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  • 1.
    Belov, Ilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Arwidson, Jonas
    Saab AB, Sweden.
    Poder, Ralf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Johannesson, Pär
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Thermal fatigue prediction: consequences of cycle reduction and material property variation2016Inngår i: Electronic Environment, 2016, Vol. 1, s. 27-27Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Belov, Ilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Lang, Jenny
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hellén, Johan
    Saab AB, Sweden.
    Lim, Jang-Kwon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Schødt, Bo
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn M. J.
    Saab AB, Sweden.
    Poder, Ralf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bakowski, Mietek
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Reliability study of GaN HEMTs2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Absolute calibration of a 100 KV DC divider1996Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An absolute determination of the ratio of a 100 kV DC divider has been made. A new Zener device that has recently become available has been used in a step-up mode to obtain the divider ratio. The uncertainty of the determination is 5.5 ppm.

  • 4.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Achievable Accuracy in Industrial Measurement of Dissipation Factor of Power Capacitors2018Inngår i: NCSLI Measure, ISSN 1931-5775, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 34-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern dielectrics used in power capacitors can exhibit a dissipation factor lower than 0.005 %, which approaches the limits of presently available measurement techniques. This article reviews techniques, apparatus, and available calibration services for dissipation factor with regard to lowest achievable uncertainties. It is shown that further metrological advances are necessary to lower uncertainty in the measurement to levels at least five times less than presently achievable, in order to ensure traceable and quality-assured measurement of modern dielectrics with such low dissipation factors

  • 5.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Bergman, Allan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Jönsson, Bengt
    ABB AB, Sweden.
    Rietveld, Gert
    VSL Nederlands Metrologisch Instituut, Netherlands.
    Sauzay, Mathieu
    JST transformateurs, France.
    Walmsley, Jonathan
    GE Power, UK.
    Sund, John Bjarne
    MSC EE Transformer Consultant, Norway.
    Estimating Uncertainty in Loss Measurement of Power Transformers2019Inngår i: ISH 2019, International Sympsoium on High Voltage Engineering, Budapest, Hungary, August 26-30, 2019., 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Eco-design directive issued by the European Commission has led to re-quirements on efficiency of power transformers. In the case of large power transformers used in grid applications, serious problems are encountered in establishing how reliable the loss measurements are. An effort is currently on-going within IEC to produce a documentary standard on “Rules for the determination of uncertainties in the measurement of the losses of power transformers”. An IEC standard should be clear and easy to understand by all users in the industry. Background theory and material, whilst necessary for understanding, is not required for the day-to-day application of the standard. This paper presents a more detailed background and theory on the measure-ment of transformer losses and how to quantify precision. The authors are all members of the IEC maintenance team working with the standard.

  • 6.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Bergman, Sixten
    Consultant, Rönnvägen 1 A, 507 71 Gånghester, Sweden.
    Hoffmann, Christian
    Baur Gmbh, Austria.
    Paulus, Eberhard
    Baur Gmbh, Austria.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Traceable measurement of dielectric dissipation factor at Very Low Frequency2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Very Low Frequency (VLF) tests are often used for after-laying tests of power cables since the reactive power demand is much lower at VLF than at 50 Hz. In order to augment the usefulness of the test, it is often complemented by a measurement of dielectric dissipation factor (tan ), where the acceptance of the tested object is based on this measurement. A traceability chain for dissipation factor at high voltage and very low frequency has as yet not been recognized by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), which results in difficulties to prove the quality of the measurement. The measurement is complicated by the limited range of the current in the test object that can be resolved by available high voltage test equipment, thus limiting the possible choices of reference systems. A novel reference measuring system that can fulfil these needs has been developed at SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden in the capacity as National Measurement Institute. The traceability of the system to National Standards of Measurement is ensured by careful scientific work and analyses. This measuring system has the ability to measure dissipation factor at 0.1 Hz in the voltage range from 0.5 kV up to 50 kV with an uncertainty better than 0.004 %.

