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  • 1.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    During, Otto
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Energy and climate-efficient construction systems: Environmental assessment of various frame options for buildings in Brf. Viva2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the collaborative forum Positive footprint housing® Riksbyggen is building the Viva residential quarter, which is a sustainability project at the very forefront of what is possible with contemporary construction. The idea is that this residential quarter should be fully sustainable in ecological, economic and social terms. Since 2013, a number of pilot studies have been completed under the auspices of the Viva project framework thanks to financing from the Swedish Energy Agency. The various building frame alternatives that have been evaluated are precast concrete, cast in-situ concrete and solid wood, all proposed by leading commercial suppliers. The report includes a specific requirement for equivalent functions during the use phase of the building, B. An interpretation has been provided that investigates the building engineering aspects in detail, as well as an account of the results based on the social community requirements specified in Viva, durability, fire, noise and energy consumption in the Swedish National Board of Building, Planning and Housing building regulations (BBR), plus Riksbyggen’s own requirements, Sweden Green Building Council’s Environmental Building Gold (Miljöbyggnad Guld) and 100-year life cycle. Given that the alternatives have different long-term characteristics (and also that our knowledge of these characteristics itself varies), these functional requirements have been addressed by setting up different scenarios in accordance with the EPD standard EN 15978. Because Riksbyggen has specified a requirement for a 100-year life cycle, we have also opted for an analysis period of 100 years. The results show no significant differences between concrete and timber structures for the same functions during the life cycle, either for climate or for primary energy. The minor differences reported are accordingly less than the degree of uncertainty involved in the study. The available documentation on the composition of the relevant intumescent paint coating on solid wood frames differs from source to source, so it was not possible to fully allow for the significance of this. The LCA has not included functional changes in the building linked to load-bearing characteristics, noise, moisture, health or other problems that may result in increased maintenance and replacement. The concrete houses have been dimensioned for 100 years, for instance, in accordance with tried and tested standards and experience. The solid wood house is not dimensioned in the same way, and this has led to us having to assume various scenarios.

    The results also show the following:

    • The uncertainties involved in comparing different structures and alternative solutions are very significant. The results are affected by factors such as life cycle, the functional requirements taken into consideration, transportation, design and structural details, etc.

    • Variations in the built items and a considerable degree of uncertainty in the assumptions make it difficult to obtain significant results on comparisons. Only actual construction projects with known specific data, declared from a life cycle perspective that takes into account actual building developer requirements and involving different scenarios (best, documented and worst-case) for the user stage can currently be compared.

    • In the other hand, comparisons restricted to different concrete structures only, or to different timber structures only, ought to involve a lower degree of uncertainty. These would then provide results that are significant as well as improvement requirements that are relevant.

    • There is potential for improving concrete by imposing requirements on the material

    • There is potential for improving solid wood frames by developing and guaranteeing well-documented long-term characteristics for all functional requirements.

    The LCAs were performed as an iterative process where all parties were given the opportunity to submit their viewpoints and suggestions for changes during the course of the work. This helped ensure that all alternatives have been properly thought through.

    Because, during the project, Riksbyggen opted to procure a concrete frame, in the final stage the researchers involved focused on ensuring the procurement process would result in the concrete frame as built meeting the requirements set out above. As things currently stand, the material requirements for the concrete are limited by the production options open to the suppliers, and this is therefore being investigated in the manufacture of precast concrete frames for the Viva cooperative housing association.

  • 2.
    Mangold, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Durgun, Özüm
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fastighetsägares förutsättningar för renovering av sina byggnadsbestånd från miljonprogramstiden2018In: Bygg&Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, Vol. 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggsektorn står inför ett stort renoveringsbehov. Byggnader från miljonprogramstiden har nått en ålder då många olika byggnadsdelar når sin förväntade livslängd. Detta renoveringsbehov är inte jämnt fördelat bland Sveriges fastighetsägare. Det stora flertalet av de ännu ej renoverade byggnaderna från miljonprogramstiden ägs av fastighetsbolag knutna till SABO, men det finns även många privata fastighetsägare och bostadsrättsföreningar som har ett eftersläpande renoveringsbehov eller som har renoverat men fortfarande har en hög energianvändning och alltså troligtvis inte genomfört nödvändiga energieffektiviseringsåtgärder. Det finns också olika förutsättningar för att göra de investeringar som krävs, vilket beror på företagens soliditet, fastigheternas värde och möjligheten att få lån, utrymme för hyresökning etc. Detta gör att renoveringstakten inte kommer att täcka renoveringsbehovet och att vissa delar av fastighetsbeståndet kommer att vara mer eftersatt.

