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  • 1.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Mossberg, Axel
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Gard, Eric
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Investigating machine learning for fire sciences: literature review and examples2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a review of current literature on artificial intelligence (AI) and more specifically machine learning (ML) is presented. ML is illustrated by two case studies where artificial neural networks are used for regression analysis of 110 spalling experiments and 81 Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) models of tunnel fires. Tunnel fires are often assessed by fire safety engineers using time-consuming simulation tools where a trained model has the potential to significantly reduce time and cost of these assessments.

    A regression model based on a neural net is used to study small scale spalling experiments and similar accuracy compared to least-square fits are obtained. The result is a function based on 14 determining experimental parameters of spalling and result in, spalling times and depths. It is a relatively small effort to get started and set up models, comparably to regular curve fitting. In this first case study the training times are short, it is thus possible to establish how the model performs on average.

    The 81 tunnel fire simulations are trained using a similar neural net however it takes considerable time to organize data, creating input, target data of the desired format and training. Here, it is also crucial to normalize the data in order to have it in a suitable format when training. 

    It should be noted that ML is often an iterative process in such a way that it may be difficult to know what settings will work before starting the process. It is equally important to illustrate and get to know the data, e.g., if there are large differences or orders of magnitude differences in the data. A normalization procedure is most often practical and will give better predictions.

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  • 2.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Aras, Silvia
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Riskreducerande åtgärder för dödsbränder i bostäder2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thisreport summarizes the work conducted within the project ”Analysis of physicaldeterminants and technical measures in support of the zero vision” financed bythe Civil Contingency Authority (MSB) in Sweden. The work aims to find measuresto prevent and reduce the number of fatalities in fires in residentialbuildings in a Sweden, a list of such measures is provided in the end of thereport. The list is based on work conducted in several small sub-projects, ashort summary of these is also provided in the report.

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  • 3.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jandali, Mourhaf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Rosengren, Max
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lion Fire: Extinguishment and mitigation of fires in Li-ion batteries at sea2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The shipping industry is facing increasing pressure to cut emissions. Diesel-electric hybrid or fully electrical propulsion systems can offer significant savings in fuel consumption and reduce emissions. However, the use of energy storage battery systems on board vessels is introducing new fire hazards and advice on suitable fire extinguishing systems and agents is desired. In a series of tests, both total compartment application water spray and water mist systems and direct injection (using several different agents) into the module were evaluated in fire tests conducted to compare different fire extinguishing approaches for a fire in a battery cell. A test compartment was constructed to simulate a battery room and a commercially available lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cell was positioned inside a cubic box that mimicked a battery module. By heating the battery cell, combustible gases were generated, and these gases were ignited by a pilot flame inside the simulated battery module. The tests indicated that fire extinguishment of a battery cell fire inside a battery module is unlikely when using total compartment water spray or water mist fire protection systems. The water droplets are simply not able to penetrate the battery module and reach to the seat of the fire. Direct injection of the fire extinguishing agent inside the battery module is necessary. The tests also showed that agents such as water and low-expansion foam, with a high heat capacity, provide rapid cooling and fire extinguishment. The reduced water surface tension associated with low-expansion foam may improve the possibilities for water penetration whilst agents with a high viscosity may not be able to spread to the seat of the fire. Agents with less heat capacity, such as high-expansion foam and nitrogen gas, provide less cooling but fire extinguishment can still be achieved if designed correctly.

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Wikman, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Safe introduction of battery propulsion at sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric propulsion using batteries as energy storage has the potential to significantly reduce emissions from shipping and thus the environmental impact. The battery type that is currently on the top of the agenda to be used for ship propulsion applications is Li-ion batteries. Li-ion batteries pose different safety issues than e.g. other propulsion technologies and other batteries such as lead-acid batteries. It is essential that the safety level on board, including fire safety, is maintained, when introducing electric propulsion with energy storage in batteries. This report discusses the different regulations and guidelines available today for fire safety of batteries on board in relation to current knowledge about Li-ion batteries. Also fire safety measures available on board ships today and their applicability for Li-ion batteries is discussed, as well as the different test methods available and their applicability. A workshop gathering different stakeholders from Sweden, Norway and Finland identified fire safety as the main challenge for the introduction of battery propulsion at sea. The workshop concluded that future work is desired in order to increase knowledge and to develop publicly available strategies, training and designs.

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  • 5.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Forsberg, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lion Fire II - Extinguishment and Mitigation of Fires in Lithium-ion Batteries at Sea2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire safety of ships is a key issue as evacuation and extinguishment is more difficult at sea than it would be on land. There is therefore a long tradition and regulations in place to maintain the fire safety of ships. The current shift to more sustainable transport solutions has now led to the introduction of lithium-ion batteries for ship propulsion. These can offer significant benefits in terms of reducing greenhouse gas and particulate matter emissions. They also introduce new risks, however. When damaged, li-ion batteries may go into thermal runaway, a state that produces significant amounts of heat combined with flammable and toxic gas. This is a challenge, and safety is one of the key questions asked when introducing battery propulsion at sea. Extinguishment of battery fires is a piece of the puzzle when it comes to enabling safe battery propulsion at sea. Fire suppression systems are used today for such applications, yet no standard test method exists to evaluate their performance. This work proposes an approach that may be used to evaluate such systems and that can be used as input towards the development of a test method. Specifically, a test method aimed at evaluating the performance of fire suppression system under critical battery failures and at lowering the risk for module-to-module propagation. The test method designed here performed well and sustained the 18 tests that were done. Overall, repeatable test conditions were obtained that allowed for the performance of fire suppression systems to be investigated. All fire extinguishing systems had a positive impact in some position but not all points and it was not possible to draw any conclusion on their ability to mitigate the risk for module-to-module propagation. The tests showed that mitigating this can be possible with careful design of systems and perhaps combinations of different means.

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  • 6.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Enger, Johanna
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Carolina, Hiller
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Bright Communication: Belysningskommunikation med fokus på perception och energi2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to promote an efficient use of energyfor lighting, while putting the user's perception and light comfort in focus,this project has developed methods and tools to communicate light and lighting.To ensure that light environments are designed from a user perspective,existing definitions of light quality, which are mainly based on technicalterms, have been supplemented with concepts and definitions of visual and emotionalcharacter of light. The lighting industry and professional purchasers have beeninvolved in all phases of the project in order to develop methods and toolsthat are well-grounded and applicable by different actors involved in theprocess from light planning to the implementation of lighting environments. Lighting accounts for a significant part of the total energy use in buildings,about 20 per cent for households and 40 per cent for premises. The energysaving potential is thus high. Moreover, Europe is facing a shift towards moreenergy efficient lighting as a result of both regulations and technologydevelopment. Still, Swedish consumers tend to prefer incandescent light, as itis perceived to provide better comfort compared to modern light sources.Therefore, in order to motivate property owners and consumers to convert tomore energy-efficient products, it is necessary to focus more on the visual andemotional qualities of light. Today, however, knowledge, concepts and tools to communicateand measure visual light quality are lacking. This challenge has been the motivationand starting point for the development of methods for assessing objective andsubjective light qualities for light sources, luminaires and light environmentswithin this project and to translate the results into tools targeting theindustry. The project has developed a draft communication tool based on the humanperception of light quality. The tool aims to constitute a neutralcommunication point and to supports both the lighting industry and professionalpurchaser, and thus also the end user. By reducing misunderstandings andincreasing the consensus between actors in different parts of the process fromlight planning to implementation, the tool is expected to promote lightenvironments that are both energy-efficient and provide attractive perceptionand comfort.

