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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ben Abdesslem, Fehmi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Marsh, Ian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Selecting Operator in 3G/4G Networks for Time-Critical C-ITS Applications2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ben Abdesslem, Fehmi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Marsh, Ian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Connected Vehicles in Cellular Networks: Multi-access versus Single-access Performance2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Connected vehicles can make roads traffic safer andmore efficient, but require the mobile networks to handle timecriticalapplications. Using the MONROE mobile broadbandmeasurement testbed we conduct a multi-access measurementstudy on buses. The objective is to understand what networkperformance connected vehicles can expect in today’s mobilenetworks, in terms of transaction times and availability. The goalis also to understand to what extent access to several operatorsin parallel can improve communication performance.In our measurement experiments we repeatedly transfer warningmessages from moving buses to a stationary server. Wetriplicate the messages and always perform three transactionsin parallel over three different cellular operators. This creates adataset with which we can compare the operators in an objectiveway and with which we can study the potential for multi-access.In this paper we use the triple-access dataset to evaluate singleaccessselection strategies, where one operator is chosen for eachtransaction. We show that if we have access to three operatorsand for each transaction choose the operator with best accesstechnology and best signal quality then we can significantlyimprove availability and transaction times compared to theindividual operators. The median transaction time improves with6% compared to the best single operator and with 61% comparedto the worst single operator. The 90-percentile transaction timeimproves with 23% compared to the best single operator andwith 65% compared to the worst single operator.

  • 3.
    Aftab, Muhammad Usman
    et al.
    National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan.
    Hussain, Mehdi
    National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan.
    Lindgren, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Ghafoor, Abdul
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Towards A Distributed Ledger Based Verifiable Trusted Protocol for VANET2021Inngår i: 2021 International Conference on Digital Futures and Transformative Technologies, ICoDT2 2021, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2021Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure traffic safety and proper operation of vehicular networks, safety messages or beacons are periodically broadcasted in Vehicular Adhoc Networks (VANETs) to neighboring nodes and road side units (RSU). Thus, authenticity and integrity of received messages along with the trust in source nodes is crucial and highly required in applications where a failure can result in life-threatening situations. Several digital signature based approaches have been described in literature to achieve the authenticity of these messages. In these schemes, scenarios having high level of vehicle density are handled by RSU where aggregated signature verification is done. However, most of these schemes are centralized and PKI based where our goal is to develop a decentralized dynamic system. Along with authenticity and integrity, trust management plays an important role in VANETs which enables ways for secure and verified communication. A number of trust management models have been proposed but it is still an ongoing matter of interest, similarly authentication which is a vital security service to have during communication is not mostly present in the literature work related to trust management systems. This paper proposes a secure and publicly verifiable communication scheme for VANET which achieves source authentication, message authentication, non repudiation, integrity and public verifiability. All of these are achieved through digital signatures, Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC) technique and logging mechanism which is aided by blockchain technology.

  • 4.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Latency-aware Multipath Scheduling in Information-centric Networks2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the 15th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW), 2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the latency-aware multipath scheduler ZQTRTT that takes advantage of the multipath opportunities in information-centric networking. The goal of the scheduler is to use the (single) lowest latency path for transaction-oriented flows, and use multiple paths for bulk data flows. A new estimator called zero queue time ratio is used for scheduling over multiple paths. The objective is to distribute the flow over the paths so that the zero queue time ratio is equal on the paths, that is, so that each path is ‘pushed’ equally hard by the flow without creating unwanted queueing. We make an initial evaluation using simulation that shows that the scheduler meets our objectives.

  • 5.
    Allison, R.S.
    et al.
    York University, Canada.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Chandler, D.M.
    Shizuoka University, Japan.
    Colett, H.
    Intel Corp, USA.
    Corriveau, P.
    Intel Corp, USA.
    Daly, S.
    Dolby Laboratories Inc, USA.
    Goel, J.
    Qualcomm Technologies, USA.
    Long, J.Y.
    Intel Corp, USA.
    Wilcox, L.M.
    York University, Canada.
    Yaacob, Y.
    Shizuoka University, Japan.
    Yang, S. N.
    Pacific University, USA.
    Zhang, Y.
    Xi’an Jiaotong University, China.
    Perspectives on the definition of visually lossless quality for mobile and large format displays2018Inngår i: Journal of Electronic Imaging, ISSN 10179909, Vol. 27, nr 5, artikkel-id 053035Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in imaging and display engineering have given rise to new and improved image and videoapplications that aim to maximize visual quality under given resource constraints (e.g., power, bandwidth).Because the human visual system is an imperfect sensor, the images/videos can be represented in a mathematicallylossy fashion but with enough fidelity that the losses are visually imperceptible—commonly termed“visually lossless.” Although a great deal of research has focused on gaining a better understanding ofthe limits of human vision when viewing natural images/video, a universally or even largely accepted definitionof visually lossless remains elusive. Differences in testing methodologies, research objectives, and targetapplications have led to multiple ad-hoc definitions that are often difficult to compare to or otherwise employ inother settings. We present a compendium of technical experiments relating to both vision science and visualquality testing that together explore the research and business perspectives of visually lossless image quality,as well as review recent scientific advances. Together, the studies presented in this paper suggest that a singledefinition of visually lossless quality might not be appropriate; rather, a better goal would be to establish varyinglevels of visually lossless quality that can be quantified in terms of the testing paradigm.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Jonas
    VTI, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Dimensions of Cooperative Driving, ITS and Automation2015Inngår i: Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Bajracharya, Rojeena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Shrestha, Rakesh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Hassan, Syed Ali
    National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan.
    Jung, Haejoon
    Kyung Hee University, South Korea.
    Shin, Hyundong
    Kyung Hee University, South Korea.
    5G and Beyond Private Military Communication: Trend, Requirements, Challenges and Enablers2023Inngår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, s. 83996-84012Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication networks are becoming increasingly important in military operations, with task fields like time-critical targeting, covert special operations, command and control, training, and logistics, all relying heavily on the communication network and its services. On the other hand, commercial communication has dramatically transformed our society and the way we communicate. The newest network mode at present, 5G and beyond (5GB), is characterized by high speed, low latency, high reliability, and high communication density. Although the use of 5GB commercial networks for defense agencies can offer greater flexibility and efficiency, they also face a new challenge that requires high standards of network protection and harsh working conditions and environments. In this paper, we discuss the significance of communication networks in several potential military applications, particularly for warfare, training/drilling, logistics, and special mission-specific stations. We present the communication trends adopted in military applications. Then, we open up various 5GB key performance indexes and their use cases for the military communication systems. We also elaborate on unique challenges of the military communication networks that are unlikely to be resolved via commercial 5GB research. The various 5GB enabling technologies for military communication systems are discussed. Lastly, we present and analyze 5GB new radio for the private military communication under C-band.

