Wiberg, Erik
    Vätgas Sverige, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Björn
    Vätgas Sverige, Sweden.
    Aleryd, Henrik
    Innovatum, Sweden.
    Svedhem, S.
    Innovatum, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    The Blue Move for a Green Economy : Mulighetsstudie for hydrogen produksjon,industri, lagring og distribusjon 2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Blue Move har utarbeidet en rapport som belyser 12 ulike muligheter for produksjon, industri, lagring og distribusjon av hydrogen i ØKS-regionen.

    Rapporten belyser ogs viktigheten av lav elavgift for hydrogenproduksjon gjennom beregninger gjort for en nyetablert hydrogenstasjon.

    Interreg-prosjektet Blue Move arbeider for å fremme økt bruk av fornybar energi som erstatning for fossile drivstoff i ØKS-regionen. Mulighetsstudien som er samlet i denne rapporten ser nærmere på hvilke produksjonsmetoder som er mest relevante, relatert til tilgjengelig fornybar kraft. Videre beskriver den hvordan hydrogenet kan anvendes utover veitransport, og på hvilken måte det kan ha betydning for veitransport at det også kommer andre anvendelsesområder.

  • 33. Eriksson, D.
    et al.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Hedman, Henry
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Stenberg, M.
    Öhrman, Olov .G.W
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Lestander, T.A.
    Bergsten, U.
    Ohman, M.
    Characterization of Scots pine stump-root biomass as feed-stock for gasification2012In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 104, p. 729-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective was to explore the potential for gasifying Scots pine stump-root biomass (SRB). Washed thin roots, coarse roots, stump heartwood and stump sapwood were characterized (solid wood, milling and powder characteristics) before and during industrial processing. Non-slagging gasification of the SRB fuels and a reference stem wood was successful, and the gasification parameters (synthesis gas and bottom ash characteristics) were similar. However, the heartwood fuel had high levels of extractives (≈19%) compared to the other fuels (2-8%) and thereby ≈16% higher energy contents but caused disturbances during milling, storage, feeding and gasification. SRB fuels could be sorted automatically according to their extractives and moisture contents using near-infrared spectroscopy, and their amounts and quality in forests can be predicted using routinely collected stand data, biomass functions and drill core analyses. Thus, SRB gasification has great potential and the proposed characterizations exploit it. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 34. Eriksson, G.
    et al.
    Hedman, Henry
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Bostrom, D.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Backman, Rainier
    Ohman, M.
    Combustion characterization of rapeseed meal and possible combustion applications2009In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 3990-3939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A future shortage of biomass fuel can be foreseen. The production of rapeseed oil for a number of purposesis increasing, among others, for biodiesel production. A yproduct from the oil extraction process is rapeseed meal (RM), presently used as animal feed. Further increases in supply will make fuel use an option. Several energy companies have shown interest but have been cautious because of the scarcity of data on fuel properties, which led to the present study. Combustion-relevant properties of RM from several producers have been determined. The volatile fraction (74 ± .06%wt ds) is comparable to wood; the moisture content (6.2-11.8%wt) is low; and the ash content (7.41 ± 0.286%wt ds) is high compared to most other biomass fuels. The lower heating value is 18.2 ± 0.3 MJ/kg (dry basis). In comparison to other biomass fuels, the chlorine content is low (0.02-0.05%wt ds) and the sulfur content is high (0.67-0.74%wt ds). RM has high contents of nitrogen (5.0-6.4%wt ds), phosphorus (1.12-1.23%wt ds), and potassium (1.2-1.4%wt ds). Fuel-specific combustion properties of typical RM were determined through combustion tests, with an emphasis on gas emissions, ash formation, and potential ash-related operational problems. Softwood bark was chosen as a suitable and representative co-combustion (woody) fuel. RM was added to the bark at two levels: 10 and 30%wt ds. These mixtures were pelletized, and so was RM without bark (for durability mixed with cutter shavings, contributing 1%wt of the ash). Each of these fuels was combusted in a 5 kWfluidized bed and an underfed pellet burner (to simulate grate combustion). Pure RM was combusted in a powder burner. Emissions of NO and SO2 were high for all combustion tests, requiring applications with flue gas cleaning, economically viable only at large scale. Emissions of HCl were relatively low. Temperatures for initial bed agglomeration in the fluidized-bed tests were high for RM compared to many other agricultural fuels, thereby indicating that RM could be an attractive fuel from a bed agglomeration point of view. The results of grate combustion suggest that slagging is not likely to be severe for RM, pure or mixed with other fuels. Fine-mode particles from fluidized-bed combustion and grate combustion mainly contained sulfates of potassium, suggesting that the risk of problems caused by deposit formation should be moderate. The chlorine concentration of the particles was reduced when RM was added to bark, potentially lowering the risk of high-temperature corrosion. Particle emissions from powder combustion of RM were 17 times higher than for wood powder, and the fine-mode fraction contained mainly K-phosphates known to cause deposits, suggesting that powder combustion of RM should be used with caution. A possible use of RM is as a sulfur-containing additive to biomass fuels rich in Cl and K for avoiding ash-related operational problems in fluidized beds and grate combustors originated from high KCl concentrations in the flue gases © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  • 35.
    Faia, Pedro M.
    et al.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal; CEMUC Centre of Mechanical Engineering, Portugal.
    Krochak, Paul
    RISE, Innventia.
    Costa, Harold
    University of Coimbra, Portugal; CEMUC Centre of Mechanical Engineering, Portugal.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Silva, Rui
    University of Coimbra, Portugal; CIEPQPF Research Centre on Chemical Process and Forest Products, Portugal.
    Garcia, Fernando A. P.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal; CIEPQPF Research Centre on Chemical Process and Forest Products, Portugal.
    Rasteiro, Maria Graca
    University of Coimbra, Portugal; CIEPQPF Research Centre on Chemical Process and Forest Products, Portugal.
    A comparative study of magnetic resonance imaging, electrical impedance tomography and ultrasonic doppler velocimetry for semi-dilute fibre flow suspension characterisation2016In: International Journal of Computational Methods & Experimental Measurements, ISSN 2046-0546, E-ISSN 2046-0554, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 165-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental comparisons between imaging techniques serve to provide confidence in the validity of each technique for the study of multiphase flow systems. Such cross-validation can establish the limitations of each technique quantitatively. In the present paper, the authors report efforts made on the characterization of semi-dilute, mono-dispersed suspensions of rayon fibres in turbulent water flow using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Ultrasound Velocity Profiling (UVP) and Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Increasing flow velocities and fibre concentration were studied using these three experimental techniques. For lower fibre concentrations more uniform distributions were observed and as flow velocity increased fibre agglomerations were found in the centre region of the pipe.