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  • 7.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Nordén, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sensory Evaluation of Lighting: A Methodological Pilot2022In: LEUKOS The Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, ISSN 1550-2724, E-ISSN 1550-2716, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 66-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current standards for light environments are based on technical requirements, e.g. luminance, uniformity, and illuminance, and do not necessarily describe all parts of the light experience to ensure visual comfort from a user perspective. Including experience-related requirements would most likely yield better lighting comfort. To do that, new methods for specifying and measuring the user experience are needed. This paper describes a pilot study exploring a new method to analytically assess perceived lighting properties by using a trained human panel and thus make human assessments more objective. The methodology is built on established sensory methods, where the human senses are used in product assessments, traditionally applied within e.g. the food, packaging, and car industries. An analytical panel comprising eight persons fulfilling specific selection criteria were recruited and trained to assess lighting products in a multi-sensory laboratory. The results show that the panelists were able to assess lighting by distinguishing between attributes and products. Significant differences were identified between the different luminaires, both in terms of sensory and physical properties, e.g. readability and glare. Conclusively, analytical sensory methods can be applied to lighting to assess luminaires in a non-subjective way. Physical and sensory attributes do not, however, always co-vary, which shows that data from physical and sensory measuring methods provide complementary information about light quality. This knowledge may in turn be applied in tools supporting the communication between different professions in lighting design and procurement to promote light environments that are both energy efficient and desirable from an end-user perspective.

  • 8.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Innemiljö i nytt ljus: Metoder för objektiv bedömning av belysning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nuvarande belysningsstandarder baseras enbart på tekniska krav, såsom ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Att även inkludera upplevelsebaserade krav skulle troligen främja bättre ljuskomfort, men även mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Kunskapen om hur upplevda belysningsparametrar kan beskrivas är dock begränsad. Detta hämmar fastighetsägare och brukare att precisera önskvärda ljusmiljöer, liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Syftet med detta forskningsprojekt var att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar.

    En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer som uppfyller särskilda urvalskriterier rekryterades och tränades att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorie-försök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.

    Resultaten visar att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar av armaturer; paneldeltagarna kunde skilja mellan attribut och prover. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna, både i form av sensoriska och fysikaliska egenskaper såsom läsbarhet och bländning. Fysikaliska och sensoriska parametrar samvarierar dock inte alltid, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysningskvalitet. Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att samma resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, men med lägre signifikans, vilket verifierar metodens tillämpbarhet på belysning.

    Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

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    170614_slutrapport_innemiljoe_i_nytt_ljus
  • 9.
    Brandt, Are Wendelborg
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Wighus, Ragnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    IG-541 og personsikkerhet – behov for dokumentasjon for byggverk i risikoklasse 4 og 62019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of the extinguishing gas IG-541 for fire protection of construction works designed for overnight stays has been discussed in Norway in recent times.For buildings where automatic fire extinguishing systems are required according to the Norwegian regulations on technical requirements for construction works (TEK17) § 11-12, the guidance to the regulations states that sprinkler systems as described in NS-EN 12845 and NS-INSTA 900-1 (for residential buildings and parts of buildings intended for residential purposes), are accepted.In Norway, the owner of the building has to "prove" that the requirements of the regulations are fulfilled. It is then necessary that competent actors are providing the needed documentation, and this is mainly done by fire safety engineers.The standards that apply in Norway for application of IG-541 are prNS-EN 15004-1 Fixed fire-fighting systems - Gas-extinguishing systems - Part 1 Design, installation and maintenance (ISO 14520-1: 2015, modified) and NS-EN 15004-10 Fixed fire extinguishing systems - Gas extinguishing systems - Part 10: Physical properties and system design of gas extinguishing systems for IG-541 extinguisher (ISO 14520-15: 2015, modified). Another standard relevant to the assessment of personal safety of IG-541 is ISO 14520-1.It is not explicitly described in any of the current standards that IG-541 can be used in dwellings, but it is also not stated that IG-541 cannot be used in such areas. A process has been carried out within the standardization committees that are responsible for gas-based extinguishing systems, in order to highlight this issue. This has been discussed in the Norwegian mirror committee for CEN TC191, SN K014. The committee concluded in April 2017 that there was a lack of clear guidelines for using IG-541 in construction works designed for overnight stays, and that there was a need to start a separate activity to get these conditions described in the current Norwegian standard. The committee could not find sufficient resources to prepare a satisfactory standard or provide a supplement to an existing standard, but if individual actors would voluntarily conduct the work, one could evaluate possible proposals. Since this, no actors have expressed an interest in taking part in such a working task, and nothing is so far carried out.IG-541 is described as a gas mixture that allows humans to continue breathing and take up oxygen from air with a reduced oxygen content, even at oxygen concentrations lower than the limits stated for other types of inert extinguishing gases. This is due to the addition of CO2 which stimulates the breathing reflex. This effect has not been assessed here, since this is not a part of RISE Fire Research's field of expertise. Quality assurance of the medical information is therefore left to the expertise in this discipline.Since it is not explicitly mentioned in NS-EN 15004-1 that IG-541 can be used dwellings, we have searched for documentation that could indicate if this can be justified. The practice that some of the suppliers of IG-541 systems seem to follow, is to claim that since it has been carried out qualification tests to determine the extinguishing gas concentration that is required to achieve the minimum requirements of EN 15004-1, this gas is eligible to extinguish fires in flammable liquids, fires in electrical installations and Class A fires. The qualification tests have been carried out according to test methods described in NS-EN 15004-1, Annex B and Annex C.For other extinguishing systems that are used as an alternative to sprinkler systems and which must fulfill the requirements in TEK17, extensive documentation work has been carried out. Separate test standards have been developed to document the extinguishing properties of the systems.In order to facilitate and clarify the requirements for documentation of the extinguishing properties of IG-541, there is a need for test standards which can be used to document the extinguishing properties of IG-541 in realistic fire scenarios that can be expected in construction works designed for overnight stays. By conducting a successful test series, a system would be qualified to be considered equivalent to sprinkler systems with regard to the extinguishing properties.ConclusionBased on the current standards that have been reviewed in this report, there is no basis for using IG-541 in construction works designed for overnight stays, without fulfilling the evacuation requirements that apply to gas extinguishing systems in general. For design concentration for IG-541, this means that persons must be evacuated within 5 minutes after activation of the system. IG-541 is not treated differently from other inert gases in the standards.The term "personnel" used in NS-EN 15004-1 also gives a clear indication that the standard is not intended for construction works designed for overnight stays.It is recommended to initiate work to investigate whether it is possible to extend the allowed duration of exposure to IG-541 based on medical conditions.It must also be documented that the requirements for air tight rooms and buildings, at the same time as requirements for pressure relief when triggering gas extinguishing systems, can be fulfilled in the application areas that include permanent residence. If the duration of exposure to the gas can be increased, it may give rise to an increased application time for IG-541 resulting in a slower pressure build-up than required by standards, and thereby reducing the potential for exposing people for a high overpressure.If it is possible to document that longer duration of exposure to a design concentration of IG-541 does not lead to increased health risks, it must also be documented that the extinguishing effect of IG-541 is equivalent to sprinkler systems. This can be done either by developing a new test standard or by changing the already existing standard NS-EN 15004-10.

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  • 10.
    Burgén, Julia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Safe and Suitable Firefighting2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The level of protection for personal protective equipment (PPE) in firefighting is important for Swedish shipowners; they want to be sure that the equipment they provide is sufficiently safe for the types of fires that can occur onboard. Shipowners also want to be updated on risks related to the carriage of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Safety products and equipment used onboard ships with a European flag must be certified in accordance with the Marine Equipment Directive (MED) and follow the regulations in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). For fire suits, this means that they must be certified according to one of three standards listed in MED. Two of these standards cover suits used in special cases, with very intense radiant heat, and should only be worn for short periods. The third standard, EN 469, is the same standard that is referred to the PPE Regulation 2016/42, making EN 469-approved fire suits used among European firefighters ashore. However, EN 469 contains two different performance levels where the lower level is not suitable for protection against risks encountered when fighting fires in enclosures. Based on a user study and a risk assessment for AFVs, a set of suggested changes to MED and SOLAS were prepared, together with a set of recommendations for operators that were found important but not subject for regulations. A ready-to-use quick guide, containing the most important results, has been developed for operators.