  • 8.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Bazzi, Alessandro
    University of Bologna, Italy; CNIT-WiLab, Italy.
    Hernandez-Jayo, Unai
    University of Deusto, Spain.
    de la Iglesia, Idoia
    Basque Research and Technology Alliance, Spain.
    Ahmadvand, Hossein
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    A survey on vehicular communication for cooperative truck platooning application2022Inngår i: Vehicular Communications, ISSN 2214-2096, E-ISSN 2214-210X, Vol. 35, artikkel-id 100460Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Platooning is an application where a group of vehicles move one after each other in close proximity, acting jointly as a single physical system. The scope of platooning is to improve safety, reduce fuel consumption, and increase road use efficiency. Even if conceived several decades ago as a concept, based on the new progress in automation and vehicular networking platooning has attracted particular attention in the latest years and is expected to become of common implementation in the next future, at least for trucks. The platoon system is the result of a combination of multiple disciplines, from transportation, to automation, to electronics, to telecommunications. In this survey, we consider the platooning, and more specifically the platooning of trucks, from the point of view of wireless communications. Wireless communications are indeed a key element, since they allow the information to propagate within the convoy with an almost negligible delay and really making all vehicles acting as one. Scope of this paper is to present a comprehensive survey on connected vehicles for the platooning application, starting with an overview of the projects that are driving the development of this technology, followed by a brief overview of the current and upcoming vehicular networking architecture and standards, by a review of the main open issues related to wireless communications applied to platooning, and a discussion of security threats and privacy concerns. The survey will conclude with a discussion of the main areas that we consider still open and that can drive future research directions. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 9.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Cinque, Elena
    University of L'Aquila, Italy; Radiolabs Consortium, Italy.
    Pratesi, Marco
    University of L'Aquila, Italy.
    Valentini, Francesco
    University of L'Aquila, Italy; Radiolabs Consortium, Italy.
    Bai, Chumeng
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gómez, Arrate Alonso
    Mondragon Unibertsitatea, Spain.
    Mohammadi, Mahboubeh
    Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran.
    Survey on decentralized congestion control methods for vehicular communication2022Inngår i: Vehicular Communications, ISSN 2214-2096, E-ISSN 2214-210X, Vol. 33, artikkel-id 100394Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicular communications have grown in interest over the years and are nowadays recognized as a pillar for the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) in order to ensure an efficient management of the road traffic and to achieve a reduction in the number of traffic accidents. To support the safety applications, both the ETSI ITS-G5 and IEEE 1609 standard families require each vehicle to deliver periodic awareness messages throughout the neighborhood. As the vehicles density grows, the scenario dynamics may require a high message exchange that can easily lead to a radio channel congestion issue and then to a degradation on safety critical services. ETSI has defined a Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) mechanism to mitigate the channel congestion acting on the transmission parameters (i.e., message rate, transmit power and data-rate) with performances that vary according to the specific algorithm. In this paper, a review of the DCC standardization activities is proposed as well as an analysis of the existing methods and algorithms for the congestion mitigation. Also, some applied machine learning techniques for DCC are addressed.

