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  • 1.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Nyman, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Staack, Ingo
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Petit, Oliver
    LFV Luftfartsverket, Sweden.
    Infrastrukturmodellering för storskalig introduktion av elflyg och flygtrafikledning (MODELflyg)2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A generic, flexible simulation model is developed with the aim of increasing our understanding as well as provide opportunities to easily test what the requirements for charging infrastructure at airports could become when transitioning to battery electric aviation. The model is developed in the programming language Python and contains several different approaches for testing electrification based on historical air traffic data, as well as the creation of new, non-existent air traffic schedules for electric aviation. Since there are currently no electric aircraft in commercial scheduled traffic, and thus no data or statistics regarding its performance or properties, a model is also developed for this, which allows simulation of desired flight connections, resulting in estimates for energy consumption and flight duration. The project is based on an electric aircraft model that is parameterized in accordance with certification level CS/FAR-23 (19 seats and maximum weight 8618 kg). The logic of the model is to follow the complete chain of movements for each aircraft individual during a given period (typically one day), where charging required for each aircraft at each airport in the chain is given by what energy level the battery held at the start of flight, how much energy was consumed during the flight, time of arrival at destination, and when the next departure is due. Taxi-in and taxi-out at the airports also affect how much time is available for charging. A built-in charge curve limits how fast it is practically convenient for the aircraft’s batteries to charge, which is defined as the ratio between C-rate (Charging-rate) and SoC (State-of-Charge). In addition, the charger itself can be limited to a certain maximum power and thus controls how fast energy can be delivered to the aircraft's batteries. To enable sufficient range, the electric aircrafts are expected to have relatively large batteries that are also likely to be charged within short time intervals at the airports (turnaround-times). Thus, the need to install power capacity may be expected to increase drastically at the airports if several aircraft’s need to charge simultaneously. The project therefore places extra emphasis on developing smart algorithms for controlling charger power output over time with the ambition to balance the load and lower power peaks at the airports. Finally, the project discusses what implications electric aviation can have from the perspective of air traffic control, existing and future airspace structures. Further, several case studies are conducted to exemplify the modeling process and the result that the user ultimately gets. The project does not aim to create a commercial tool, but rather a first version, and create the basis for further development of an analysis tool that is useful for airports and other stakeholders in the aviation industry now, and in future research and development collaborations.

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  • 2.
    Almestrand Linné, Philip
    VTI Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Standardisation of Electric Road Systems: Report from workshop at FIRM192020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric Road System (ERS) is a technology concept that has the potential to dramatically reduce the fossil fuel dependency in the transport system. ERS is defined by electric power transfer from the road to the vehicle while the vehicle is in motion, and could be achieved through different power transfer technologies from the road to the vehicle, such as rail, overhead line, and wireless solutions. The basic technologies for power transfer from the road to vehicles in motion have been developed through various international research projects. In recent years, ERS has moved from conceptual idea to real-world application in countries such as Sweden (2016 and 2018), the United States of America (California 2017), and Germany (2019). In addition, projects are being planned in Italy and China.

    National and international freight transports in Europe are usually determined by national and EU strategies and regulations. The success of ERS implementation, especially when it comes to a transnational roll-out, depends on using regulatory frameworks to identify areas where adaptation is needed.

    The work in the CollERS project has included a consideration of ERS in national and EU transport strategies. The present report relates to identification of areas where standards are missing or have to be adapted, as well a stakeholder dialogue (Germany, Sweden, Denmark and EU), e.g. by means of expert interviews at national and EU-level (industry, science, politics, and road administrations).

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    CollERS_Standardisation_ERS_FIRM19
  • 3.
    Amanuel, Mahdere DW
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Arby, Hans
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Verktygslåda för bättre mobilitet på mindre orter – Utvecklingsprojekt med fem stationssamhällen i Småland2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet "Stationssamhällen Småland: Verktygslåda för landsbygdsmobilitet" tog sikte på att möta utmaningar i relation till minskat bilresande i syfte att se till att Agenda 2030- målen kan uppnås samtidigt som tillgänglighet bibehålls. Fokus lades på mindre tätorter med tågstationer. Den övergripande målsättningen var att projektets resultat ska underlätta för kommuner att identifiera och implementera hållbara mobilitetslösningar som möter såväl invånares som näringslivets behov i den typen av samhällen. Projektet involverade fem småländska kommuner. Genom en fallstudiebaserad ansats, med metoder så som platsbesök, intervjuer och workshops med representanter för lokalsamhället och näringslivet kartlades behov, en färdplan för nya mobilitetstjänster togs fram och en verktygslåda som kommunerna kan använda för att själva planera och implementera dessa utvecklades. Projektet resulterade i en verktygslåda, presenterad som en Wiki-hemsida, som erbjuder en process för nulägesanalys, behovskartläggning, kunskapsuppbyggnad, idégenerering och implementering av mobilitetslösningar. Verktygslådan är avsedd att underlätta för andra kommuner att självständigt förbättra mobiliteten baserat på lokala behov. Insikter från projektet inkluderar betydelsen av brett stöd inom kommunen, näringslivets deltagande som en katalysator för förändring, och behovet av att utgå från specifika målgruppers behov. Projektet framhåller även vikten av mjuka åtgärder, kostnadseffektiva lösningar, och samarbete över kommungränser för att förbättra pendlingsresor. Genom att fokusera på marknadsföring av befintlig kollektivtrafik, optimering av kollektivtrafik, och olika former av samordnad mobilitet, inklusive cykling och samåkning, presenteras konkreta lösningar för ökad tillgänglighet och hållbar mobilitet på landsbygden.

