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  • 1.
    Bram, Staffan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Burgén, Julia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Evakuering av kustnära fartyg i en automatiserad framtid2023Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den kustnära färjetrafiken är en tacksam miljö för att testa nya automationslösningar. Här finns många fartyg som trafikerar relativt lugna vatten och där bemanningen redan idag är begränsad till en eller två personer. Men förändringar i teknik och bemanning kommer också kräva nya perspektiv i säkerhetsarbetet. I projektet SPECTRUM har besättningens roll vid en nödevakuering undersökts och jämförts med olika automationsscenarier för kustnära färjetrafik. Resultatet pekar ut områden där fortsatt forskning och utveckling är nödvändig för att säkerställa att en evakuering av ett fartyg kan genomföras med så goda förutsättningar som möjligt - om bemanningen reduceras, yrkesroller förändras eller om besättningen ersätts med automationslösningar.

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  • 2. Chen, Lei
    et al.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Cooperative Intersection Management: A Survey2016In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 570-586, article id 7244203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intersection management is one of the most challenging problems within the transport system. Traffic light-based methods have been efficient but are not able to deal with the growing mobility and social challenges. On the other hand, the advancements of automation and communications have enabled cooperative intersection management, where road users, infrastructure, and traffic control centers are able to communicate and coordinate the traffic safely and efficiently. Major techniques and solutions for cooperative intersections are surveyed in this paper for both signalized and nonsignalized intersections, whereas focuses are put on the latter. Cooperative methods, including time slots and space reservation, trajectory planning, and virtual traffic lights, are discussed in detail. Vehicle collision warning and avoidance methods are discussed to deal with uncertainties. Concerning vulnerable road users, pedestrian collision avoidance methods are discussed. In addition, an introduction to major projects related to cooperative intersection management is presented. A further discussion of the presented works is given with highlights of future research topics. This paper serves as a comprehensive survey of the field, aiming at stimulating new methods and accelerating the advancement of automated and cooperative intersections.

  • 3.
    Lycken, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Torstensson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Engström, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lagnelöv, Oscar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Förarlösa virkestruckar – en förstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study was initiated by the sawmill industry and aims to investigate the

    possibility of introducing autonomous vehicles in the form of forklift trucks for

    handling of timber packages at sawmills.

    The report presents the various levels of definition of autonomous vehicles, and in

    which activities we now can find examples of vehicles with varying degrees of autonomy.

    Various technical solutions to enable navigation and security for autonomous

    vehicles are presented as well as the security requirements of autonomous vehicles in

    different situations.

    To exemplify today’s and tomorrow’s use of forklifts, a sawmill’s package management

    is described, and a scenario for autonomous trucks is presented. Under that scenario,

    today’s six trucks are replaced with three or four driverless trucks. A brief economic

    calculation is made, describing the economic potential of driverless trucks. It shows

    that autonomous forklifts may be permitted to cost significantly more than conventional

    forklifts after the external security systems are installed, and still be profitable.

    The reason is mainly the personnel costs associated with running conventional forklifts.

    In conclusion, autonomous vehicles can be realized in the relatively near future in

    many industries. The sawmill industry is also expected to take advantage of the ongoing

    research and development. It is not least the economic parameters that weigh heavily

    pro an introduction of autonomous forklift trucks, while safety precautions can be a

    challenge.

    An intermediate step towards fully driverless forklift trucks can be a semi-autonomous

    solution, where the driver / operator manage a plurality of trucks by telemetry with

    manual assistance only when

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  • 4.
    Priisalu, Maria
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pirinen, Aleksis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Paduraru, Ciprian
    University of Bucharest, Romania; Institute of Mathematics of the Romanian Academy, Romania.
    Sminchisescu, Cristian
    Lund University, Sweden; Google Research, USA.
    Generating Scenarios with Diverse Pedestrian Behaviors for Autonomous Vehicle Testing2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There exist several datasets for developing self-driving car methodologies. Manually collected datasets impose inherent limitations on the variability of test cases and it is particularly difficult to acquire challenging scenarios, e.g. ones involving collisions with pedestrians. A way to alleviate this is to consider automatic generation of safety-critical scenarios for autonomous vehicle (AV) testing. Existing approaches for scenario generation use heuristic pedestrian behavior models. We instead propose a framework that can use state-of-the-art pedestrian motion models, which is achieved by reformulating the problem as learning where to place pedestrians such that the induced scenarios are collision prone for a given AV. Our pedestrian initial location model can be used in conjunction with any goal driven pedestrian model which makes it possible to challenge an AV with a wide range of pedestrian behaviors – this ensures that the AV can avoid collisions with any pedestrian it encounters. We show that it is possible to learn a collision seeking scenario generation model when both the pedestrian and AV are collision avoiding. The initial location model is conditioned on scene semantics and occlusions to ensure semantic and visual plausibility, which increases the realism of generated scenarios. Our model can be used to test any AV model given sufficient constraints.