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    Download full text (pdf)
    Quick guide
  • 11.
    Carolina, Hiller
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Utveckling och tillämpning av sensoriska metoder för objektiva belysnings-bedömningar, del I2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dag finns tekniska belysningsstandarder som inkluderar parameterar så som ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Det som saknas är krav som grundar sig på människors upplevelser av belysning och ljusmiljöer. Att få med den upplevelsebaserade dimensionen skulle betyda ett helhetstänk som förmodligen skulle gynna både ljuskomforten och än mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Att beskriva upplevda belysningsparametrar har hittills visat sig inte vara helt enkelt, och här saknas både kunskap och en gemensam begreppsvärld inom branschen; något som hämmar fastighetsägare att ställa lämpliga krav vid en upphandling liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Det övergripande syftet med detta forskningsprojekt är att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar. Syftet med försöken som redovisas i denna delrapport är att vidareutveckla och testa metoden ytterligare. Detta görs genom att nya armaturer testas liksom att försök utförs i en ny verklig kontext (kontorsmiljö). Försöken bygger vidare på resultat från tidigare försök som har rapporterats om i (Boork et al, 2017).

    En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer, som uppfyllde särskilda urvalskriterier, har tidigare rekryterats och dessa personer tränades nu för detta specifika delprojekt för att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på RISE Research Institutes of Sweden i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorieförsök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.

    Resultaten visade att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar även för de testade belysningsprodukterna, dvs mindre LED-spotlights. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna och som i tidigare försök spelade färgtemperaturen en stor roll för flera av de bedömda egenskaperna; inte minst förstås för ljuskällans gulhet och för läsbarhet (textkontrasten). Liksom i tidigare försök fanns det samband mellan de fysikaliska mätningarna och sensoriska bedömningarna, men inte för alla egenskaper, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysning.  Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att likvärdiga resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, om ändock något spretigare och inte heller lika entydiga i jämförelse med verklig kontext i tidigare försök.

    Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

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    Sensoriska_metoder_belysning-del_I_SP_Rapport_2017.23
  • 12.
    Fredriksson, Marie
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Gustavsson, Conny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Jarfors, Anders
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Förstudie för forsknings- och demonstrationsanläggning för tillverkning via pressgjutning2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pre-study for research and demo facility for smart die

    casting

    This report summarizes a preliminary study carried out with the aim of investigating how

    a center for applied industrial research should be built to ensure that this benefits the

    Swedish manufacturing industry in the best way possible. The work has been carried out

    in collaboration between RISE, Jönköping University, Chalmers, Husqvarna, Comptech

    and Volvo Cars. The work originates in discussions, study visits, state-of-the-art and

    collective experiences from the group.

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  • 13.
    Glebe, Dag
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Ljud och vibration.
    Vad betyder det nya regelverket runt buller och bostadsbyggande för ljudmiljön inomhus?2016In: Bo i Ro: Texter från ett tvärvetenskapligt symposium om bostäder, buller och hälsa / [ed] Frans Mossberg, Lund: Ljudmiljöcentrum vid Lunds universitet , 2016, p. 29-42Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The new Swedish regulations for outdoor sound levels at facades in housing construction in new areas will also affect indoor levels, especially low-frequency noise levels. However, the perception of indoor noise is even more affected. The disturbance or annoyance of noise is generally stronger in the low frequency range, and this is accentuated by the fact that facades are generally performing worse in this region, in combination with the dynamics of hearing in the low frequency region .

  • 14.
    Granström, Anders
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Vylund, Lotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Perception of wildfire behaviour potential among Swedish incident commanders, and their fire suppression tactics revealed through tabletop exercises2023In: International journal of wildland fire, ISSN 1049-8001, E-ISSN 1448-5516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Swedish wildfires are handled by multipurpose municipal rescue services, raisingquestions about how non-specialist incident commanders (ICs) perceive and interpret wildfirebehaviour. Aims. Elucidating ICs’ interpretations of fire behaviour, fuel complexes, weather,landscape structure and the role of these in tactical decisions. Methods. We exposed SwedishICs to questionnaires and tabletop exercises for different standardised fire scenarios.Key results. Despite minimal formal wildfire training, ICs showed reasonable consensus in ratingof fuels, fire behaviour, hose-lay production rates, etc. Tactics were to access the fire from thenearest road with hose-line laid from the engine and water ferried on trucks. In a scenario whereinitial attack failed, they typically fell back to roads, without burning off. This indicates a fundamental flaw in tactics employed for high-intensity fires, which easily breach forestry roads, and inviteoutflanking. Conclusions. The IC wildfire knowledge is built on personal and group experiencerather than formal education. We found reasonable competence, despite the organisations beingdesigned primarily for other purposes. However, tactical understanding of complex, large incidentswas poor. IC training should emphasise potential hazards of such incidents to enhance groupcompetence despite their low frequency. Implications. Standardised tabletop exercises canprovide insight into decision-making of ICs that is otherwise hidden.

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  • 15.
    Guo, Qinghua
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Tianjin Fire Research Institute of MEM, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Yan, Zhigou
    Tongji University, China.
    Zhu, Hehua
    Tongji University, China.
    Study on spilled liquid from a continuous leakage in sloped tunnels2022In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 120, article id 104290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on the behaviors of spilled liquid from a continuously leaked tank in sloped tunnels. Spillage width and area, which impact the potential heat release rates in case of fire, are investigated under different tunnel slopes and leakage flow rates by numerical simulations using interFoam based on the VOF method in the OpenFOAM toolbox following the validation. The simulation results show that the spillage width initially decreases rapidly and then slowly as the tunnel slope increases. Other parameters, including road surface roughness, physical properties of liquid and leakage source height, are also considered. Empirical models for predicting the spillage width and area are established considering both tunnel slope and leakage flow rate. The results may provide guidance for tunnel safety design and drainage system design affiliated with a tank leakage inside a tunnel. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 16.
    Guo, Qinghua
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles. Tongji University, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Yan, Zhiguo
    Tongji University, China.
    Zhu, Hehua
    Tongji University, China.
    Theoretical and numerical study on mass flow rates of smoke exhausted from short vertical shafts in naturally ventilated urban road tunnel fires2021In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, article id 103782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on the mass flow rate of the buoyancy-driven gases exhausted from the shaft in naturally ventilated urban road tunnel fires. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations are performed. The model to predict the mass flow rate of the incoming smoke exhausted by the nearest shaft is developed by considering that the smoke is exhausted along the four sides of the shaft separately. Based on the heat balance between the incoming smoke exhausted and the total gas flow exhausted, the model to estimate the total mass flow rate exhausted from the shaft (both smoke and entrained air) is also established. Meanwhile, a series of numerical simulation in a naturally ventilated tunnel considering the heat release rate (HRR), the shaft height, shaft length and width, shaft location was carried out. The simulation results show that the shaft height has a limited contribution to the mass flow rate of the incoming smoke exhausted while a larger shaft cross-sectional area shows a favorable performance in exhausting the smoke. Further, the air entrainment into the shaft increases with both the shaft height and shaft cross-sectional area. Comparisons of the mass flow rates of the incoming smoke and the total mass flow rates exhausted between simple calculations and simulations are made, showing that the simple models perform well. Further, it is found that there exist two regimes for the total mass flow rate corresponding to different smoke modes in the shaft (complete plug-holing, plug-holing and without plug-holing), which is caused by the different driven forces in the shaft. The outcomes of this work could provide some guidance for the design of vertical shaft and smoke control in naturally ventilated tunnel in urban area.