  • 7.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Rietveld, Gert
    VSL, Netherlands.
    CIGRE Science & Enginering, Volume No.15, October 2019: Innovation in the Power Systems industry2019Inngår i: CIGRE Science & Engineering, ISSN 2426-1335, Vol. 15, s. 85-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Losses of HVDC converter stations need to be accurately quantified to support evaluation of bids for such systems and to underpin efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At present, these losses are estimated, based on loss calculations for individual converter components, and no reliable method exists to measure the actual HVDC converter station loss as difference between power on the AC- and DC-side of the station. The necessary requirements for such a measurement are investigated in this study, and a tentative design of a suitable loss measuring setup is explored. This approach is a useful alternative for those cases where a direct measurement of losses via a temporary connection with two converters operating in back-to-back mode cannot be made.

  • 8.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Rosenggren, Max
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Fire Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Road Vehicles2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for lithium-ion battery powered road vehicles continues to increase around the world. As more of these become operational across the globe, their involvement in traffic accidents and fire incidents is likely to rise. This can damage the lithium-ion battery and subsequently pose a threat to occupants and responders as well as those involved in post-crash operations. There are many different types of lithium-ion batteries, with different packaging and chemistries but also variations in how they are integrated into modern vehicles. To use lithium-ion batteries safely means to keep the cells within a defined voltage and temperature window. These limits can be exceeded as a result of crash or fault conditions. This report provides background information regarding lithium-ion batteries and battery pack integration in vehicles. Fire hazards are identified and means for preventing and controlling them are presented. The possibility of fixed fire suppression and detection systems in electric vehicles is discussed.

  • 9.
    Eslamian, Morteza
    et al.
    University of Zanjan, Iran.
    Kharezy, Mohammad
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Thiringer, Torbjörn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Calculation of the leakage inductance of medium frequency transformershaving rectangular-shaped windings using an accurate analytical method2019Inngår i: 2019 21st European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE '19 ECCE Europe), 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve the lowest loss by the Zero-Voltage Switching of a Dual Active Bridge converter, it is crucial to precisely calculate the embedded Leakage Inductance of the used Medium Frequency Transformer (MFT). An effective analytical method is proposed for calculation of the leakage inductance of the MFT with rectangular-shaped windings

  • 10.
    Furborg, Joe
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Introduction to Hardware Architecture and Evaluation According to EN ISO 13849-12019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Hardware realization of safety functions, in safety related machinery control systems can, according to EN ISO 13849-1, be realized as one out of five distinct designated architectures. This report gives examples and guidance for choosing a designated architecture which fulfills the required risk reductive measure of the safety function.

  • 11.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Tegehall, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Lidström, Oscar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Wünscher, Heike
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Steinke, Arndt
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Richert, Hans
    SETEK Elektronik AB, Sweden.
    Lagerkvist, Peter
    Niranova AB, Sweden.
    Unit for Investigation of the Working Environment for electronic units in harsh environment2017Inngår i: Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2017: Smart Systems Transforming the Automobile / [ed] Zachäus, C., Müller, B., Meyer, G., Springer, 2017, s. 13-22Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When electronic equipment is used in harsh environments with long expected lifetimethere is a need to understand that environment more in detail. This situationis today a reality for many application areas including the automotive sector,heavy industry, the defense sector and more.To fully understand the working environment a unit has been developed to monitorphysical data such as temperature, vibration, humidity, condensation etc. to beused in the product development phase for new products.The paper presents the underlying principles for the ESU (Environmental SupervisionUnit) and details on the design.