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  • 5.
    Rioual, Stephane
    et al.
    Univ Brest, France.
    Lescop, Benoit
    Univ Brest, France.
    Pellé, Juien
    Univ Brest, France.
    de Alkmim Radicchi, Gerusa
    ARC-Nucléart, France.
    Chaumat, Gilles
    ARC-Nucléart, France.
    Bruni, MD
    ARC-Nucléart, France.
    Becker, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Development of low-cost RFID sensors dedicated to air pollution monitoring for preventive conservation2022In: Heritage Science, E-ISSN 2050-7445, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring of atmospheric pollutants is a key point for preventive conservation since these species are known to impact the integrity of many artifacts including metals, papers, pigment and textiles. The problem can be amplified in closed environments, like in exhibition rooms and showcases, where temperature and relative humidity gradients and levels can introduce additional micro-climatic problems. One objective of the EU-SensMat project concerns the development of low cost and low visual nuisance sensors sensitive to these pollutants, making them affordable for all museums including small ones. For this purpose, the Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) technology was considered to produce air-quality sensors based on reactive metallic dosimeter. Besides the low cost, they can be easily integrated to other existing RFID applications such as identification tasks since the interrogation is made with a commercial UHF-RFID reader. The description and the main features of these sensors are discussed in this paper. Moreover, as it will be shown, the subsequent chemical analysis of the sensitive part of the sensors provide useful information to determine the origin of the pollutants. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 6.
    Sjöblom, Ted
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Benderius, Ola
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Blanch, Krister
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berger, Christian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rylander, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Swedish Maritime Administration, Sweden.
    Olsson, Rick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Toss, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Lundman, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    REEDS: Reference data and algorithms for research and development of smart ships2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration Research and Innovation fund for Maritime research funded the project "Reference data and algorithms to support research and development of smart ships". The project goes by the working name, and is communicated as, Reeds. It responds to a synthesis of a number of different needs identified in previous projects and studies. The background to the project is that in recent years the focus has been on developing algorithms to interpret and act on the physical environment around different types of craft. In order to be able to develop and evaluate these algorithms, it has become clear that open datasets and a fair benchmarking platform are required that allow various developers in industries and researchers to evaluate algorithms. In the road vehicle sector, Kitti, as of 2013, is the largest dataset used as a reference dataset. The dataset in this project contains sensor data from several data collection occasions within a maritime context, from high-precision sensors such as cameras, radar, lidar, and IMU. For marine applications, there has been no similar dataset with anywhere near the same amount of data and time synchronisation between sensors. The reference data and reference algorithms were available periodically during the project through an online service where researchers and developers could upload their algorithms to use the dataset.

    In addition to the dataset itself, Reeds adds additional strengths compared to other reference datasets:

    -        New approach to comparing algorithms fairly, where new algorithms are always compared on a centralised hardware in a cloud service and re-evaluated when new data is added, i.e. an unbiased algorithm evaluation service.

    -        Method that combines NTP and PTP time protocols for synchronisation between the sensors with microsecond accuracy

    -        More types and more modern sensors that can be used at a higher level of abstraction and can thus be applied in more areas.

    -        Sensor fusion of both onboard and land-side sensors

    -        Identify areas of application for navigation and surveillance on land based on the algorithms developed during the project and the use of new sensor types not established in shipping.

    -         

    The project built up a maritime reference data set that enables the creation of a digital description for the ship's surrounding environment and developed reference algorithms to demonstrate new navigation and monitoring methodology in the area of "enhanced navigation".

    "Enhanced navigation" is defined under the project as the use of new technology based on developments in digitisation and autonomous functions, where new navigation methods use sensors both on board and ashore to increase maritime safety and robustness. The project has built a web-based user interface referred to in the report as "Crowsnest" that handles these new sensors and visualises this data in a familiar interface similar to an overlay in ECDIS that is openly available for the public to build on. Which was used for the evaluation and concept development of new user interfaces based on feedback from pilots and VTS operators.

    By providing reference datasets and reference algorithms with demonstrations, researchers and companies now have the opportunity to develop algorithms for the intelligent and autonomous ships of the future.