  • 10.
    Bosse, Sebastian
    et al.
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Arndt, Sebastian
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Martini, Maria G.
    Kingston University, UK.
    Ramzan, Naeem
    University of the West of Scotland, UK.
    Engelke, Ulrich
    CSIRO, Australia.
    A common framework for the evaluation of psychophysiological visualquality assessment2019Inngår i: Quality and User Experience, ISSN 2366-0139, E-ISSN 2366-0147, Vol. 4, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of perceived quality based on psychophysiological methods recently gained attraction as it potentiallyovercomes certain flaws of psychophysical approaches. Although studies report promising results, it is not possible toarrive at decisive and comparable conclusions that recommend the use of one or another method for a specific applicationor research question. The video quality expert group started a project on psychophysiological quality assessment to studythese novel approaches and to develop a test plan that enables more systematic research. This test plan comprises of a specificallydesigned set of quality annotated video sequences, suggestions for psychophysiological methods to be studied inquality assessment, and recommendations for the documentation and publications of test results. The test plan is presentedin this article.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11. Brandt, Rasmus
    et al.
    Mochaourab, Rami
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Mats
    Distributed Long-Term Base Station Clustering in Cellular Networks using Coalition Formation2016Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 362-375Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12. Brandt, Rasmus
    et al.
    Mochaourab, Rami
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Mats
    Globally Optimal Base Station Clustering in Interference Alignment-Based Multicell Networks2016Inngår i: IEEE Signal Processing Letters, ISSN 1070-9908, E-ISSN 1558-2361, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 512-516Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Barkowsky, Marcus
    University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Statistical quality of experience analysis: on planning the sample size and statistical significance testing2018Inngår i: Journal of Electronic Imaging (JEI), ISSN 1017-9909, E-ISSN 1560-229X, Vol. 27, nr 5, artikkel-id 053013Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how an experimenter can balance errors in subjective video quality tests betweenthe statistical power of finding an effect if it is there and not claiming that an effect is there if the effect is not there,i.e., balancing Type I and Type II errors. The risk of committing Type I errors increases with the number ofcomparisons that are performed in statistical tests. We will show that when controlling for this and at thesame time keeping the power of the experiment at a reasonably high level, it is unlikely that the number oftest subjects that are normally used and recommended by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU),i.e., 15 is sufficient but the number used by the Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG), i.e., 24 is more likelyto be sufficient. Examples will also be given for the influence of Type I error on the statistical significance ofcomparing objective metrics by correlation. We also present a comparison between parametric and nonparametricstatistics. The comparison targets the question whether we would reach different conclusions on the statisticaldifference between the video quality ratings of different video clips in a subjective test, based on thecomparison between the student T-test and the Mann–Whitney U-test. We found that there was hardly a differencewhen few comparisons are compensated for, i.e., then almost the same conclusions are reached. Whenthe number of comparisons is increased, then larger and larger differences between the two methods arerevealed. In these cases, the parametric T-test gives clearly more significant cases, than the nonparametrictest, which makes it more important to investigate whether the assumptions are met for performing a certaintest.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Dima, Elijs
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Qureshi, Tahir
    HIAB, Sweden.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB, Sweden.
    Quality of Experience of hand controller latency in a Virtual Reality simulator2019Inngår i: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2019 / [ed] Damon Chandler, Mark McCourt and Jeffrey Mulligan, 2019, artikkel-id 3068450Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate a VR simulator of a forestry crane used for loading logs onto a truck, mainly looking at Quality of Experience (QoE) aspects that may be relevant for task completion, but also whether there are any discomfort related symptoms experienced during task execution. A QoE test has been designed to capture both the general subjective experience of using the simulator and to study task performance. Moreover, a specific focus has been to study the effects of latency on the subjective experience, with regards to delays in the crane control interface. A formal subjective study has been performed where we have added controlled delays to the hand controller (joystick) signals. The added delays ranged from 0 ms to 800 ms. We found no significant effects of delays on the task performance on any scales up to 200 ms. A significant negative effect was found for 800 ms added delay. The Symptoms reported in the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was significantly higher for all the symptom groups, but a majority of the participants reported only slight symptoms. Two out of thirty test persons stopped the test before finishing due to their symptoms.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Djupsjöbacka, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Andrén, Börje
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Objective video quality assessment methods for Video assistant refereeing (VAR) System: Phase 4 report on synchronizationand latency measurements2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the work and conclusions drawn after phase 4 for the synchronization and latencymeasurements in the project “Assessment methods for Video Assistant Refereeing (VAR) System”.In phase 4, we have focused on up-dating the software so that it automatically detects: p (progressive),i (interlaced), and PsF (progressive segmented frame) formats and analyse the different video types. Wehave also the performed a field-test with an OB-van at an arena.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Muhammad, Imran
    HIAB AB, Sweden;Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Magnus, Pettersson
    HIAB AB, Sweden.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB, Sweden.
    Quality of Experience for a Virtual Reality simulator2018Inngår i: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2018 / [ed] Rogowitz, B.;Pappas, T.;De Ridder H., The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate a VR simulator of a forestry crane used for loading logs onto a truck, mainly looking at Quality of Experience (QoE) aspects that may be relevant for task completion, but also whether there are any discomfort related symptoms experienced during task execution. The QoE test has been designed to capture both the general subjective experience of using the simulator and to study task completion rate. Moreover, a specific focus has been to study the effects of latency on the subjective experience, with regards both to delays in the crane control interface as well as lag in the visual scene rendering in the head mounted display (HMD). Two larger formal subjective studies have been performed: one with the VR-system as it is and one where we have added controlled delay to the display update and to the joystick signals. The baseline study shows that most people are more or less happy with the VR-system and that it does not have strong effects on any symptoms as listed in the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ). In the delay study we found significant effects on Comfort Quality and Immersion Quality for higher Display delay (30 ms), but very small impact of joystick delay. Furthermore, the Display delay had strong influence on the symptoms in the SSQ, and causing test subjects to decide not to continue with the complete experiments. We found that this was especially connected to the longer added Display delays (≥ 20 ms).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17. Chen, Lei
    et al.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Cooperative Intersection Management: A Survey2016Inngår i: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 570-586, artikkel-id 7244203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intersection management is one of the most challenging problems within the transport system. Traffic light-based methods have been efficient but are not able to deal with the growing mobility and social challenges. On the other hand, the advancements of automation and communications have enabled cooperative intersection management, where road users, infrastructure, and traffic control centers are able to communicate and coordinate the traffic safely and efficiently. Major techniques and solutions for cooperative intersections are surveyed in this paper for both signalized and nonsignalized intersections, whereas focuses are put on the latter. Cooperative methods, including time slots and space reservation, trajectory planning, and virtual traffic lights, are discussed in detail. Vehicle collision warning and avoidance methods are discussed to deal with uncertainties. Concerning vulnerable road users, pedestrian collision avoidance methods are discussed. In addition, an introduction to major projects related to cooperative intersection management is presented. A further discussion of the presented works is given with highlights of future research topics. This paper serves as a comprehensive survey of the field, aiming at stimulating new methods and accelerating the advancement of automated and cooperative intersections.

  • 18. Chen, Lei
    et al.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Cooperative ITS - EU standards to accelerate cooperative mobility2014Inngår i: 2014 International Conference on Connected Vehicles and Expo, ICCVE 2014, 2014, s. 681-686, artikkel-id 7297636Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With intensive research and field operational tests over the intelligent transportation area and the advancements of information and communication technologies, intelligent transportation systems reach the stage of deployment. EU focuses on cooperative intelligent transportation systems and confirms the finalization of the first release of the standards, paving the way for deployment in the coming years. This paper presents the concept of EU's cooperative intelligent transportation systems and describes in detail the functional architecture, together with highlights of related standardsthat have been finalized in Release 1. Latest updates of the cooperative intelligent transportation systems are provided for both industry and academia, aiming at helping to accelerate cooperative mobility.

  • 19.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Walter, Anders
    Swedish Road Administration, Sweden.
    Coordinating Dangerous Goods Vehicles: C-ITS Applications for Safe Road Tunnels2015Inngår i: 2015 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2015, s. 156-161, artikkel-id 7225679Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the existing regulation efforts and measures, vehicles with dangerous goods still pose significant risks on public safety, especially in road tunnels. Solutions based on cooperative intelligent transportation system (C-ITS) are promising measures, however, they have received limited attention. We propose C-ITS applications that coordinate dangerous goods vehicles to minimize the risk by maintaining safe distances between them in road tunnels. Different mechanisms, including global centralized coordination, global distributed coordination, and local coordination, are proposed and investigated. A preliminary simulation is performed and demonstrates their effectiveness.

  • 20.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Torstensson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Federated Learning to Enable Automotive Collaborative Ecosystem: Opportunities and Challenges2020Inngår i: Proceedings of Virtual ITS European Congress, 2020, artikkel-id Paper number ITS-TP18524Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the strong interests in creating data economy, automotive industries are creating data silos with each stakeholder maintaining its own data cloud. Federated learning (FL), designed for privacy-preserving collaborative Machine Learning (ML), offers a promising method that allows multiple stakeholders to share information through ML models without the exposure of raw data, thus natively protecting privacy. Motivated by the strong need for automotive collaboration and the advancement of FL, this paper investigates how FL could enable privacy-preserving information sharing for automotive industries. We first introduce the statuses and challenges for automotive data sharing, followed by a brief introduction to FL. We then present a comprehensive discussion on potential applications of federated learning to enable an automotive collaborative ecosystem. To illustrate the benefits, we apply FL for driver action classification and demonstrate the potential for collaborative machine learning without data sharing.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Corcoran, Diarmuid
    et al.
    Ericsson AB, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kreuger, Per
    Boman, Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden<.
    Reinforcement Learning for Automated Energy Efficient Mobile Network Performance Tuning2021Inngår i: 2021 17th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM), 2021, s. 216-224Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern mobile networks are increasingly complex from a resource management perspective, with diverse combinations of software, infrastructure elements and services that need to be configured and tuned for correct and efficient operation. It is well accepted in the communications community that appropriately dimensioned, efficient and reliable configurations of systems like 5G or indeed its predecessor 4G is a massive technical challenge. One promising avenue is the application of machine learning methods to apply a data-driven and continuous learning approach to automated system performance tuning. We demonstrate the effectiveness of policy-gradient reinforcement learning as a way to learn and apply complex interleaving patterns of radio resource block usage in 4G and 5G, in order to automate the reduction of cell edge interference. We show that our method can increase overall spectral efficiency up to 25% and increase the overall system energy efficiency up to 50% in very challenging scenarios by learning how to do more with less system resources. We also introduce a flexible phased and continuous learning approach that can be used to train a bootstrap model in a simulated environment after which the model is transferred to a live system for continuous contextual learning.