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  • 36.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers, Technology Management and Economics, Entrepreneurship and Strategy.
    A Process View of Business Model Innovation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an era of globalization, cross-fertilization of technologies and industries, and changing markets, firms are introducing new ways of creating or capturing value through Business Model Innovations (BMI). In recent years, BMI has become one of the priorities of practitioners, and has attracted the interest of scholars since product or process innovations on their own are perceived insufficient in the current internet era when other sources of competitive advantage are being needed. However, BMI can be difficult to manage for many firms, and despite increasing debate in the field, there is a lack of understanding about how BMI processes unfold. The purpose of this thesis is to explore BMI processes in multiple industrial and organizational contexts. To achieve this, the thesis is based on four papers written during the course of this PhD research which draw on empirical studies of diverse industries such as manufacturing, automotive, construction, publishing, and home furnishing. The firms studied in this thesis are new ventures developing new Business Models (BMs), Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), and multinational corporations that have been working with BMI, either in parallel or as a substitute to their existing BMs. The empirical observations support the distinction of two approaches to BMI: purposeful and unintentional. Purposeful BMI tends to be planned and starts with attentive cognitive search for a new BM, including recursive conceptualization, creation and offline evaluation of alternative BMs. The process is followed by experiential learning and adaptation of the new BM. Unintentional BMI refers to the emergence of a new BM as an outcome of the resolution of one or a number of major BM problems, to support other innovation activities. Thus, unintentional BMI processes take off from existing BMs and are characterized by a sequence of major problem formulation and solving which are orchestrated by shifts between experiential and cognitive search for solutions. My observations suggest that the antecedents to BMI may explain why in some cases, BMIs emerge unintentionally and in others firms embark purposefully on BMI. I discuss organizational implementation of BMIs in relation to how firms decide about the degree of separation and integration between parallel BMs. It is argued that the decision about how to structure parallel BMs cannot be made ex ante but emerges through the process of search for a new BM.   The contributions of this thesis are threefold; First it contributes to the emerging conceptualizations of BMI processes by explaining how BMI processes unfold in the two distinct spaces of ‘new BM design’ and ‘existing BM transformation’. Second, the thesis contributes to the BMI literature by introducing problem as a mechanism and theoretical construct for understanding BMI processes in established firms. While the prior literature emphasizes patterns of shift between cognitive search and experiential learning when firms search for a new BM, they do not explain under what circumstances firms embark on either mode of search. Using the problem as the unit of analysis provides an important theoretical basis for conceptualizing the dynamics of the BM by understanding sequential shifts between the two modes of learning along the BMI process. Third, the thesis contributes to the growing debates on how to organize parallel BMs by showing that what is to be separated between the BMs depends on the specific context of the firm. Prior to answering the question of how separated parallel BMs should be, firms need to make sure that they have a viable BM and understand how it operates.