  • 12.
    Hoffmann, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Immersion of 400 volt traction battery in fresh water and salt water2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    By means of these tests, where Li-ion batteries have been immersed in both fresh water as well as 3 % salt water, it was demonstrated that it is completely safe to be both in the water and in the direct proximity of a battery, in this case, with 400 volt direct current. This conclusion holds, on the condition that the exposed individual, in the direct proximity of the battery, does not actively touch any of the battery's poles. Analogous to this, it can be assumed that nor does an electric vehicle, which for some reason has entered a watercourse consisting of either fresh water or seawater, constitute a danger for those bathing in the immediate vicinity of the electric vehicle. However, this assumes that an individual who is diving or bathing does not touch exposed parts of the traction system (explanation, e.g. open battery case and directly taking hold of live exposed parts of the traction battery and its cells). However, these parts are normally built into the vehicle's protective structures and are hard to access by inadvertent contact. The commercially available, factory produced, electric vehicles made by serious designers and automotive companies have a monitoring system in their systems that immediately switch off the power supply from the traction battery to the electric vehicle's traction system. This provides additional personal protection for anyone (e.g. fireman) who has the task of helping passengers who have entered a watercourse along with their electric vehicle. During immersion in salt water, a pungent chlorine gas was generated, which can be thought to collect inside a vehicle's air pockets; whether these gas mixtures are flammable or not has not been studied during these tests. No drastic events could be observed during any of these tests, however, one should be aware that a battery, which for some reason has been in immersed in water and has not discharged, can still have a hazardous voltage level after many months. This is something that the rescue service, automotive mechanics and car recyclers in particular should be informed.

  • 13.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Toss, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Lang, John
    Autoliv, Sweden.
    Costagliola, Francesco
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Zheng, Tian
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Marel, Elias
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    HiFi Radar Target: High fidelity soft targets and radar simulation for more efficient testing (real and virtual)2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The 77 GHz radar is a crucial sensor in the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and Autonomous Driving (AD) system due to its ability to detect and track objects at distances up to 200 meters. To ensure high reliability of the radar function, extensive testing with soft surrogate targets is needed. However, the radar response of a surrogate target may differ from that of real targets, causing unexpected reactions of the ADAS and AD functions in real traffic situations. The first project goal was therefore to develop and validate realistic soft surrogate targets, a work which was performed in several steps. First radar reference targets were designed and verified. Secondly procedures for calibration of automotive radars were developed. Finally, a thorough investigation on Radar Cross Section (RCS) characterization methods for large test objects on the test track was conducted resulting in several measurement setups and measurement procedures including uncertainty analysis. Now, with the ability to perform repeatable and reliable RCS characterizations, several real and surrogate targets were characterized and work on improving RCS profile of surrogate targets were conducted.Strong competition in the automotive industry and the need to validate more and more complex functions (including autonomous drive) drives the development of virtual test methods. The ability to test the ADAS or AD functions virtually early in the development will save considerable time and cost. However, there were no such tools available with full radar simulation in-loop available prior to the project, which was the reason for the second goal of this project: an ADAS/AD system simulation tool-chain with radar simulation in-loop.The HiFi Radar Target project (diarienr. 2015-04852) was an FFI project within the Electronics, Software and Communications program. After prolongation it was a 30-month project that started 2015-12-31 and ended 2018-06-30. The project had a total budget of 15.9 MSEK.

  • 14. Kawahara, J.
    et al.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Wang, X.
    Gustafsson, G.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE., Innventia.
    Berggren, M.
    Reconfigurable sticker label electronics manufactured from nanofibrillated cellulose-based self-adhesive organic electronic materials2013Inngår i: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, nr 11, s. 3061-3069Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15.
    Kharezy, Mohammad
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Morteza, Eslamian
    University of Zanjan, Iran.
    Thiringer, Torbjörn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Insulation Design of a Medium Frequency Power Transformer for a Cost-Effective Series High Voltage DC Collection Network of an Offshore Wind Farm2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, Switzerland: Springer Publishing Company, 2019, s. 06-1417Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    DC can be used advantageously in transmission of power from offshore wind farms, utilizing series connection of the individual turbines’ outputs. Employing individual wind turbine converters, operating at high frequency, the advantage of DC can be achieved without the need for a large central converter. This solution obviates the need of expensive, bulky and heavy 50 Hz transformer or centralized DC/DC converter platforms.

    Power electronic converters are among the enabling technologies to establish a series DC intertie system. The most important advantage of a DC/DC converter using a Medium Frequency Power Transformer (MFPT) is its compact size in comparison with a normal grid frequency transformer.

    The function of a MFPT is to provide voltage step up and isolation between generators and the HVDC link. The need for a compact structure dictates further design constraints. A MFPT should have a high-power transmission capability from a small volume as well as minimal internal insolation distances. Furthermore, in the series DC integration circuit, DC/DC converters can experience a very high offset DC voltage depending on the converter’s position with respect to earth (in the range of one or two hundred kilovolts), while the primary side (wind turbine generator side) is only exposed to a few kV.