  • 22.
    Coronado, Estefania
    et al.
    i2CAT Foundation, Spain.
    Raviglione, Francesco
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Malinverno, Marco
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Casetti, Claudio
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Cantarero, Ana
    BMW AG, Germany.
    Cebrian-Marquez, Gabriel
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Riggio, Roberto
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    ONIX: Open Radio Network Information eXchange2021Inngår i: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 59, nr 10, s. 14-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While video-on-demand still takes up the lion's share of Internet traffic, we are witnessing a significant increase in the adoption of mobile applications defined by tight bit rate and latency requirements (e.g., augmented/virtual reality). Supporting such applications over a mobile network is very challenging due to the unsteady nature of the network and the long distance between the users and the application back-end, which usually sits in the cloud. To address these and other challenges, like security, reliability, and scalability, a new paradigm termed multi-access edge computing (MEC) has emerged. MEC places computational resources closer to the end users, thus reducing the overall end-to-end latency and the utilization of the network backhaul. However, to adapt to the volatile nature of a mobile network, MEC applications need real-time information about the status of the radio channel. The ETSI-defined radio network information service (RNIS) is in charge of providing MEC applications with up-to-date information about the radio network. In this article, we first discuss three use cases that can benefit from the RNIS (collision avoidance, media streaming, and Industrial Internet of Things). Then we analyze the requirements and challenges underpinning the design of a scalable RNIS platform, and report on a prototype implementation and its evaluation. Finally, we provide a roadmap of future research challenges.

  • 23.
    Dargie, W.
    et al.
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Mochaourab, Rami
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Schill, A.
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Guan, L.
    Loughborough University, UK.
    A topology control protocol based on eligibility and efficiency metrics2011Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 84, nr 1, s. 2-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of fairness in wireless sensor networks is not studied very well. It is not unusual to observe in the literature fairness traded for low latency or reliability. However, a disproportional use of some critical nodes as relaying nodes can cause premature network fragmentation. This paper investigates fairness in multi-hop wireless sensor networks and proposes a topology control protocol that enables nodes to exhaust their energy fairly. Moreover, it demonstrates that whereas the number of neighboring nodes with which a node should cooperate depends on the density of the network, increasing this number beyond a certain amount does not contribute to network connectivity.

  • 24.
    Deng, Qiuzhuo
    et al.
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Zhang, Lu
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Zhang, Hongqi
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Yang, Zuomin
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bobrovs, V
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wu, Yixin
    Huawei Technologies Company Ltd, China.
    Yu, Xiongbin
    Huawei Technologies Company Ltd, China.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Yu, Xianbin
    Zhejiang University, China; Zhejiang Lab, China.
    Quantum Noise Secured Terahertz Communications2023Inngår i: 2023 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), 2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The quantum noise based terahertz signal encryption scheme is proposed, a 16 Gbits-1 secure terahertz communication system at 300 GHz with the optical communication realms is demonstrated, taking a significant step toward high-security wireless communications.

  • 25.
    Dima, Elijs
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Edlund, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB, Sweden.
    Qureshi, Tahir
    HIAB AB, Sweden.
    View Position Impact on QoE in an Immersive Telepresence System for Remote Operation2019Inngår i: 2019 Eleventh International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX), Berlin, Germany: IEEE , 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate how different viewingpositions affect a user’s Quality of Experience (QoE) and performancein an immersive telepresence system. A QoE experimenthas been conducted with 27 participants to assess the generalsubjective experience and the performance of remotely operatinga toy excavator. Two view positions have been tested, an overheadand a ground-level view, respectively, which encourage relianceon stereoscopic depth cues to different extents for accurate operation.Results demonstrate a significant difference between groundand overhead views: the ground view increased the perceiveddifficulty of the task, whereas the overhead view increased theperceived accomplishment as well as the objective performanceof the task. The perceived helpfulness of the overhead view wasalso significant according to the participants.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Dima, Elijs
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Edlund, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB, Sweden.
    Qureshi, Tahir
    HIAB AB, Sweden.
    Joint effects of depth‑aiding augmentations and viewing positionson the quality of experience in augmented telepresence2020Inngår i: Quality and User Experience, ISSN 2366-0139, Vol. 5, artikkel-id 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual and augmented reality is increasingly prevalent in industrial applications, such as remote control of industrial machinery,due to recent advances in head-mounted display technologies and low-latency communications via 5G. However, theinfluence of augmentations and camera placement-based viewing positions on operator performance in telepresence systemsremains unknown. In this paper, we investigate the joint effects of depth-aiding augmentations and viewing positionson the quality of experience for operators in augmented telepresence systems. A study was conducted with 27 non-expertparticipants using a real-time augmented telepresence system to perform a remote-controlled navigation and positioningtask, with varied depth-aiding augmentations and viewing positions. The resulting quality of experience was analyzed viaLikert opinion scales, task performance measurements, and simulator sickness evaluation. Results suggest that reducing thereliance on stereoscopic depth perception via camera placement has a significant benefit to operator performance and qualityof experience. Conversely, the depth-aiding augmentations can partly mitigate the negative effects of inferior viewingpositions. However the viewing-position based monoscopic and stereoscopic depth cues tend to dominate over cues basedon augmentations. There is also a discrepancy between the participants’ subjective opinions on augmentation helpfulness,and its observed effects on positioning task performance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Chen, Lei
    Voronov, Alexey
    Cooperative speed harmonization for efficient road utilization2014Inngår i: Nets4Cars, 2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, Josef
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    Cooperative ITS application development through semantic standardization2013Inngår i: FASTZero 2013, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29.
    Finne, Niclas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Suciu, George
    BEIA, Romania.
    Sachian, Mari-Anais
    BEIA, Romania.
    Ko, JeongGil
    Yonsei University, South Korea.
    Keipour, Hossein
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Multi-Trace: Multi-level Data Trace Generation with the Cooja Simulator2021Inngår i: 2021 17th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS), 2021, s. 390-395Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless low-power, multi-hop networks are exposed to numerous attacks also due to their resource-constraints. While there has been a lot of work on intrusion detection systems for such networks, most of these studies have considered only a few topologies, scenarios and attacks. One of the reasons for this shortcoming is the lack of sufficient data traces that are required to train many machine learning algorithms. In contrast to other wireless networks, multi-hop networks do not contain one entity that can capture all the traffic which makes it more difficult to acquire such traces. In this paper we present Multi-Trace. Multi-Trace extends the Cooja simulator with multi-level tracing facilities that enable data logging at different levels while maintaining a global time. We discuss the opportunities that traces generated by Multi-Trace enable for researchers interested in input for their machine learning algorithms. We present experiments that show the efficiency with which Multi-Trace generates traces. We expect Multi-Trace to be a useful tool for the research community.