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  • 37.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Vennetti, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Własak, Lech
    Mostostal Warszawa SA, Poland.
    Structural Concept of Novel RPC Sandwich Façade Elements with GFRP Connectors2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment. Report, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 2164-2171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SESBE research project aims to develop novel smart sandwich façade elements with high insulating capabilities while providing a reduced thickness in conjunction with superior mechanical and durability properties. The present paper mainly focuses on the verification of the mechanical performance of the glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) connectors in the façade element composed of reactive powder concrete (RPC) panels with foam concrete insulation between them. Because of the reduced thickness of the large façade elements, the performance of the connectors is critical for the entire structural concept. A description of structural performance and results based on experimental methods and finite element (FE) analysis are presented.

  • 38.
    Folkeson, Björn
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Vattenanvändning med energieffektiva blandare2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the short and long term impacts of domestic hot and cold water use and associated energy use when replacing conventional faucets in 100 apartments with energy efficient faucets labeled with energy class A-B according to the Swedish energy labeling system. The study included a behavioural study to increase the understanding of the users’ perception of the faucets and to investigate the underlying reasons for acceptance of the installed products.

     

    The results showed a reduction in domestic hot water use and energy use for domestic hot water of 28 %. No reduction of cold water use could be identified although changes in occupancy of the apartments might have contributed to this result. The savings in hot water use did not diminish over the measurement period.

     

    The acceptance of the energy efficient faucets did not increase over time, which was likely due to the lack of feedback on the assumption that the faucets provided the indicated savings. It was also indicated that the perception of the faucets differed between contexts in the home. The acceptance was also found to be linked to factors that could not be isolated from the faucet and its function.

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    RISE-rapport 2017:50 Vattenanvändning med energieffektiva blandare - Teknisk rapport
  • 39.
    Furborg, Joe
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Introduction to Hardware Architecture and Evaluation According to EN ISO 13849-12019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hardware realization of safety functions, in safety related machinery control systems can, according to EN ISO 13849-1, be realized as one out of five distinct designated architectures. This report gives examples and guidance for choosing a designated architecture which fulfills the required risk reductive measure of the safety function.