    Due to its promising features, many research activities have been devoted to the design and optimization of MFPTs. However, only a few activities specifically addressed the insulation requirements for them.

  • 16.
    Li, Shanghua
    et al.
    ABB, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    ABB, Sweden.
    Liu, Rongsheng
    ABB, Sweden.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Fornara, Andrea
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Johansson Salazar-Sandoval, Eric
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    The effect of ceria nanoparticles on the breakdown strength of transformer oil2015Inngår i: 2015 IEEE 11th International Conference on the Properties and Applications of Dielectric Materials (ICPADM), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, s. 289-292Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanotechnologies have potential to be used in transformer industry in enhancing material properties which may lead to a compact design of transformer and reduced manufacturing cost. Effect of adding different nanoparticles such as titania, silica, nano-diamond, etc. has been studied in literatures. In this paper, nano-ceria particles have been successfully added into transformer mineral oil with different content. The suspension is very stable and no segmentation can be observed over several months. The ceria nanoparticles are commercially available, which have a quite narrow size distribution. UV-Vis, TGA and FT-IR are used to characterize the ceria nanofluids. The water content of the ceria nanofluids has been measured by Karl Fisher titration, which is important for the breakdown strength of transformer oil. AC voltage breakdown and lightning impulse voltage breakdown measurements have been performed on the ceria nanofluids. An enhancement of 15% on AC breakdown voltage has been observed on ceria nanofluids with some content compared to reference transformer oil. On the other hand, no clear difference on the lightning impulse breakdown voltage is observed between the ceria nanofluids and reference transformer oil.

  • 17.
    Lobov, Gleb S.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Marinins, Aleksandrs
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Max
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Toprak, Muhammet Sadaka
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Thylen, Lars
    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, US; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Electro-optical response of P3HT nanofibers in liquid solution2015Inngår i: Asia Communications and Photonics Conference 2015, Optical Society of America, 2015, artikkel-id ASu1A.5Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AC electric poling introduces in P3HT nanofibers anisotropic electro-optical response and birefringence. Along with birefringence, such material exhibits strong amplitude modulation which makes it more efficient alternative to liquid crystals.

  • 18.
    Ludvigsson, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Dyreklev, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Norberg, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Malmros, Ingemar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Falk, Krister
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Clausén, Ulf
    Forserum Saftey Glass AB, Sweden.
    Laminated display based on printed electronics2016Inngår i: Engineered Transparency 2016: Glass in Architecture and Structural Engineering, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Nilsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Rössler, Jochen
    University Medical Hospital, Germany.
    Electrically conductive fibres - recent development2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Nord, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    HiFi Visual Target - D5.2 Final Report2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and Autonomous Driving (AD) vehicles rely heavily on sensors for achieving their goal of protecting the driver and passengers from potentially dangerous situations. Optical sensors are used to measure locations and velocities of objects at distances of up to 150 meters. Optical sensors could be cameras (for visible light or IR) used to detect either objects or road features (like e.g. road edges and markings). They are a common choice for high-end ADAS and are found in sensor sets of most AD vehicles.

    To ensure reliable performance of object detection, extensive testing of optical sensors is required. In vehicle testing performed at test tracks like AstaZero, 3D soft car targets are used for safety reasons. However, due to non-perfect shape and materials, the optical characteristics of 3D soft car targets may differ considerably from that of real vehicles in traffic, resulting in different detection performance, and hence different activation of the functions. Moreover, during tests the quality of the 3D soft car targets deteriorates due to repeated impacts and reassembly of the targets, which implies that there is a need of methods for securing the quality of the 3D soft car targets over time.

    By addressing these challenges, the goal of the project has been to contribute to improved testing methods of optical and geometrical characteristics of 3D soft car targets by:

    • developing measurement methods and specifying measurement setups for the optical and geometrical characteristics of 3D soft car targets;
    • developing simplified measurement methods for quality check on 3D soft car targets to secure the quality over time;
    • providing input to international standardization regarding methods for measurement of optical and geometrical characteristics of real and soft car targets.