  • 30.
    Fredriksson, Sebastian
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Eleftheriadis, Lackis
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Brännvall, Rickard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Bäckman, Nils
    Delta Electronics AB, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    ANIARA: Experimental Investigation of Micro Edge Data Centers with Battery Support on Power-Constrained Grids2023Inngår i: Companion Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems, Association for Computing Machinery , 2023, s. 72-78Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the demand for data privacy and low latency grows, edge computation carried out at edge data center nodes is believed to become increasingly important for future telecom applications. Providers must consider various factors, including power consumption, thermal dynamics, and the ability to maintain high-quality service, in addition to deployment and service orchestration. This paper presents a detailed description of two different prototype edge data centers designed to investigate the power performance and thermal dynamics of edge nodes under various applied services. The prototypes were developed and tested at the RISE ICE Datacenter research facility. We present the results of power flow experiments in which input current from the grid was limited while the computational load was maintained using the energy stored in batteries. We further discuss implications for placing edge data center nodes in locations with temporal power constraints and opportunities for participation in support services at the grid level.

  • 31.
    Gunnarsson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap. Lund University, Sweden.
    Brorsson, Joakim
    Lund University, Sweden; Combitech AB, Sweden.
    Palombini, Francesca
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Seitz, Ludwig
    Combitech AB, Sweden.
    Tiloca, Marco
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Evaluating the performance of the OSCORE security protocol in constrained IoT environments2021Inngår i: Internet of Things: Engineering Cyber Physical Human Systems, E-ISSN 2542-6605, Vol. 13, artikkel-id 100333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a standard communication protocol for resource-constrained devices in the Internet of Things (IoT). Many IoT deployments require proxies to support asynchronous communication between edge devices and the back-end. This allows (non-trusted) proxies to access sensitive parts of CoAP messages. Object Security for Constrained RESTful Environments (OSCORE) is a recent standard protocol that provides end-to-end security for CoAP messages at the application layer. Unlike the commonly used standard Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS), OSCORE efficiently provides selective integrity protection and encryption on different parts of CoAP messages. Thus, OSCORE enables end-to-end security through intermediary (non-trusted) proxies, while still allowing them to perform their expected services, with considerable security and privacy improvements.

    To assess whether these security features consume too much of the limited resources available on a constrained device, we have implemented OSCORE (the implementation is available as open-source), and evaluated its efficiency. This paper provides a comprehensive, comparative and experimental performance evaluation of OSCORE on real resource-constrained IoT devices, using the operating system Contiki-NG as IoT software platform. In particular, we experimentally evaluated the efficiency of our OSCORE implementation on resource-constrained devices running Contiki-NG, in comparison with the DTLS implementation TinyDTLS maintained by the Eclipse Foundation. The evaluation results show that our OSCORE implementation displays moderately better performance than TinyDTLS, in terms of per-message network overhead, memory usage, message round-trip time and energy efficiency, thus providing the security improvements of OSCORE with no additional performance penalty.

  • 32.
    Han, Mengyao
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Joharifar, Mahdieh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Muguang
    Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Puerta, Rafael
    Ericsson, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Maisons, Gregory
    mirSense, France.
    Abautret, Johan
    mirSense, France.
    Roland, Roland
    mirSense, France.
    Zhang, Lu
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Spolitis, Sandis
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yu, Xianbin
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    High Spectral Efficiency Long-wave Infrared Free-Space Optical Transmission with Multilevel Signals2023Inngår i: Journal of Lightwave Technology, ISSN 0733-8724, E-ISSN 1558-2213, Vol. 41, nr 20, s. 6514-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the potential of long-wave infrared free-space optical (FSO) transmission that leverages multilevel signals to attain high spectral efficiency. The FSO transmission system consists of a directly modulated-quantum cascade laser (DM-QCL) operating at 9.15 μm and a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector. To fully understand the system, we conduct measurements on the DM-QCL chip and MCT detector and assess the overall amplitude response of the DM-QCL, MCT detector, and all electrical components. We apply various signals, including on-off keying (OOK), 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4), 6-level PAM (PAM6), and 8-level PAM (PAM8) to maximize the bit rate and spectral efficiency of the FSO transmission. Through a two-dimensional sweeping of the laser bias current and MCT detector photovoltage, we optimize the transmission performance. At the optimal operation point, the FSO system achieved impressive results which are up to 6 Gbaud OOK, 3.5 Gbaud PAM4, 3 Gbaud PAM6, and 2.7 Gbaud PAM8 signal transmissions, with a bit error rate performance below 6.25% overhead hard decision-forward error correction limit when the DM-QCL operates at 10 °C. We also evaluate the eye diagrams and stability of the system to showcase its remarkable transmission performance. Our findings suggest that the DMQCL and MCT detector-based FSO transceivers offer a highly competitive solution for the next generation of optical wireless communication systems

  • 33.
    Hewage, Kasun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Harmony: A Time Synchronisation System for Visible Light Communication Access Points2022Inngår i: SenSys 2022 - Proceedings of the 20th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2022, s. 435-447Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-speed visible light communication (VLC) is a complementary technology to conventional radio frequency communication in wireless networks. One of the essential traits of VLC systems is the ability to provide wireless communication and illumination seamlessly. High-speed VLC systems use high-power LEDs as transmitters in their access points (APs). In real-world deployments, overlapping light beams from multiple APs are necessary to avoid unlit areas. However, overlapping light beams could cause interference in each other's communication at the receiver; hence APs must synchronise their communication. This paper presents Harmony, a time synchronisation system for VLC APs to synchronise their transmissions. Internally, Harmony uses synchronous transmissions in the infrared frequency spectrum to reach nodes over multiple hops. The evaluation of a prototype implementation of Harmony on a small-scale testbed shows that it can synchronise nodes up to nine hops with a maximum error of a few 100s of nanoseconds. While the enduring work on high-speed VLC systems primarily focuses on improving the performance of individual APs, Harmony provides an infrastructure for enhancing system-wide performance.