  • 17.
    He, Kun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Shi, Zhicheng
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Yang, Hui
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Zhang, Heping
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Experimental study on flame characteristics of double fires in a naturally ventilated tunnel: Flame merging, flame tilt angle and flame height2021In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 114, article id 103912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of fire tests was carried out to investigate the diffusion flame characteristics of double fires generated from separated burners in a naturally ventilated tunnel, considering different heat release rates and fire separation distances. The results show that the flame tilt angle, as well as the horizontal projected flame length, first increases with fire separation distance and then remains constant, but the vertical flame length first decreases and then remains constant, which is different from two fires in free spaces where flames do not tilt when the separation distance is relatively long. This difference is caused by the non-dimensional fire induced air flow velocity in the tunnel, which is mainly related to the tunnel cross-section dimensions and burner radius. Three regions can be identified, i.e. flame vertical merging, plume vertical merging and non-merging with flame tilted. The critical flame merging separation distance, estimated by the flame merging probability, is greater than that of two fires in an open environment due to the fire-induced air flows. The merging flame height is lower than that of a single fire with a same heat release rate. A correlation was proposed to estimate flame height of two fires in a tunnel by the modified non-dimensional heat release rate using an air entrainment perimeter as the characteristic length. This work enhances the understanding of diffusion flame behaviors of double fires in naturally ventilated tunnels.

  • 18.
    He, Kun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation2023In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 133, article id 104967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation were investigated by analyzing the experimental data from a series of fire tests in a 1:15 scale tunnel. Further, a simple theoretical model for gas temperature in a tunnel with multiple fire sources was proposed and used in analysis of the experimental data. The results showed that, for objects (wood piles) placed at a same separating distance downstream of the fire, the fire spread occurred faster and faster along the tunnel. Validation of the simplified temperature model for multiple fire sources was made against both model and full-scale tunnel fire tests. The model was further used to predict the critical conditions for fire spread to the second and third objects. Comparisons with the test data showed that average excess temperature of 465 K (or an equivalent incident heat flux of 18.7 kW/m2) could be used as the criterion for fire spread, and this was verified further by other model-scale tests and full-scale tests. The results showed that the critical fire spread distance monotonously increases with the heat release rate, and decreases with the tunnel perimeter. For multiple fire sources with equivalent heat release rates, as the separation distance between the first two fire sources increases, the critical fire spread distance from the second fire source to the third fire source decreases, but the total fire spread distance from the first fire source to the third one increases. If the total heat release rate at the site of a downstream fire source is greater than that at the former fire source, the critical fire spread distance becomes longer.

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  • 19.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Metoder för att testa dukar och membran i tunnlar och bergrum2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tunnel and rock lining systems are used for drainage and icing protection. These systems can consist of any combination of concrete, metal, plastic or textile. The report summaries the available methods, both for testing and for installation. The large variation in both systems and test methods often make it difficult for constructors or designer to understand the importance of different methods. The report gives indication of what type of linings exists and how to ensure the fire safety of such systems. Fire safety properties can be verified in three different ways: #1 Full systems can be tested in full scale fire tests, #2 a section of the system can be tested in standardized furnace tests, or #3 plastic and/or textile membrane can be tested with regards to requirements on fire spread. It is suggested to require that a fire should not be able to propagate in the system. This can be verified with #3 above requiring class B, C or D according to EN 13501-1. If the lining system offers structural fire protection, it can be verified suing #2 above.

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  • 20.
    Jabbari, Mona
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. CitUpia AB, Sweden.
    Fonseca, Fernando
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. University of Sydney Business School, Australia.
    Conticelli, Elisa
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Tondelli, Simona
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Ribeiro, Paulo
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Papageorgiou, George
    European University Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Ramos, Rui
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    The Pedestrian Network Concept: A Systematic Literature Review2023In: Journal of Urban Mobility, ISSN 2667-0917, Vol. 3, article id 100051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of urban spaces that foster sustainable practices requires new analytical and structural approaches to spatial planning. An appropriate pedestrian network could significantly contribute to sustainable urban development goals, particularly by promoting sustainable mobility and pedestrian friendliness. With such goals, several attempts have been made to develop suitable models for pedestrian networks. However, something that is missing from the current literature is a framework that incorporates the main findings of the various studies as an integrated concise concept of the pedestrian network. To address this knowledge gap, this paper reviews studies on pedestrian networks and evaluates this concept based on the systematic 3W1H analysis method, which asks where, what, who, and how. In essence, the following questions are thus analyzed: Where is the pedestrian network located, What criteria play a role in the pedestrian network's performance, Who uses the pedestrian network, and How can the pedestrian network be analyzed? In this context, a systematic literature review is carried out by investigating studies conducted during the period 2001 to 2023 that appear in the Scopus database. The paper presents the results of the review of a selection of 67 papers dealing with pedestrian networks. Findings show that different models have been developed based on particular characteristics. Overall, researchers aimed to identify the most suitable network based on specific criteria for optimizing the walking experience in urban areas. By synthesizing the findings reported in these papers, this paper arguably contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of pedestrian networks, provides insights into the prioritization of design phases, facilitates the use of pedestrian network assessment models for future research, and creates a bigger picture for urban planners with a multidimensional view to a new sustainable urban structure.

  • 21.
    Jacobsson, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Betongskador i vattenverk2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten ger en översikt över betongskador i svenska vattenverk. Den presenterarbilder på typiska betongskador, hur de kan uppstå och var man kanhitta dem i vattenreningsprocessen. Den ska inspirera vattenverkens personalatt lägga märke till betongskador i tid. Detta för att undvika mycketgenomgripande reparationer av allvarligare skador i framtiden.Betong är det i särklass vanligaste materialet i svenska vattenverk. Det ärmycket hållfast, men det finns det flera kemiska och fysikaliska processersom påverkar materialet negativt. Nedbrytningen av betongen kan ses påbassängernas sidor, både våta och torra. Men det är inte helt ovanligt att skadoruppstår även inuti en betongkonstruktion utan att det syns på utsidan.Oavsett var skadorna börjar kan tillsynes obetydliga betongskador göra attkonstruktionens bärighet försämras avsevärt.De flesta vattenverk lider av likartade betongskador. Yterosion och urlakningav betongytan är de vanligaste formerna av synliga betongskador påden våta sidan. På den torra sidan är det vanligare med armeringskorrosion,sprickbildning och läckage. De skador som är vanligast inuti en betongkonstruktionär expansion, korrosion och svartrost. Svartrost bildas när armeringsjärnkorroderar under syrefattiga förhållanden. Den expanderar intepå samma sätt som annan rost utan kan fylla ut håligheter i betongen utanatt det syns på ytan. De inre skadorna är särskilt allvarliga eftersom det kanvara svårt att observera dem utan att det görs en utförlig tillståndsbedömning.Inre skador kan på sikt göra att hela konstruktionens bärighet gårförlorad. Därför är det viktigt att regelbundet låta undersöka betongkonstruktionerna.Projektet genomfördes av CBI Betonginstitutet, som utför åtskilliga tillståndsbedömningarpå betongkonstruktioner i Sverige varje år. I många fallvisar det sig att konstruktionerna är i relativt dåligt skick. Troligen beror detpå att de flesta skador utvecklas mycket långsamt och gradvis. Dessutomär vattenverkspersonalen inte alltid medveten om hur betongskador kan seut eller hur allvarliga de kan vara. Om medvetenheten hos personalen höjdesskulle troligen många betongskador upptäckas tidigare och reparationerskulle kunna sättas in innan skadorna har blivit allvarliga och kostsammaatt åtgärda.Även om en skada upptäcks behöver den inte alltid repareras direkt.I stället bör man om man hittar en skada låta en betongexpert utföra entillståndsbedömning på konstruktionen. Det innebär att man undersökeromfattningen av konstruktionens skador, om de behöver repareras omedelbarteller senare, vilken form av reparation som bör utföras och med vilkamaterial. Man kan också få rekommendationer om hur den reparerade konstruktionenkan skyddas i fortsättningen. Om en reparation inte behöverutföras direkt bör i stället konstruktionen övervakas med vissa tidsintervall.