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  • 7.
    Socha, Kasper
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. Lund University, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Jens
    Semcon AB, Sweden.
    SMIRK: A machine learning-based pedestrian automatic emergency braking system with a complete safety case2022In: Software Impacts, ISSN 2665-9638, Vol. 13, article id 100352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SMIRK is a pedestrian automatic emergency braking system that facilitates research on safety-critical systems embedding machine learning components. As a fully transparent driver-assistance system, SMIRK can support future research on trustworthy AI systems, e.g., verification & validation, requirements engineering, and testing. SMIRK is implemented for the simulator ESI Pro-SiVIC with core components including a radar sensor, a mono camera, a YOLOv5 model, and an anomaly detector. ISO/PAS 21448 SOTIF guided the development, and we present a complete safety case for a restricted ODD using the AMLAS methodology. Finally, all training data used to train the perception system is publicly available. © 2022 The Authors

  • 8.
    Su, Peng
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Warg, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A Simulation-Aided Approach to Safety Analysis of Learning-Enabled Components in Automated Driving Systems2023In: Proceedings of 2023 IEEE 26th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques through Learning-Enabled Components (LEC) are widely employed in Automated Driving Systems (ADS) to support operation perception and other driving tasks relating to planning and control. Therefore, the risk management plays a critical role in assuring the operational safety of ADS. However, the probabilistic and nondeterministic nature of LEC challenges the safety analysis. Especially, the impacts of their functional faults and incompatible external conditions are often difficult to identify. To address this issue, this article presents a simulation-aided approach as follows: 1) A simulation-aided operational data generation service with the operational parameters extracted from the corresponding system models and specifications; 2) A Fault Injection (FI) serviceaimed at high-dimensional sensor data to evaluate the robustness and residual risks of LEC. 3) A Variational Bayesian (VB) method for encoding the collected operational data and supporting an effective estimation of the likelihood of operational conditions. As a case study, the paper presents the results of one experiment, where the behaviour of an Autonomous Emergency Braking(AEB) system is simulated under various weather conditions based on the CARLA driving simulator. A set of fault types of cameras, including solid occlusion, water drop, salt and pepper, are modelled and injected into the perception module of the AEB system in different weather conditions. The results indicate that our framework enables to identify the critical faults under various operational conditions. To approximate the critical faults in undefined weather, we also propose Variational Autoencoder(VAE) to encode the pixel-level data and estimate the likelihood.

  • 9.
    Wessén, Johan
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Schulte, Christian
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Scheduling of Dual-Arm Multi-tool Assembly Robots and Workspace Layout Optimization2020In: Integration of Constraint Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Operations Research / [ed] Emmanuel Hebrard, Nysret Musliu, Switzerland, 2020, Vol. 12296, p. 511-520Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The profitability of any assembly robot installation depends on the production throughput, and to an even greater extent on incurred costs. Most of the cost comes from manually designing the layout and proramming the robot as well as production downtime. With ever smaller production series, fewer products share this cost. In this work, we present the dual arm assembly program as an integrated routing and scheduling problem with complex arm-to-arm collision avoidance. We also present a set of high-level layout decisions, and we propose a unified CP model to solve the joint problem. The model is evaluated on realistic instances and real data. The model finds high-quality solutions in short time, and proves optimality for all evaluated problem instances, which demonstrates the potential of the approach.

  • 10.
    Wessén, Johan
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Schulte, Christian
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Flener, Pierre
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pecora, Frederico
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Matskin, Mihhail
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A constraint programming model for the scheduling and workspace layout design of a dual-arm multi-tool assembly robot2023In: Constraints, ISSN 1383-7133, E-ISSN 1572-9354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The generation of a robot program can be seen as a collection of sub-problems, where many combinations of some of these sub-problems are well studied. The performance of a robot program is strongly conditioned by the location of the tasks. However, the scope of previous methods does not include workspace layout design, likely missing high-quality solutions. In industrial applications, designing robot workspace layout is part of the commissioning. We broaden the scope and show how to model a dual-arm multi-tool robot assembly problem. Our model includes more robot programming sub-problems than previous methods, as well as workspace layout design. We propose a constraint programming formulation in MiniZinc that includes elements from scheduling and routing, extended with variable task locations. We evaluate the model on realistic assembly problems and workspaces, utilizing the dual-arm YuMi robot from ABB Ltd. We also evaluate redundant constraints and various formulations for avoiding arm-to-arm collisions. The best model variant quickly finds high-quality solutions for all problem instances. This demonstrates the potential of our approach as a valuable tool for a robot programmer. © 2023, The Author(s).

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