  • 34.
    Höglund, Joel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Furuhed, Martin
    Nexus Group, Sweden.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Lightweight certificate revocation for low-power IoT with end-to-end security2023Inngår i: Journal of Information Security and Applications, ISSN 2214-2134, E-ISSN 2214-2126, Vol. 73, artikkel-id 103424Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Public key infrastructure (PKI) provides the basis of authentication and access control in most networked systems. In the Internet of Things (IoT), however, security has predominantly been based on pre-shared keys (PSK), which cannot be revoked and do not provide strong authentication. The prevalence of PSK in the IoT is due primarily to a lack of lightweight protocols for accessing PKI services. Principal among these services are digital certificate enrollment and revocation, the former of which is addressed in recent research and is being pushed for standardization in IETF. However, no protocol yet exists for retrieving certificate status information on constrained devices, and revocation is not possible unless such a service is available. In this work, we start with implementing the Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP), the de facto standard for certificate validation on the Web, on state-of-the-art constrained hardware. In doing so, we demonstrate that the resource overhead of this protocol is unacceptable for highly constrained environments. We design, implement and evaluate a lightweight alternative to OCSP, TinyOCSP, which leverages recently standardized IoT protocols, such as CoAP and CBOR. In our experiments, validating eight certificates with TinyOCSP required 41% less energy than validating just one with OCSP on an ARM Cortex-M3 SoC. Moreover, validation transactions encoded with TinyOCSP are at least 73% smaller than the OCSP equivalent. We design a protocol for compressed certificate revocation lists (CCRL) using Bloom filters which together with TinyOCSP can further reduce validation overhead. We derive a set of equations for computing the optimal filter parameters, and confirm these results through empirical evaluation. © 2023 The Authors

  • 35.
    Höglund, Joel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Furuhed, Martin
    Technology Nexus Secured Business Solutions, Sweden.
    Towards Automated PKI Trust Transfer for IoT2022Inngår i: 2022 IEEE International Conference on Public Key Infrastructure and its Applications, PKIA 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IoT deployments grow in numbers and size and questions of long time support and maintainability become increasingly important. To prevent vendor lock-in, standard compliant capabilities to transfer control of IoT devices between service providers must be offered. We propose a lightweight protocol for transfer of control, and we show that the overhead for the involved IoT devices is small and the overall required manual overhead is minimal. We analyse the fulfilment of the security requirements to verify that the stipulated requirements are satisfied. 

  • 36.
    Höglund, Rikard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Tiloca, Marco
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Bouget, Simon
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Key Update for the IoT Security Standard OSCORE2023Inngår i: 2023 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR), IEEE , 2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a lightweight, web-transfer protocol based on the REST paradigm and specifically suitable for constrained devices and the Internet-of-Things. Object Security for Constrained RESTful Environment (OSCORE) is a standard, lightweight security protocol that provides end-to-end protection of CoAP messages. A number of methods exist for managing keying material for OSCORE, as to its establishment and update. This paper provides a detailed comparison of such methods, in terms of their features, limitations and security properties. Also, it especially considers the new key update protocol KUDOS, for which it provides a more extended discussion about its features and mechanics, as well as a formal verification of its security properties.

  • 37.
    Jayaraman, R.
    et al.
    SRM Institute of Science and Technology, India.
    Manickam, B.
    SRM Institute of Science and Technology, India.
    Annamalai, S.
    SRM Institute of Science and Technology, India.
    Kumar, M.
    University of Wollongong in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
    Mishra, A.
    Yonsei University, South Korea.
    Shrestha, Rakesh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Effective Resource Allocation Technique to Improve QoS in 5G Wireless Network2023Inngår i: Electronics, E-ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 12, nr 2, artikkel-id 451Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A 5G wireless network requires an efficient approach to effectively manage and segment the resource. A Centralized Radio Access Network (CRAN) is used to handle complex distributed networks. Specific to network infrastructure, multicast communication is considered in the performance of data storage and information-based network connectivity. This paper proposes a modified Resource Allocation (RA) scheme for effectively handling the RA problem using a learning-based Resource Segmentation (RS) technique. It uses a modified Random Forest Algorithm (RFA) with Signal Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR) and position coordinates to obtain the position coordinates of end-users. Further, it predicts Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS) for establishing a connection between the end-user device and the Remote Radio Head (RRH). The proposed algorithm depends on the accuracy of positional coordinates for the correctness of the input parameters, such as SINR, based on the position and orientation of the antenna. The simulation analysis renders the efficiency of the proposed technique in terms of throughput and energy efficiency. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 38.
    Jia, Shi
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Lo, Mu-Chieh
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain; University College London, UK.
    Zhang, Lu
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden;Zhejiang University, China.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Kong, Deming
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Guzman, Robinson
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain.
    Yu, Xianbin
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Xiao, Shilin
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Chen, Jiajia
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carpintero, Guillermo
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain.
    Morioka, Toshio
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hu, Hao
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Oxenløwe, Leif
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Integrated dual-laser photonic chip for high-purity carrier generation enabling ultrafast terahertz wireless communications2022Inngår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id 1388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Photonic generation of Terahertz (THz) carriers displays high potential for THz communications with a large tunable range and high modulation bandwidth. While many photonics-based THz generations have recently been demonstrated with discrete bulky components, their practical applications are significantly hindered by the large footprint and high energy consumption. Herein, we present an injection-locked heterodyne source based on generic foundry-fabricated photonic integrated circuits (PIC) attached to a uni-traveling carrier photodiode generating high-purity THz carriers. The generated THz carrier is tunable within the range of 0–1.4 THz, determined by the wavelength spacing between the two monolithically integrated distributed feedback (DFB) lasers. This scheme generates and transmits a 131 Gbits−1 net rate signal over a 10.7-m distance with −24 dBm emitted power at 0.4 THz. This monolithic dual-DFB PIC-based THz generation approach is a significant step towards fully integrated, cost-effective, and energy-efficient THz transmitters. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 39.
    Joharifar, Mahdieh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Han, Mengyao
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Puerta, Rafael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Maisons, Gregory
    mirSense, France.
    Abautret, Johan
    mirSense, France.
    Teissier, Roland
    mirSense, France.
    Zhang, Lu
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Spolitis, Sandis
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Wang, Muguang
    Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yu, Xianbin
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    8.1 Gbps PAM8 Long-Wave IR FSO Transmission using a 9.15-µm Directly-Modulated QCL with an MCT Detector2023Inngår i: Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2023, 2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally demonstrate a Long-Wave IR FSO link with a 9.15-µm directly modulated quantum cascade laser at room temperature. Up to 8.1 Gb/s PAM8 transmission over 1.4 meter is achieved with a wideband MCT detector.