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  • 22.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Development and application of a novel AR-tool being used in energy renovations2022In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. Volume 1085, Issue 1, 2022, Article number 012059, Page 61DUMMY, Institute of Physics , 2022, no 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of the buildings in Sweden were constructed before national energy codes became effective. Although performing energy renovations and/or energy-related maintenances can significantly improve the energy performance of these buildings, the energy renovation rate is very low in Sweden. The low energy renovation rate is associated with various challenges including lack of technical drawings to specify the position of hidden objects and lack of information about material specifications. An augmented reality (AR) tool was therefore developed to not only locate the position of hidden objects but also create IFC files being used by BIM management systems. The tool was later applied in real practice to evaluate its effectiveness in detecting hidden objects. The analyses of results showed that the application of the AR tool in energy renovations and/or energy efficiency-related maintenances can be beneficial as it could successfully locate hidden objects. However, the application of the AR-tool had different limitations related to the sensitivity of sensors in detecting hidden objects, connections between the software programs and hardware devices to integrate the digital information into the real-life environment, and finally time required for setting up the AR tool. 

  • 23.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lang, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Fransson, Anna-Lena
    GFAB Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Tomas
    GFAB Lindberg & Co AB, Sweden.
    Spontangranulering av härdade glas: En litteraturstudie och en genomlysning av problemet inom glasbranschen2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Härdat glas har många fördelar i flera avseenden bl a sprickmönstret, hållfastheten och ett överkomligt pris. Akilleshälen för termiskt härdat glas är spontangranulering som är ovanligt men som trots allt förekommer. Syftet med den här förstudien var att genomlysa hur vanligt förekommande det är genom enkäter till företag inom duschväggsbranschen samt göra en litteraturstudie med syftet att undersöka vilka metoder det finns att råda bot på problemet. Enkäterna visade att branschen inte direkt ser det som ett problem men endast en relativt liten andel för statistik på hur vanligt förekommande spontangranulering är. Litteraturstudien visade på en splittrad bransch varav en del förespråkar den standardiserade HST-metoden (heat soak test) medan andra kritiserar den. Oavsett har man lagt ner mest arbete på HST-metoden och det är den som fått störst genomslag, men den används inte i hela branschen. Metoden har sina brister men just nu pågår arbete med att uppdatera den befintliga standarden vilket kommer att göra den mer tillförlitlig. HST-metoden har dock fortfarande nackdelarna att den är relativt dyr och minskar härdningsgraden något. För alternativa metoder krävs tydliga satsningar som dock är osannolika eftersom problemet anses vara litet. De alternativ som identifierats som mest intressanta är metoder som ger ytterligare fördelar såsom t ex hållfasthetssortering av planglas eller att man utvecklar en glassammansättning som lämpar sig för termisk härdning av glas.

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  • 24.
    Kiuru, Risto
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Király, Dorka
    Budapest University, Hungary.
    Dabi, Gergely
    University of Szeged, Hungary.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Comparison of dfn modelled microfracture systems with petrophysical data in excavation damaged zone2021In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 2899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical and petrographic properties of drill core specimens were determined as a part of investigations into excavation damage in the dedicated study area in the ONKALO® research facility in Olkiluoto, Western Finland. Microfractures in 16 specimens from two drillholes were analysed and used as a basis for fractal geometry-based discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling. It was concluded that the difference in resistivity between pegmatoid granite (PGR) and veined gneiss (VGN) specimens of similar porosity was likely due to differences in the types of microfractures. This hypothesis was confirmed from microfracture analysis and simulation: fractures in gneiss were short and mostly in one preferred orientation, whereas the fractures in granite were longer and had two preferred orientations. This may be due to microstructure differences of the rock types or could suggests that gneiss and granite may suffer different types of excavation damage. No dependencies on depth from the excavated surface were observed in the geometric parameters of the microfractures. This suggests that the excavation damaged zone cannot be identified based on the changes in the parameters of the microfracture networks, and that the disturbed layer observed by geophysical methods may be caused by macro-scale fractures. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 25.
    Kårekull, Oscar
    et al.
    Fläkt Woods, Sweden.
    Hellgren, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Noise and indoor air quality: HVAC noise characteristics2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise from Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential buildings have an influence on the residents´ well-being. The characteristics of HVAC noise have been investigated as to recommend typical spectra for the design of a listening test using sound recordings. An HVAC system layout is developed to represent a system in a residential building where variations of the noise spectrum are possible without the use of unrealistic conditions. From a spectrum shape perspective the main parameter of the system is the balance between noise originated from the heat recovery unit and the duct component related noise. The receiving room spectrum is here mainly modified by the use of different silencers close to the heat recovery unit and the balance between the pressure loss of the air terminal device and a nearby damper. Modifications of the heat recovery unit total airflow and the inflow properties to the air terminal device are also investigated. Variations at both low and high frequencies are possible, at a constant total A-weighted sound pressure level, using these system properties.

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  • 26.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Experimental investigation of the system normal stiffness of a 5 MN direct shear test setup and the compensation of it in CNS direct shear tests2021In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environment, ISSN 1755-1307, E-ISSN 1755-1315, Vol. 833, article id 012011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments at constant normal stiffness (CNS) are normally carried out to understand underground shear processes of rock joints. However, in many test setups the available space around the joint is limited implying it is not possible to measure the dilatancy directly over the joint. Therefore, the displacement transducers must be in locations where the risk is that additional displacements originating from deficiencies in the test system will be measured causing too low normal loads to be applied. Herein, this issue is investigated in a new 5 MN direct shear test setup. The system normal stiffness was found to be about 11 300 kN/mm derived from normal loading up to 4.5 MN using a steel specimen. The direct shear testing performance under the CNS configuration was evaluated using the steel specimen, which had a joint with a known angle of inclination. The normal load error at 3.9 MN (28 MPa) was 11%, but by application of the effective normal stiffness approach using the system normal stiffness as input the error basically could be eliminated. The results demonstrate the robustness of the setup designed for joint areas up to 400 × 600 mm with normal and shear loads up to 5 MN.

  • 27.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Quality aspects in direct shear testing of rock joints2021Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of rock masses is influenced by the occurrence of rock joints. Therefore, the shear strength of rock joints must be considered in dimensioning of underground constructions. One way to predict the shear strength is through usage of failure criteria, which are validated from results of direct shear tests under controlled laboratory conditions. Consequently, the quality of the results from the tests are crucial to the accuracy with which the criteria will be able to predict the shear strength. Since rock joints are unique by nature usage of replicas (man-made copies of rock joints) is of importance in parameter studies. The overall objective of this work is to facilitate the development of improved criteria for predictions of the shear strength of rock joints. To support this objective, two sources of uncertainty have been investigated, namely the geometry of replicas and the influence of the normal stiffness of test systems. Two quality assurance parameters for evaluation of geometrical differences between replicas and rock joints based on scanning data have been derived. The first parameter describes the morphological deviations. The second parameter describes the deviations in orientation with respect to the shear plane. The effective normal stiffness approach, which compensates for the influence of the normal stiffness of the test system in direct shear testing, has been developed, validated, and applied. With help of the quality assurance parameters it is demonstrated that it is possible to reproduce replicas within narrow tolerances. Application of the effective normal stiffness approach basically eliminates the normal load error. In all, the results support generation of improved quality of test data and consequently, the development of shear strength criteria with improved accuracy will also be facilitated.