    The results include test of different measurement methods, different 3D soft car targets as well as real vehicles and also an accelerated ageing test of a 3D soft car target from DRi.

  • 21.
    Nord, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    HiFi Visual Target - Methods for Measuring Optical and Geometrical Characteristics of Soft Car Targets for ADAS and AD2017Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Mobility: Smart Systems Transforming the Automobile / [ed] Gereon Meyer, Berlin: Springer, 2017, s. 201-209Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and Automated Driving (AD)vehicles rely on a variety of sensors and among them optical sensors. Extensivetesting of functions using optical sensors is required and typically performedat proving grounds like AstaZero. Soft surrogate targets are used for safetyreasons but the optical and geometrical characteristics of soft car targets maydiffer considerably from that of real vehicles. During tests the quality of thesoft car targets deteriorates due to repeated impacts and reassembly of thetargets, and there is a need of methods for securing the quality of the softcar targets over time. One of the main goals of the HiFi Visual Target project isto develop and validate accurate and repeatable measurement methods of theoptical and geometric characteristics of soft car targets.

  • 22.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Belk, Marios
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Germanakos, Panagiotis
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus; SAP AG, Germany.
    Samaras, George
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Towards implicit user modeling based on artificial intelligence, cognitive styles and web interaction data2014Inngår i: International journal on artificial intelligence tools, ISSN 0218-2130, Vol. 23, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A key challenge of adaptive interactive systems is to provide a positive user experience by extracting implicitly the users' unique characteristics through their interactions with the system, and dynamically adapting and personalizing the system's content presentation and functionality. Among the different dimensions of individual differences that could be considered, this work utilizes the cognitive styles of users as determinant factors for personalization. The overarching goal of this paper is to increase our understanding about the effect of cognitive styles of users on their navigation behavior and content representation preference. We propose a Web-based tool, utilizing Artificial Intelligence techniques, to implicitly capture and find any possible relations between the cognitive styles of users and their characteristics in navigation behavior and content representation preference by using their Web interaction data. The proposed tool has been evaluated with a user study revealing that cognitive styles of users have an effect on their navigation behavior and content representation preference. Research works like the reported one are useful for improving implicit and intelligent user modeling in engineering adaptive interactive systems.

  • 23.
    Pelliccione, Patrizio
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Halmstad University, Sweden; VTI, Sweden.
    Aderum, Tobias
    Autoliv Research, Sweden.
    Ågren, S. Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Göran
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Heldal, Rogardt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    Qamcom Research and Technology AB, Sweden.
    Thorsen, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Architecting cars as constituents of a system of systems2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Software-intensive Systems-of-Systems at 10th European Conference on Software Architecture, ACM , 2016, artikkel-id 5Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Future transportation systems will be a heterogeneous mix of items with varying connectivity and interoperability. A mix of new technologies and legacy systems will co-exist to realize a variety of scenarios involving not only connected cars but also road infrastructures, pedestrians, cyclists, etc. Future transportation systems can be seen as a System of Systems (SoS), where each constituent system - one of the units that compose an SoS - can act as a standalone system, but the cooperation among the constituent systems enables new emerging and promising scenarios. In this paper we investigate how to architect cars so that they can be constituents of future transportation systems. This work is realized in the context of two Swedish projects coordinated by Volvo Cars and involving some universities and research centers in Sweden and many suppliers of the OEM, including Autoliv, Arccore, Combitech, Cybercom, Knowit, Prevas, ÅF-Technology, Semcom, and Qamcom.

  • 24.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Shah, Syed
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Choosing Component Origins for Software Intensive Systems: In-house, COTS, OSS or Outsourcing? – A Case Survey2018Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 237-261Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of which software component to use influences the success of a software system. Only a few empirical studies investigate how the choice of components is conducted in industrial practice. This is important to understand to tailor research solutions to the needs of the industry. Existing studies focus on the choice for off-the-shelf (OTS) components. It is, however, also important to understand the implications of the choice of alternative component sourcing options (CSOs), such as outsourcing versus the use of OTS. Previous research has shown that the choice has major implications on the development process as well as on the ability to evolve the system. The objective of this study is to explore how decision making took place in industry to choose among CSOs. Overall, 22 industrial cases have been studied through a case survey. The results show that the solutions specifically for CSO decisions are deterministic and based on optimization approaches. The non-deterministic solutions proposed for architectural group decision making appear to suit the CSO decision making in industry better. Interestingly, the final decision was perceived negatively in nine cases and positively in seven cases, while in the remaining cases it was perceived as neither positive nor negative.