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  • 40. Gabra, M.
    et al.
    Ohman, M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Kjellstrom, B.
    Alkali retention/separation during bagasse gasification: A comparison between a fluidised bed and a cyclone gasifier2001In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 461-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass fuelled integrated gasification/gas turbines (BIG/GTs) have been found to be one of the most promising technologies to maximise electricity output in the sugar industry. However, biomass fuels contain alkali metals (Na and K) which may be released during the gasification processes and cause deleterious effects on the downstream hardware (e.g. the blades of gas turbines). Much research has therefore been focused on different kinds of gas cleaning. Most of these projects are using a fluidised bed gasifier and includes extensive gas cleaning which leads to a high capital investment. Increasing alkali retention/separation during the gasification may lead to improved producer gas quality and reduced costs for gas cleaning. However, very little quantitative information is available about the actual potential of this effect. In the present work, comparative bench-scale tests of bagasse gasification were therefore run in an isothermal fluidised bed gasifier and in a cyclone gasifier to evaluate which gasification process is most attractive as regards alkali retention/separation, and to try to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the retention. The alkali retention in the fluidised bed gasifier was found to be in the range of 12-4% whereas in the cyclone gasifier the alkali separation was found to be about 70%. No significant coating of the fluidised bed's bed material particles could be observed. The SEM/EDS and the elemental maps of the bed material show that a non-sticky ash matrix consisting of mainly Si, Al and K were distributed in a solid form separated from the particles of bed material. This indicates the formation of a high temperature melting potassium containing silicate phase, which is continuously scavenged and lost from the bed through elutriation. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 41. Gabra, M.
    et al.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Backman, Rainier
    Kjellstrom, B.
    Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue: Part 1: Gasification of bagasse2001In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 351-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for avoiding excessive amount of alkali compounds and carryover particles in producer gas from gasification of sugar cane residue has been studied and evaluated. The cane sugar residue is gasified in a two-stage combustor at atmospheric pressure, where the first stage is a cyclone gasifier. The cyclone works as particle separator as well. This paper covers the results obtained for gasification of bagasse. Bagasse powder was injected into the cyclone with air and steam as transport medium. The gasification tests were made with two feeding rates, 39 and 52 kg/h. Seven experiments were conducted with the equivalence ratio being varied. The heating values of the producer gas are sufficient for stable gas turbine combustion. About 60-70% of the alkali input with fuel was separated from the producer gas in the cyclone. However the total alkali contents of the producer gas was found to be higher than in ABB Stal PFBC gas turbines and at least an order of magnitude higher than what is required by most gas turbine manufacturers for operation of a gas turbine. The carryover particles concentrations in the producer gas were found to be in the range of that for PFBC gas turbines, but higher than what is required by most gas turbine manufacturers for operation of a gas turbine. Samples studied with scanning electronic microscope give indication that most of the carryover particles are below 10 μm in size. Fly ash-melting tests have not shown any major ash melting up to 1200°C, but it was found that some of the particles entrained with producer gas were partially melted. Integrated experiments with a gas turbine need to be done for accurate evaluation of the possibilities to use the producer gas from the gasification of bagasse to run a gas turbine without problems of hard deposits and corrosion on the turbine blades. In part 2 of this two-part paper the results from cane trash gasification tests are reported. © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 42. Gabra, M.
    et al.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Backman, Rainier
    Kjellstrom, B.
    Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue: Part 2: Gasification of cane trash2001In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 371-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Part 1 of this two-part paper, results from gasification of bagasse in a cyclone gasifier have been reported. In this paper results from gasification of cane trash in the same cyclone gasifier are presented. The cane trash powder is injected into the cyclone with air as transport medium. The gasification tests were made with two feeding rates, 39 and 46 kg/h at two equivalence ratios of 0.25 and 0.20 and the gasification temperature ranging from 820°C to 850°C. It was found that the heating value of the producer gas is in the range of 4.5-4.8 MJ/Nm3(dry gas), which is sufficient for stable gas turbine combustion. Significant alkali separation has been achieved in the cyclone stage. However, the alkali levels and carryover particle concentrations in the producer gas were found to be higher than allowable in a gas turbine. Despite high ash melting temperatures found by the TGA-DTA, deposition problems cannot be excluded since some carryover panicles in the producer gas seem to have been melted and since some gasification of K and Na compounds is indicated. As an overall assessment, cane trash appears as a more problematic fuel than bagasse for this application. Integrated experiments with a gas turbine need to be done for accurate evaluation of the possibilities to use the producer gas from the gasification of cane trash to run a gas turbine without problems of hard deposits and corrosion on the turbine blades. © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 43.
    Gebart, Bo Rikard
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Carlsson, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Grönberg, C.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Öhrman, Olov
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Recent advances in the understanding of pressurized black liquor gasification.2011In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, Vol. 45, p. 521-526Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Grahn, Sten
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Langbeck, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping Universty, Sweden.
    Backman, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Potential Advantages Using Large Anthropomorphic Robots in Human-robot Collaborative, Hand Guided Assembly2016In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 44, p. 281-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative robot installations often mean man-machine workspace sharing. This mode of operation can lead to reductions of tact time and work space requirements. We have analyzed potential further benefits of man-machine collaboration, where operators and powerful robots share workspace, cooperating when lifting and handling large objects. We found that this mode of operation has the potential to generate economic advantages by reducing the need for manual operators and lifting tools and by offering new opportunities for component logistics.