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  • 28.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, F
    Mas Ivars, D
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Rock joint replicas in direct shear testing – Part 1: Extraction of geometrical quality assurance parameters.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Larsson, Krister
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Ljud och vibration.
    Jonasson, Hans
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Ljud och vibration.
    Uppdaterade beräkningsmodeller för vägtrafikbuller2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's models for road traffic noise are based on the Nordic prediction model from 1996. Since then, several projects have been carried out to develop prediction models, both in Scandinavia and in Europe. In other Nordic countries for example the calculation model Nord2000 Road is used and within Europe the model CNOSSOS-EU will be used for noise mapping. Nord2000 Road has the advantage that the model has a broader scope and can provide more detailed results compared with 1996 model, and there is a willingness to move to that model in Sweden. The model gives slightly higher estimated levels compared to the old model. Input data for the prediction model Nord2000 Road are based on measurements carried out in the Nordic countries and the latest measurements in Sweden are 10 years old. In 2015 new measurements of noise emissions from vehicles in real traffic on Swedish roads were carried out. The results show that the source data to Nord2000 Road needs to be updated to represent current Swedish conditions. The results indicate that Nord2000 Road overestimate levels and suggested adjusted input data are presented. Spectrum adaptation to Swedish conditions are revised. The measurements confirm, however, speed coefficients for Swedish conditions.

    Spectrum adaptation terms for other road surfaces than SMA 0/16 (stone mastic asphalt with 16 mm maximum aggregate size, ABS 0/16), which is the most common pavement for high traffic roads in Sweden require more extensive measurement data, but some data for a Swedish drainage asphalt road surface are presented in the report.

    Updated input is proposed for Category 1, 2 and 3 for Nord2000 Road. For motorcycles input data can be based on data from previous Harmonoise- and Imagine projects, even if they are designed for Southern European conditions. Some data from the measurement series 2015 are presented in the report, but additional measurements needed when the spread in the results are great. Also for vehicles with alternative powertrains such as electric or hybrid vehicles sufficient information is lacking today to determine reliable input data for the prediction models for Swedish conditions.

    CNOSSOS-EU underestimates clearly the emission levels for Swedish conditions, and also have different speed-dependency, so a speed-dependent correction is proposed in the report. Maximum levels are proposed to be calculated in basically the same way in CNOSSOS-EU as is made in Nord2000 Road.

    To calculate the traffic noise at different driving conditions such as in urban areas with accelerations or decelerations associated with intersections or roundabouts it is proposed that the methods of CNOSSOS-EU and Nord2000 Road for heavy vehicles (category 2 and 3) is applied. CNOSSOS-EU gives corrections for the total sound power depending on distance from the crossing or roundabout, while Nord2000 Road gives a general increase of the rolling noise with 3 dB for heavy vehicles in urban traffic.

    The Nord2000 Road source model allows for separation of rolling and propulsion noise from measurements in real traffic. For the CNOSSOS-EU model this is more difficult because of the co-localization of the two model sources. Separation of rolling and propulsion noise could be beneficial for separation of tire/road noise and vehicle noise for evaluation of the tire noise and vehicle noise regulations.

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    SP Rapport 2015:72 Uppdaterade beräkningsmodeller
  • 30.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    New models for calculating maximum gas temperatures in large tunnel fires2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this report focuses on estimating maximum gas temperatures at ceiling level during large tunnel fires. Gas temperature is an important parameter to consider when designing the fire resistance of a tunnel structure. Earlier work by the authors has established correlations between excess ceiling gas temperature and effective tunnel height, ventilation rate, and heat release rate. The maximum possible excess gas temperature was set as 1350°C, independent of the tunnel structure and local combustion conditions. As a result of this research, two models have been developed to better estimate possible excess maximum gas temperatures for large tunnel fires in tunnels with differing lining materials and structure types (e.g. rock, concrete). These have been validated using both model- and full-scale tests. Comparisons of predicted and measured temperatures show that both models correlate well with the test data. However, Model I is better and more optimal, due to the fact that it is more conservative and easier to use. The fire duration and flame volume are found to be related to gas temperature development. In reality, the models could also be used to estimate temperatures in a fully developed compartment fire.

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    fulltext
  • 31.
    Lilja, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Hansen, David
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Richardsson, Daniel
    Styrkebaserad.org, Sweden.
    The Best After Summit Drumming Ever: Sharing and co-creating on how to keep the generative connections alive and get progress after AI-Summits -“Drumming, dancing and doing”2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The effect of thermochromic coatings of VO2 on the fire performance of windows2018In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 873-876Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of thermochromic coatings of vanadium dioxide (VO2) on the fire performance of windows was experimentally tested. Prototypes were subjected to radiant heat and the radiation transmitted through the specimens was measured as a function of time. The results indicate that windows coated with VO2 can reduce radiative heat transfer from fires and thereby also reduce or prevent fire spread. The results clearly show that VO2coatings on BK7 substrates hinder approximately 30% of the transmission of radiation from fire sources when compared with the performance of uncoated windows. It is expected that VO2 will not be solely implemented for the purpose of increasing fire performance of windows, but it will rather provide a secondary positive effect if such windows are realized for energy‐saving purposes.

  • 33.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE, Sweden; Linneaus Universtiy, Sweden.
    Low Frequency Impact Sound in Timber Buildings: Simulations and Measurements2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increased share of construction with timber is one possible way of achieving more sustainable and energy-efficient life cycles of buildings. The main reason is that wood is a renewable material and buildings require a large amount of resources. Timber buildings taller than two storeys were prohibited in Europe until the 1990s due to fire regulations. In 1994, this prohibition was removed in Sweden.

        Some of the early multi-storey timber buildings were associated with more complaints due to impact sound than concrete buildings with the same measured impact sound class rating. Research in later years has shown that the frequency range used for rating has not been sufficiently low in order to include all the sound characteristics that are important for subjective perception of impact sound in light weight timber buildings. The AkuLite project showed that the frequency range has to be extended down to 20 Hz in order to give a good quality of the rating. This low frequency range of interest requires a need for knowledge of the sound field distribution, how to best measure the sound, how to predict the sound transmission levels and how to correlate numerical predictions with measurements.

        Here, the goal is to improve the knowledge and methodology concerning measurements and predictions of low frequency impact sound in light weight timber buildings. Impact sound fields are determined by grid measurements in rooms within timber buildings with different designs of their joist floors. The measurements are used to increase the understanding of impact sound and to benchmark different field measurement methods. By estimating transfer functions, from impact forces to vibrations and then sound pressures in receiving rooms, from vibrational test data, improved possibilities to correlate the experimental results to numerical simulations are achieved. A number of excitation devices are compared experimentally to evaluate different characteristics of the test data achieved. Further, comparisons between a timber based hybrid joist floor and a modern concrete floor are made using FE-models to evaluate how stiffness and surface mass parameters affect the impact sound transfer and the radiation.

        The measurements of sound fields show that light weight timber floors in small rooms tend to have their highest sound levels in the low frequency region, where the modes are well separated, and that the highest levels even can occur below the frequency of the first room mode of the air. In rooms with excitation from the floor above, the highest levels tend to occur at the floor levels and in the floor corners, if the excitation is made in the middle of the room above. Due to nonlinearities, the excitation levels may affect the transfer function in low frequencies which was shown in an experimental study. Surface mass and bending stiffness of floor systems are shown, by simulations, to be important for the amount of sound radiated.

        By applying a transfer function methodology, measuring the excitation forces as well as the responses, improvements of correlation analyses between measurements and simulations can be achieved.

  • 34.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Measurements of low frequency impact sound frequency response functions and vibrational properties of light weight timber floors utilizing the ISO rubber ball2020In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 166, article id 109343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impact sound performance below 100 Hz forms part of a design criterio that is particularly important for multi-story timber buildings. An ISO tapping machine, which is predominantly used for impact sound measurement, has properties that may result in less measurement accuracy in the low frequency range, down to 20 Hz, than in its traditional measurement range above 100 Hz. The characteristics of the pistons’ impact are dissimilar to the impact of a human foot in this lower range. This may cause low signal-to-noise ratios in field measurements and the test data may also be less representative due to the test objects’ possible structural nonlinearities affecting impact sound transmission. The ISO rubber ball has shown to bear a close resemblance to a human’s excitation in the low frequency range, which makes it a suitable excitation device from this perspective. To support correlations between simulations and measurements, measuring impact forces in order to extract frequency response functions would be beneficial. To enable measurements of impact forces that stem from the ISO rubber ball, equipment for field measurements of forces and potentially point mobilities has been manufactured and evaluated. Furthermore, an investigation has been conducted into the repeatability of the rubber ball’s low frequency force spectrum for floors with different mobilities. Impact force measurements have been made on lightweight timber floors as well as on concrete floors. Within the frequency range up to around 55 Hz, it appears to be possible to use a prescribed force spectrum for the ISO ball, together with impact sound measurements, to create accurate impact force to sound frequency response functions for different floors. Also, instrumenting the impact point with an accelerometer enables estimates to be made of direct point mobilities.