  • 25.
    Raaholt, Birgitta
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Isaksson, Sven
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Fhager, Andreas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hamnerius, Yngve
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Continuous tubular microwave heating of homogeneous foods: evaluation of heating uniformity2016Inngår i: The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, ISSN 0832-7823, Vol. 50, nr 1, s. 43-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot-scale process for continuous in-flow microwave processing of foods, designed and implemented at SP Food and Bioscience, was evaluated for heat treatment of a homogeneous model food for high-temperature short-time (HTST) conditions, at constant total input microwave power, at 2450 MHz. The microwave system has three consecutive cavities, one excited by the TM020 microwave mode that heats primarily in the tube centre, and two TM120 mode cavities that heat primarily in the tube periphery. The temperature uniformity of the homogeneous model food after microwave heating is here evaluated in terms of spatial distribution, for different set-ups of input microwave power in each cavity and for different order of the placement of the cavities, while maintaining the total input microwave power. The microwave heating uniformity is evaluated, based on measured and calculated radial temperature profiles. Combined TM020 and TM120 heating was found to result in more uniform heating by means of spatial temperature uniformity over the tube cross section. Furthermore, appropriately selected microwave power distribution between the centre and periphery heating cavities results in a stable heating profile in the studied food, that differs only about 10 °C or less between highest and lowest average values directly after microwave heating.

  • 26.
    Svensson, Stefan
    SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Power Measurement Techniques for Non-Sinusoidal COnditions: The significance of harmonics for the measurement of power and other AC quanities1999Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased application of power electronics and other non-linear loads makes it necessary to re-evaluate the measuring techniques used in the power system, and the measuring problems these loads cause. An instrument utilising digital sampling techniques has been built and evaluated at the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP). The Digital Sampling Watt Meter (DSWM) is based on standard laboratory equipment: digital multimeters, voltage dividers, shunt resistors and a PC. The DSWM is versatile and can be used for calibrations of many quantities. The most basic ones are the (total) active power and the amplitude and phase angle of individual harmonics of non-sinusoidal voltages and currents.

     

    The DSWM was first verified for sinusoidal signals. At 120 V and 5 A and power factor one, the DSWM has an estimated uncertainty (2s) of 60 ppm at 50 Hz and 600 pp at 20 kHz. The wattmeter has also participated in three international comparison with satisfactory results. The most important additional feature, the input distortion, has been verified to be less than 800 ppm for all harmonics and lower than 100 ppm for most harmonics.

     

    Some AC quantities, as the reactive power, are not properly defined for non-sinusoidal situations. Efforts are made in this work to understand and explain the problems of extending the reactive power definition to cover non-sinusoidal situations. The main conclusion is that reactive power is used to obtain information on more than one property of the power transmission mechanism, e. g. phase angle, transmission efficiency and line voltage drop. No single power definition can alone provide information on all these properties in a non-sinusoidal situation. Moreover, instrument designs may not comply with any of the extended definitions and these meters exhibit extra errors due to this non-compliance in non-sinusoidal situations.

     

    Some conclusions on future demands on energy meters can be drawn, based on the error analysis of these meters and an analysis on how the responsibility for the harmonic currents and voltages in the power system can be determined and shared. One conclusion is that it is not possible to make a precise determination of the responsibility for harmonics based on any power measurement alone.