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  • 45.
    Gram, Annika
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Particle motion in fluid: Analytical and numerical study2016In: Applied Rheology, ISSN 1430-6395, E-ISSN 1617-8106, Vol. 26, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle motion in fluid is discussed for one-particle systems as well as for dense suspensions, such as cementitious materials. The difference in large particle motion between larger particles and behaviour of fines (<125 μm) is explained, motion of one particle is shown by numerical simulation. It is concluded and highlighted that it is the particular motion of the fines that to a large extent contribute to the rheological properties of a suspension. It is also shown why larger ellipsoidal particles do not necessarily contribute to the increase of viscosity.

  • 46.
    Grétarsson, Snaevar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lindell, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Nonlinear Tuned VibrationAbsorber on Reciprocating Tools2018In: Proceedings of the 7th American Conference on Human Vibration 2018 / [ed] Peter W. Johnson, 2018, p. 27-28Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Gullander, Per
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    RISE, Swerea, IVF.
    Fässberg, Tommy
    Van Landeghem, Hendrik
    Zeltzer, Luiza
    Limère, Veronique
    Aghezzaf, El-Houssaine
    Stahre, Johan
    Comparing Two Methods to Measure Assembly Complexity From An Operator Perspective2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48. Gullberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Spray characterization of twin fluid external mix atomization of pyrolysis oil.2012In: Atomization and Sprays, Vol. 22, p. 897-919Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Haggstrom, C.
    et al.
    Ohrman, O.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Rownaghi, A.A.
    Hedlund, J.
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Catalytic methanol synthesis via black liquor gasification2012In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 94, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuel production from gasified black liquor is an interesting route to decrease green house gas emissions. The only pressurised black liquor gasifier currently in pilot operation is located in Sweden. In this work, synthesis gas was taken online directly from this gasifier, purified from hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds and for the first time catalytically converted to methanol in a bench scale equipment. Methanol was successfully synthesised during 45 h in total and the space time yield of methanol produced at 25 bar pressure was 0.16-0.19 g methanol/(g catalyst h). The spent catalyst exposed to gas from the gasifier was slightly enriched in calcium and sodium at the inlet of the reactor and in boron and nickel at the outlet of the reactor. Calcium, sodium and boron likely stem from black liquor whereas nickel probably originates from the stainless steel in the equipment. A slight deactivation, reduced surface area and mesoporosity of the catalyst exposed to gas from the gasifier were observed but it was not possible to reveal the origin of the deactivation. In addition to water, the produced methanol contained traces of hydrocarbons up to C 4, ethanol and dimethyl ether. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 50. Haldenwang, R.
    et al.
    Sutherland, A.P.N.
    Fester, V.G.
    Holm, R.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Chhabra, R.P.
    Sludge pipe flow pressure drop prediction using composite power-law friction factor-Reynolds number correlations based on different non-Newtonian Reynolds numbers2012In: Water S.A., ISSN 0378-4738, E-ISSN 1816-7950, no 4, p. 615-622Article in journal (Refereed)
12345 1 - 50 of 218
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