  • 35.
    Persson, Kent
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Haller, Kristian
    Acoustic Agree AB, SWeden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Kozlowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Non-destructive testing of the strength of glass by a non-linear ultrasonic method2020In: Challenging Glass Conference Proceedings / [ed] Jan Belis, Freek Bos and Christian Louter, 2020, Vol. 7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents basis and experimental results of a non-destructive method aimed at determination of the presence of large surface cracks in glass samples by measurements with NAW® technology (Nonlinear Acoustic Wave). The method is based on a transmitted ultrasonic wave in the material from which the non-linear content of the signal can be analysed. A sample containing defects presents nonlinearities in the form of distortions, such as, higher order harmonics that are detected. Nonlinearities in the signal are primarily formed at crack-tips and the number of nonlinearities is proportional to the amount of damage, or defects, in the sample that is investigated. The result of the measurement and evaluation, that only takes a few seconds, is a damage value that is easy to understand and to use for immediate application. A number of preliminary test results and comparisons with destructive testing for various test setups, as well as a recent test strategy including fabricated defects with a nanoindenter will be discussed.

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  • 36.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Granström, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Human activity and demographics drive the fire regime in a highly developed European boreal region2023In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 136, p. 103743-103743, article id 103743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organization of successful wildfire prevention and suppression require detailed information on ignition causes, size distributions and relations to weather. From a large and highly detailed dataset of Swedish wildfire incidents (n = 124 000) we assess temporal, geographical and human-related patterns over a 25-year-period (1996–2020). We find strong positive correlations between population density and wildfire occurrence, primarily caused by a wide spectrum of human activities. However, fires >10 ha mostly occurred in sparsely populated regions and were more often ignited by lightning or heavy machinery. Further, large fires had a history of long response times and insufficient mop-up, in turn intimately linked to low population density. We detect no trend over the 25-year-period in either fire weather, number of ignitions or burned area, but a dramatic decline in wildfire caused by children's play as well as by springtime burning of dead grass, a traditional fire use in rural areas. Our results indicate that irrespective of climate change, societal changes such as rural depopulation and cultural shifts are imminently important for the future fire regime in this intensely managed part of the boreal, and may warrant more attention worldwide.

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  • 37.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Chapter 9: Smart mobility experimentation: Reflecting on a public transport authority’s convoluted journey with Mobility-as-a-Service2022In: Experimentation for sustainable transport?: Risks, strengths, and governance implications / [ed] Kelsey Oldbury, Karolina Isaksson, Greg Marsden, Boxholm: Linnefors förlag , 2022, p. 185-201Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) is an umbrella term for services that enable users to plan, book, and pay for multiple types of mobility services through a joint digital channel (Smith 2020). From late 2013 to early 2014, what is often referred to as theworld’s first MaaS pilot took place in Gothenburg, a city located in Västra Götaland, Sweden. The outcome was promising; the pilot participants appreciated the service and substituted private car use for shared and active mobility during the pilot period. Inspired by these results, the regional public transport authority (PTA) for Västra Götaland1 has since performed a suite of ex- periments to further explore the MaaS concept and to facilitate its implementation. Still, seven years later, MaaS is not available in Västra Götaland, apart from via one commercial service that integrates public transport with parking, and in a few small- scale pilots.

    In this chapter, I briefly describe the PTA’s journey in relation to MaaS as I see it, and, with the benefit of hindsight, reflect on what I believe has hindered greater progress. The reason that I judge that I have something to say about this is that between 2016 and 2020 I was employed as an industrial doctoral stu- dent at the PTA. In this dual role as civil servant and aspiringresearcher, I was specifically assigned to oversee and analyse the PTA’s work on MaaS and to revise their MaaS strategy based on my insights. As I argued in my doctoral thesis from 2020, this exploratory and participatory research approach gave me a unique opportunity to acquire an empirically grounded un- derstanding of the dynamics of MaaS developments. Still, now that some time has passed and I no longer must navigate the constraints associated with my dual role at the PTA (see Smith 2017), this chapter arguably gives me an opportunity to step back and reflect more broadly on my experiences.

    Given the ground-breaking but convoluted nature of the PTA’s journey with MaaS, I believe that it can be an informa- tive case for other public authorities that set out to experiment with smart mobility concepts such as MaaS. Hence, inspired by the literature on projectification and experimentation, I end the chapter by proposing what there might be to learn for public authorities. I considered the two selected strands of literature to offer a valuable frame of reference for this analysis since the former explains how the prevailing project logic within the public sector in Western countries shapes expectations on ex- periments, and the latter highlights the need to move beyond a narrow focus on scaling the outcome of isolated experiments. Researchers Torrens and von Wirth (2021) have suggested that, taken together, the two strands of literature instead propose a much wider view of how experiments can be organised and through which mechanisms they can stimulate societal transformations. This perspective helped me critically reflect on the PTA’s strategic decisions in relation to MaaS.

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  • 38.
    Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Stensaas, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Solcelleteknologi og brannsikkerhet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Norway is increasing. In this study, fire safety challenges of PV technology are studied. Fire ignition, fire spread and fire extinguishing are investigated. The study forms a knowledge base for safeguarding fire safety during assembly, operation and during firefighting efforts, and to form unified and clear regulations. The results show:

    Fire ignition: PV installations contain many electric connections which can be potential ignition sources, as well as a small volume of combustible materials. These provide everything needed to initiate a fire. It is important that all connections in a PV installation are robust and can withstand the stress they are exposed to throughout their lifetime, without causing malfunction that could cause a fire.

    Fire spread: For building attached photovoltaics, there are cavities between the module and the building. If there is a fire in this cavity, the produced heat could be trapped, which could lead to a more rapid and extensive fire spread than if the building surface were uncovered. In large scale tests with PV modules mounted on a roof covering, the fire spread under the whole area covered with modules, but stopped when approaching the edge. This demonstrates the importance of sectioning when mounting PV installations, to avoid fire spread to the whole roof. An option is to use materials with limited combustibility as roof covering below the PV module, to withstand the increased heat exposure from the PV modules. The cavity between module and building could potentially also alter the air flow along the building, which in turn could affect the fire spread.

    Firefighting: Firefighters need information on whether there is a PV installation in the building, and where there are electrical components. During firefighting efforts, the fire service must consider the danger of direct contact, and danger of arcs and other faults that could lead to new ignition points. Fresh water can be used as an extinguishing agent. This must be applied from at least 1 meter distance with spread beam and at least 5 meters distance with a focused beam. PV modules can complicate fire extinguishing as they represent a physical barrier between the fire fighter and the area to extinguish, and by creating areas which should be avoided due to danger of components with voltage. When these points are considered, building attached photovoltaics should not be a problem.

    Further work: For building attached photovoltaics, there is little research on vertical mounting (on facades), and on how changed fire dynamics could affect fire spread and extinguishing. Also, today there is an increasing use of building integrated photovoltaics, which could potentially give many new challenges for fire safety and for regulations, as these are a part of the building and at the same time electrical components. German statistics indicate that there is an increased fire risk for these types of installations, compared to building attached photovoltaics, making this an important focus area for further work.