  • 40.
    John, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Ericsson, Sweden.
    Balador, Ali
    Ericsson, Sweden.
    Taghia, Jalil
    Ericsson, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Andreas
    Ericsson, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Johan
    Ericsson, Sweden.
    Marsh, Ian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Tonini, Federico
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Monti, Paolo
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sköldström, Pontus
    Qamcom AB, Sweden.
    Dowling, Jim
    Hopsworks AB, Sweden.
    ANIARA Project - Automation of Network Edge Infrastructure and Applications with Artificial Intelligence2023Inngår i: ACM SIGAda Ada Letters, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 92-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging use-cases like smart manufacturing and smart cities pose challenges in terms of latency, which cannot be satisfied by traditional centralized infrastructure. Edge networks, which bring computational capacity closer to the users/clients, are a promising solution for supporting these critical low latency services. Different from traditional centralized networks, the edge is distributed by nature and is usually equipped with limited compute capacity. This creates a complex network to handle, subject to failures of different natures, that requires novel solutions to work in practice. To reduce complexity, edge application technology enablers, advanced infrastructure and application orchestration techniques need to be in place where AI and ML are key players.

  • 41.
    Jorswieck, E.
    et al.
    TU Dresden, Germany.
    Mochaourab, Rami
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Shannon Meets Walras on Interference Networks2013Inngår i: 2013 Information Theory and Applications Workshop, ITA 2013 - Conference Proceedings, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In modern wireless communication networks, the layers of the protocol stack close ranks. Technology based layers like the PHY and MAC layer are developed considering assumptions and constraints on the service and application layers. The coexistence of several wireless transmission links operated by different users or operators requires interference coordination on the PHY and MAC. Bilateral agreements or policies consider business aspects and regulatory specifications. In this context, models from multiuser information theory are combined with microeconomic models. There are several connections between both areas: the utility functions and capacities or achievable rates, the strategy spaces and resources or coding schemes, the budget sets and the constraints on powers or rates. In this paper, we focus on one market equilibrium, the Walras equilibrium, and develop a distributed algorithm which finds an efficient operating point for three representative interference channel models: power allocation and single user decoding, beamforming and single user decoding, and rate splitting with successive decoding.

  • 42.
    Kakkar, Aditya
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Navarro, Jaime Rodrigo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Louchet, Hadrien
    VPIphotonics GmBH, Germany.
    Jacobsen, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A path to use large linewidth LO in 28 Gbd 16-QAM metro links2015Inngår i: 2015 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, artikkel-id 7341948Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally investigate the possibility to mitigate local oscillator induced Equalization Enhanced Phase Noise penalty. The results pave the way for the use of even 10 MHz linewidth local oscillator lasers in 28 Gbd 16-QAM metro links.

  • 43.
    Kanwar, John
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Finne, Niclas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    He, Zhitao
    ASSA ABLOY, Sweden.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Saguna, Saguna
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    JamSense: Interference and Jamming Classification for Low-power Wireless Networks2021Inngår i: 2021 13th IFIP Wireless and Mobile Networking Conference (WMNC), 2021, s. 9-16Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-power wireless networks transmit at low output power and are hence susceptible to cross-technology interference. The latter may cause packet loss which may waste scarce energy resources by requiring the retransmission of packets. Jamming attacks are even more harmful than cross-technology interference in that they may totally prevent packet reception and hence disturb or even disrupt applications. Therefore, it is important to recognize such jamming attacks. In this paper, we present JamSense. JamSense extends SpeckSense, a system that is able to detect multiple sources of interference, with the ability to classify jamming attacks. As SpeckSense, JamSense runs on resource-constrained nodes. Our experimental evaluation on real hardware shows that JamSense is able to identify jamming attacks with high accuracy while not classifying Bluetooth or WiFi interference as jamming attacks.

  • 44.
    Katsikas, G. P.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Barbette, T.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kostić, D.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Maguire, G.Q., Jr.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Steinert, Rebecca
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Metron: High-performance NFV Service Chaining even in the Presence of Blackboxes2021Inngår i: ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, ISSN 0734-2071, E-ISSN 1557-7333, Vol. 38, nr 1-2, artikkel-id 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deployment of 100Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) links challenges the packet processing limits of commodity hardware used for Network Functions Virtualization (NFV). Moreover, realizing chained network functions (i.e., service chains) necessitates the use of multiple CPU cores, or even multiple servers, to process packets from such high speed links. Our system Metron jointly exploits the underlying network and commodity servers' resources: (i) to offload part of the packet processing logic to the network, (ii) by using smart tagging to setup and exploit the affinity of traffic classes, and (iii) by using tag-based hardware dispatching to carry out the remaining packet processing at the speed of the servers' cores, with zero inter-core communication. Moreover, Metron transparently integrates, manages, and load balances proprietary "blackboxes"together with Metron service chains. Metron realizes stateful network functions at the speed of 100GbE network cards on a single server, while elastically and rapidly adapting to changing workload volumes. Our experiments demonstrate that Metron service chains can coexist with heterogeneous blackboxes, while still leveraging Metron's accurate dispatching and load balancing. In summary, Metron has (i) 2.75-8× better efficiency, up to (ii) 4.7× lower latency, and (iii) 7.8× higher throughput than OpenBox, a state-of-the-art NFV system. © 2021 Owner/Author.