  • 3.
    Mangold, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Österbring, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Overland, Conny
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallbaum, Holger
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Building Ownership, Renovation Investments, and Energy Performance - A Study of Multi-Family Dwellings in Gothenburg2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 1684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European building stock was renewed at a rapid pace during the period 1950–1975.In many European countries, the building stock from this time needs to be renovated, and thereare opportunities to introduce energy efficiency measures in the renovation process. Informationavailability and increasingly available analysis tools make it possible to assess the impact of policyand regulation. This article describes methods developed for analyzing investments in renovationand energy performance based on building ownership and inhabitant socio-economic informationdeveloped for Swedish authorities, to be used for the Swedish national renovations strategy in2019. This was done by analyzing measured energy usage and renovation investments made duringthe last 30 years, coupled with building specific official information of buildings and resident areacharacteristics, for multi-family dwellings in Gothenburg (N = 6319). The statistical analyses showthat more costly renovations lead to decreasing energy usage for heating, but buildings that havebeen renovated during the last decades have a higher energy usage when accounting for currentheating system, ownership, and resident socio-economic background. It is appropriate to includean affordability aspect in larger renovation projects since economically disadvantaged groups areover-represented in buildings with poorer energy performance.

  • 4.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Orskaug, Thomas
    Norwegian Institute of Wood Technology, Norway.
    Andersson, Allan
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Prefabricated Wood Elements for Sustainable Renovation of Residential Building Façades2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 96, p. 756-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prefabricated elements to provide environmentally friendly, energy- and cost-efficient solutions for the building envelope have been studied. The newly developed element system has a high level of flexibility since it is possible to adjust the length of the connection rods according to the building's energy requirements and it can be mounted on timber, concrete and brick structures. Adjustability to different types of buildings structures, materials, tolerances, geometries and energy requirements makes it very applicable and efficient.

  • 5.
    Wu, Yaoxing
    et al.
    Virginia Tech, US.
    Cox, Steven S.
    Virginia Tech, US.
    Xu, Ying
    University of Texas at Austin, US.
    Liang, Yirui
    University of Texas at Austin, US.
    Won, Doyun
    National Research Council Canada, Canada.
    Liu, Xiaoyu
    United States Environmental Protection Agency, US.
    Clausen, Per A.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Benning, Jennifer L.
    South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, US.
    Zhang, Yinping
    Tsinghua University, China.
    Little, John C.
    Virginia Tech, US.
    A reference method for measuring emissions of SVOCs in small chambers2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 95, p. 126-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are indoor air pollutants that may have significant adverse effects on human health. Although emissions of volatile chemicals from building materials and consumer products are usually characterized in small chambers, few chamber studies have been conducted for SVOCs due to the challenges associated with analysis and the lack of validation procedures. There is an urgent need for a reliable and accurate chamber test method to verify these measurements. A reference method employing a specially-designed chamber has been developed and is undergoing extensive evaluation. A pilot inter-laboratory study (ILS) has been conducted with six laboratories performing chamber tests under identical conditions for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Results from this study showed inter-laboratory variations of 24% for DEHP emission rates, with closer agreement observed among intra-laboratory measurements for most of the participating laboratories. A mechanistic emission model fits well to the measured concentration profiles, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed reference method to independently assess laboratory performance and validate SVOC emission tests.

  • 6.
    Ylmen, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Life Cycle Assessment of an Office Building Based on Site-Specific Data2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 13, article id 2588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an established method to assess the various environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a building. The goal of this project was to calculate the environmental releases for a whole office building and investigate the contribution in terms of environmental impact for different parts of the building, as well as the impact from different stages of the life cycle. The construction process was followed up during production and the contractors provided real-time data on the input required in terms of building products, transport, machinery, energy use, etc. The results are presented for five environmental impact categories and, as expected, materials that constitute the main mass of the building and the energy used during operation contribute the largest share of environmental impact. It is usually difficult to evaluate the environmental impact of the materials in technical installations due to the lack of data. However, in this study, the data were provided by the contractors directly involved in the construction and can, therefore, be considered highly reliable. The results show that materials for installations have a significant environmental impact for four of the environmental impact categories studied, which is a noteworthy finding.

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