  • 27.
    Tas, E.
    et al.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Cakir, S.
    TÜBİTAK UME National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Cetintas, M.
    TÜBİTAK UME National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Hamouz, P.
    CMI Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Isbring, T.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Kokalj, M.
    SIQ Slovenian Institute of Quality and Metrology, Slovenia.
    Lopez, D.
    INTA National Institute of Aerospace Technology, Spain.
    Lundgren, U.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Mandaris, D.
    University of Twente, Netherlands; LIPI Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Indonesia.
    Pinter, B.
    SIQ Slovenian Institute of Quality and Metrology, Slovenia.
    Poriz, M.
    CMI Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Pous, M.
    Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Spain.
    Pythoud, F.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Sen, O.
    TÜBİTAK UME National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Silva, F.
    Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Spain.
    Svoboda, M.
    CMI Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Trincaz, B.
    LNE Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais, France.
    Zhao, D.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Proficiency testing for conducted immunity with a new round robin test device2016Inngår i: 2016 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility - EMC EUROPE, 2016, s. 274-279, artikkel-id 7739174Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Last year, a new round robin test device was proposed for inter-laboratory comparisons in conducted immunity testing according to IEC 61000-4-6[1]. The device has recently been successfully evaluated among all EMRP Project partners. The device is able to confirm or to deny the testing capability of a laboratory by recording a full set of parameters. The device is now ready for deployment as the first commercial proficiency testing device for conducted immunity.

  • 28.
    Tiloca, Marco
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Dini, Gianluca
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Racciatti, Francesco
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Stagkopoulou, Alexandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    SEA++: A Framework for Evaluating the Impact of Security Attacks in OMNeT++/INET2019Inngår i: Recent Advances in Network Simulation: The OMNeT++ Environment and its Ecosystem / [ed] A. Virdis and M. Kirsche, Springer International Publishing , 2019, s. 253-278Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents SEA++, a simulation framework that extends OMNeT++ and the INET Framework for evaluating the impact of security attacks on networks and applications in a flexible and user-friendly way. To this end, SEA++ relies on two fundamental building blocks. First, the user describes the attacks to be evaluated by using a high-level Attack Specification Language (ASL). In particular, only the final effects of such attacks are described, rather than their actual performance. Second, the Attack Simulation Engine (ASE) takes these high-level descriptions as input and accordingly injects attack events at runtime, by means of additional software modules that seamlessly and transparently operate with the other INET modules. This allows the user to quantitatively assess the impact of cyber/physical attacks in simulated network scenarios, and hence rank them according to their severity as a support to risk assessment and selection of countermeasures. As a further advantage, the user is not required to alter any software module or application, or to implement any adversary model for the actual execution of security attacks. Finally, this chapter also includes a step-by-step explicative example showing how to set up and use SEA++ for describing attacks and assessing their impact.

  • 29.
    Tiloca, Marco
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Höglund, Rikard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Al Atiiq, Syafiq
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    SARDOS: Self-Adaptive Reaction against Denial of Service in the Internet of Things2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Denial of Service (DoS) is a common and severe security issue in computer networks. Typical DoS attacks overload servers with bogus requests, induce them to worthlessly commit resources, and even make them unable to serve legitimate clients. This is especially relevant in Internet of Things scenarios, where servers are particularly exposed and often equipped with limited resources. Although most countermeasures focus on detection and mitigation, they do not react to dynamically adapt victims' behavior, while at the same time preserving service availability. This paper presents SARDOS, a reactive security service that leverages detection mechanisms from different communication layers, and adaptively changes the operative behavior of victim servers while preserving service availability. We experimentally evaluated SARDOS with a prototype implementation running on an underclocked Raspberry Pi server. Our results show that, when running SARDOS, a server under attack displays considerably lower memory and CPU usage, while still ensuring (best-effort) fulfillment of legitimate requests.

  • 30.
    Toss, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    How to Perform EMC Testing of Autonomous Vehicles2017Inngår i: Electronic Environment, nr 3, s. 32-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    EMC TESTING of autonomous vehicles is challenging because the involved systems are designed to identify unrealistic driving conditions, which is exactly what we have in a typical anechoic EMC chamber. When the system detects unrealistic conditions, autonomous driving functions are disabled or set to predefined states, which means that EMC testing of autonomous functions is not possible. To fully test autonomous driving systems, we therefore need to emulate a realistic environment in many aspects, i.e., we need to stimulate involved sensors in a realistic way.

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