  • 45.
    Khurshid, Anum
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system.
    Yalew, Sileshi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    ShieLD: Shielding Cross-zone Communication within Limited-resourced IoT Devices running Vulnerable Software Stack2023Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, ISSN 1545-5971, E-ISSN 1941-0018, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 1031-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Securing IoT devices is gaining attention as the security risks associated with these devices increase rapidly. TrustZone-M, a Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) for Cortex-M processors, ensures stronger security within an IoT device by allowing isolated execution of security-critical operations, without trusting the entire software stack. However, TrustZone-M does not guarantee secure cross-world communication between applications in the Normal and Secure worlds. The cryptographic protection of the communication channel is an obvious solution; however, within a low-power IoT device, it incurs high overhead if applied to each cross-world message exchange. We present ShieLD, a framework that enables a secure communication channel between the two TrustZone-M worlds by leveraging the Memory Protection Unit (MPU). ShieLD guarantees confidentiality, integrity and authentication services without requiring any cryptographic operations. We implement and evaluate ShieLD using a Musca-A test chip board with Cortex-M33 that supports TrustZone-M. Our empirical evaluation shows, among other gains, the cross-zone communication protected with ShieLD is 5 times faster than the conventional crypto-based communication. 

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  • 46.
    Khurshid, Anum
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Yalew, Sileshi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    TEE-Watchdog: Mitigating Unauthorized Activities within Trusted Execution Environments in ARM-Based Low-Power IoT Devices2022Inngår i: Security and Communication Networks, ISSN 1939-0114, E-ISSN 1939-0122, artikkel-id 8033799Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Trusted execution environments (TEEs) are on the rise in devices all around us ranging from large-scale cloud-based solutions to resource-constrained embedded devices. With the introduction of ARM TrustZone-M, hardware-assisted trusted execution is now supported in IoT nodes. TrustZone-M provides isolated execution of security-critical operations and sensitive data-generating peripherals. However, TrustZone-M, like all other TEEs, does not provide a mechanism to monitor operations in the trusted areas of the device and software in the secure areas of an IoT device has access to the entire secure and nonsecure software stack. This is crucial due to the diversity of device manufacturers and component suppliers in the market, which manifests trust issues, especially when third-party peripherals are incorporated into a TEE. Compromised TEEs can be misused for industrial espionage, data exfiltration through system backdoors, and illegal data sharing. It is of utmost importance here that system peripheral behaviour in terms of resource access is in accordance with their intended usage that is specified during integration. We propose TEE-Watchdog, a lightweight framework that establishes MPU protections for secure system peripherals in TrustZone-enabled low-end IoT devices. TEE-Watchdog ensures blocking unauthorized peripheral accesses and logging of application misbehaviour running in the TEE based on a manifest file. We define lightweight specifications and structure for the application manifest file enlisting permissions for critical system peripherals using concise binary object representation (CBOR). We implement and evaluate TEE-Watchdog using a Musca-A2 test chipboard. Our microbenchmark evaluations on CPU time and RAM usage demonstrated the practicality of TEE-Watchdog. Securing the system peripherals using TEE-Watchdog protections induced a 1.4% overhead on the latency of peripheral accesses, which was 61 microseconds on our test board. Our optimized CBOR-encoded manifest file template also showed a decrease in manifest file size by 40% as compared to the standard file formats, e.g., JSON. © 2022 Anum Khurshid et al.

  • 47.
    Lavassani, Mehrzad
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Data-driven Method for In-band Network Telemetry Monitoring of Aggregated Traffic2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Under the vision of industry 4.0, industrial networks are expected to accommodate a large amount of aggregated traffic of both operation and information technologies to enable the integration of innovative services and new applications. In this respect, guaranteeing the uninterrupted operation of the installed systems is an indisputable condition for network management. Network measurement and performance monitoring of the underlying communication states can provide invaluable insight for safeguarding the system performance by estimating required and available resources for flexible integration without risking network interruption or degrading network performance. In this work, we propose a data-driven in-band telemetry method to monitor the aggregated traffic of the network at the switch level. The method learns and models the communication states by local network-level measurement of communication intensity. The approximated model parameters provide information for network management for prognostic purposes and congestion avoidance resource planning when integrating new applications. Applying the method also addresses the consequence of telemetry data overhead on QoS since the transmission of telemetry packets can be done based on the current state of the network. The monitoring at the switch level is a step towards the Network-AI for future industrial networks.

  • 48.
    Lavassani, Mehrzad
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    From brown-field to future industrial networks, a case study2021Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikkel-id 3231Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The network infrastructures in the future industrial networks need to accommodate, manage and guarantee performance to meet the converged Internet technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) traffics requirements. The pace of IT-OT networks development has been slow despite their considered benefits in optimizing the performance and enhancing information flows. The hindering factors vary from general challenges in performance management of the diverse traffic for green-field configuration to lack of outlines for evolving from brown-fields to the converged network. Focusing on the brown-field, this study provides additional insight into a brown-field characteristic to set a baseline that enables the subsequent step development towards the future’s expected converged networks. The case study highlights differences between real-world network behavior and the common assumptions for analyzing the network traffic covered in the literature. Considering the unsatisfactory performance of the existing methods for characterization of brownfield traffic, a performance and dynamics mixture measurement is proposed. The proposed method takes both IT and OT traffic into consideration and reduces the complexity, and consequently improves the flexibility, of performance and configuration management of the brown-field. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 49.
    Li, J.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Chen, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Scalable Federated Learning over Passive Optical Networks2021Inngår i: 2021 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2021 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2021Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-step aggregation is introduced to facilitate scalable federated learning (SFL) over passive optical networks (PONs). Results reveal that the SFL keeps the required PON upstream bandwidth constant regardless of the number of involved clients, while bringing 10% learning accuracy improvement. © 2021 OSA.

  • 50.
    Li, Shenghui
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ngai, Edith
    University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Byzantine-Robust Aggregation in Federated Learning Empowered Industrial IoT2023Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 1165-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Federated Learning (FL) is a promising paradigm to empower on-device intelligence in Industrial Internet of Things(IIoT) due to its capability of training machine learning models across multiple IIoT devices, while preserving the privacy of their local data. However, the distributed architecture of FL relies on aggregating the parameter list from the remote devices, which poses potential security risks caused by malicious devices. In this paper, we propose a flexible and robust aggregation rule, called Auto-weighted Geometric Median (AutoGM), and analyze the robustness against outliers in the inputs. To obtain the value of AutoGM, we design an algorithm based on alternating optimization strategy. Using AutoGM as aggregation rule, we propose two robust FL solutions, AutoGM_FL and AutoGM_PFL. AutoGM_FL learns a shared global model using the standard FL paradigm, and AutoGM_PFL learns a personalized model for each device. We conduct extensive experiments on the FEMNIST and Bosch IIoT datasets. The experimental results show that our solutions are robust against both model poisoning and data poisoning attacks. In particular, our solutions sustain high performance even when 30% of the nodes perform model or 50% of the nodes perform data poisoning attacks.

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