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    RISE-rapport2018_31_Solcellete_Brann
  • 39.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Bergstrand, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Förändringar och trenders påverkan på brandsäkerheten i bostäder2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) adopted a national strategy for fatal fires; that no one would die or be seriously injured by fire - a vision zero. Despite this vision the number of people who die in fire has not significantly decreased.

    The risk of decease is related to the individual's living conditions. These conditions are to some extent influenced by societal trends. This report identifies and analyzes temporal trends that affect the individual's risk of fatality as a result of fire. The report also aims at identifying which trends have not been sufficiently researched. Finally a forecast of societal factors affecting risk is given.

    With regard to detection and suppression in dwellings, much research has successfully been devoted to fire detectors. Recently smart systems have been introduced on the market in recent years. These have the potential to improve fire safety, but more research is needed. This also applies to other systems (except fire detectors); more research is needed to show a significant positive effect.

    Dwelling characteristics such as building materials and linings are continuously tested in standardized tests, and much research is conducted upon the prediction of fire spread over different material types. At the same time as new materials are being introduced in homes, new homes also tend have more open plan solutions than 30 years ago, and apartments may contain smoke longer due to for example multi-pane windows and more insulation. This leads to an increased risk of rapid fire and smoke spread within the fire compartment, but combustible building materials can also result in increased fire spread outside the fire compartment if building regulations are not followed.

    Economic situation, age and lifestyle etc. decides which risk an individual is at. In terms of lifestyle, the number of smokers has not declined since 2005, while alcohol consumption increases. Both the number of single-family homes and the number of crowded homes increase, where both groups have an increased risk of fire fatalities. Fewer elderly people will live in care homes in the future. Older people are a particularly vulnerable group in fires, and therefore targeted efforts should be made for elderly to comply with MSB's vision zero.

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  • 40.
    Västerdal, Mårten
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Huss, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Stationssamhälle 2.0 : Förstudie med 5 småländska kommuner2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projekt Stationssamhälle 2.0 har målet att stödja och utveckla minst 5 småländska stationsområden i att i sin samhällsutveckling fokusera på delarna: Bygga/Bo, Lokala hållbarhetsplaner samt Mobilitet. Huvudperspektiv är Agenda 2030 och resurseffektivitet. Metoden i denna förstudie har varit djupintervju av tjänstepersoner inom samhällsbyggnad och hållbarhet. Där efter ett gemensamt webbinarium den 27e oktober genomförts samt att kommunerna själva har intervjuat några kollegor som arbetar i kommunen med dessa frågor. Det har levererat material till denna förstudierapport samt en grundläggande kännedom om förutsättningar och utmaningar idag i de deltagande kommunerna. Resultatet är mycket av karaktären av en beskrivning av nuläget och olika behov som kommunerna beskrev i intervjuer och workshop. Lösningarna är något som vi siktar på att lösa och testa i ett huvudprojekt varför några rekommendationer inte lämnas i denna rapport. Under hösten har en ansökan om huvudprojekt för Bygga/Bo och Lokala hållbarhetsplaner lämnats till Energimyndigheten och en annan för Mobilitet till Trafikverket. Medverkande kommuner har varit: Hultsfred, Emmaboda, Lessebo, Alvesta och Vaggeryd.

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  • 41.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Kraft, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Prototype bike lanes - placement practices and properties2015In: 57º Congresso Brasileiro do Concreto, Bonito/MS [CBC 2015], IBRACON , 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    AstaZero, a unique environment to build any scenario in order to develop, test or certifynew traffic safety solutions was opened 2014 in Sweden. In this environment a testingarena for vulnerable road users has been developed. Among with the solutions testedbelongs impact absorbing surfaces for cyclists, one which has been made of rubbermodified concrete. The study involved testing of different compositions and examining newproperties in the fresh state, which affected the production process to different extents. Forexample, due to difference in density between aggregate and rubber the segregation maybe a problem. Regarding the materials properties, the head injury criterion (HIC) was usedfor evaluation of the pavements shock absorbing capability. In the laboratory tests themodified concrete demonstrated a decrease in HIC-value by 85% compared to standardbitumen material. In the AstaZero test-lane, measured at -1°C, the decrease in HIC-valuecompared to reference was 79%. The frictional properties were approved according toexisting criteria. Future tests will determine the new materials’ durability, maintenance andcycling comfort.

  • 42.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Assessment of Fire Exposed Concrete with Full-field Strain Determination and Predictive Modelling2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A condition assessment of civil engineering structures is typically performed after the occurrence of a fire incident to determine the remedial actions required out of a structural point of view. A condition assessment is based on the mapping of damage on the given structure, which is traditionally executed via methods that yield indirect results related to surface and/or geometric properties. To be able to predict the accurate fire resistance performance of a given structure, it is most suitable to apply a mapping method which can be directly coupled to the change in material properties of concrete at high temperatures. The aim of this study is to explore the potential of applying an innovative damage mapping methodology directly coupled to the change in material properties of concrete at high temperatures. This methodology consists of optical full-field strain measurements based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) coupled with a predictive model based on finite-element analysis (FEA). An experimental study was firstly conducted to expose concrete slabs to a standard fire curve. Subsequently, compression tests were performed on drilled cores taken from the damaged induced specimens, all while optically measuring the full-field strain on a specimen surface. As a preliminary step, an FE model of a fire exposed core was developed based on input data from standard temperature-dependent properties. The analysis consisted of a sequentially coupled thermal stress analysis to solve the multiphysics problem. The model was able to capture the temperature distribution in the concrete with enough certainty given the choice of input data. The resulting strain along the height of the core was also comparable to the experimental optical strain measurements, particularly as the distance increased from the fire exposed surface. These results can be practical when assessing the required strengthening actions to restore the load carrying capacity and durability of the concrete structure.

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  • 43.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Rosengren, Max
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    New certification system for enhanced fire safety of vehicles2018In: Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena TRA 2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    RISE has initiated and developed a certification scheme for the vehicle industry that will enable manufacturers, operators and service centres (workshops) to certify their fire risk mitigation process. The fire risk management required in the certification is a key safety element, used to identify and evaluate fire hazards. For best results, it is important that manufacturers, operators and service centres are equally dedicated to solve the fire problem. Vehicle fire investigations reveal that design, production, operation and maintenance can all be responsible, however, most important is to ensure that information and experiences from fire incidents and identified fire hazards are linked to relevant personnel, practices, manuals, and quality procedures. The certification cannot guarantee the elimination of vehicle fires, but can ensure that manufacturers, operators and service centres will operate at the front line of vehicle fire safety engineering.

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  • 44.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Vega, Alberto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Determination of essential parameters influencing service life time of polyurethane insulation in district heating pipes2017In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2017, p. 320-323Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pre-insulated district heating pipes (DHP) have been in use during the last forty years. Many improvements and development have been done in the system. However, life-time prediction is still an uncertain issue. This paper is a part of a bigger project with the objective to determine mechanisms related to the deterioration of the mechanical and insulation properties of pre-insulated heating pipes as a result of ageing. The focus in this project is on degradation mechanisms of the PUR material at high temperatures. In this paper some results of the two types of exposure are presented. The first type comprises a condition where the new pipes are subjected to accelerated ageing at three different temperatures. The second type comprises condition, when the PUR material itself is aged in different atmospheres in order to identify different degradation mechanisms. The chosen ageing temperatures in the first condition were 130°C, (close to the supply temperature), 150°C and 170°C, (accelerated ageing temperature in EN 253 [1]). Changes in thermal insulation and the adhesion force between the PUR and the steel pipe were evaluated using the transient plane source (TPS) technique and the SP plug method respectively. The results of ageing show that the degradation of PUR is a multi-stage process composed of a rapid change in properties followed by a plateau phase which changes later to a gradual deterioration of the properties. The results of the PUR material exposure at 150°C in air and in nitrogen showed significant differences in the degradation characteristics between the two environments as were revealed by DSC and FTIR methods. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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