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    SEBRA Sensor based awareness for bicyclists: FINAL REPORT2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall trend in Sweden is that the number of fatalities and severely injured in traffic is constantly decreasing. However, bicyclists are the group of road-users that often suffer the most severe injuries when involved in accidents.

    In this project we want to investigate if a radar mounted on bicycles can help bicycle riders to get better situational awareness and thereby avoid getting into dangerous situations.

    For active safety in vehicles, the state of art integrates radar-, lidar-, and camera-based sensors to create awareness for the vehicle and driver. To apply this kind of system on a bicycle would be unfeasible, since the cost would in some cases be as much as the entire bicycle. In this project we study and propose a low-cost sensor solution that improves traffic safety for bicycles that consist of only one of these sensors - the radar - it is the cheapest and most robust solution.

    The project first identified the most relevant use-cases and in conjunction to this, identify a business model that can make the safety system attractive for end-users. 

     Secondly, a radarbased safety system for bicycles is developed with both sensor and human interface.

    Finally,the system is evaluated in relevant traffic situations.

    The SEBRA project aims for the following research questions:

    - RQ1: What safety issues can be addressed by a radar-based safety system mounted onbicycles?

    - RQ2: What performance requirements (field-of-view, computational capacity, power consumption, etc.) should such a system fulfil?

    - RQ3: How should the interaction with the bicyclists be designed to give a high level of safety and user experience?

    - RQ4: How can incentives and business models be developed to create a viable utility device for bicycles?

    Within the scope of Open Research at AstaZero, we plan to simulate the selected scenarios from literature in the test track environment to finalize the answer for RQ1 and build answerfor RQ2. The tests also contribute initial insights for RQ3 answer.

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  • 5.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Andersson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Transportdispenser: Analys av nutid och förslag på framtid2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some transports considered too wide, too heavy, or too long to be driven on public roads must nevertheless be allowed to take place because of their societal importance. Such transports are granted a formal exception to the traffic rules. In this project, together with industry and national and local authorities we have analysed this process and submitted several proposals for improvement measures for consideration. The focus has been on increased digitalisation and improved legal processes. The analysis is based on interviews with municipal administrators, transporters and clients and representatives from Sweden's municipalities and regions, the Swedish Transport Administration, the Swedish Transport Agency, and the Swedish Police Authority. The interviews show substantial differences between how the Swedish Transport Administration and municipalities work with exemptions. Based on our analysis, we propose several individual measures as well as three design scenarios suggesting future opportunities for an improved process.

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  • 6.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Wikman, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Safe introduction of battery propulsion at sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric propulsion using batteries as energy storage has the potential to significantly reduce emissions from shipping and thus the environmental impact. The battery type that is currently on the top of the agenda to be used for ship propulsion applications is Li-ion batteries. Li-ion batteries pose different safety issues than e.g. other propulsion technologies and other batteries such as lead-acid batteries. It is essential that the safety level on board, including fire safety, is maintained, when introducing electric propulsion with energy storage in batteries. This report discusses the different regulations and guidelines available today for fire safety of batteries on board in relation to current knowledge about Li-ion batteries. Also fire safety measures available on board ships today and their applicability for Li-ion batteries is discussed, as well as the different test methods available and their applicability. A workshop gathering different stakeholders from Sweden, Norway and Finland identified fire safety as the main challenge for the introduction of battery propulsion at sea. The workshop concluded that future work is desired in order to increase knowledge and to develop publicly available strategies, training and designs.

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  • 7.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    En not om att mäta kapacitet på järnväg2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande rapport introducerar ett nytt kapacitetsmått för trafik på järnväg. Syftet med det föreslagna måttet är att det skall vara användbart vid förplanering av järnvägstrafik, innan järnvägsföretag och andra sökanden lämnar in sina ansökningar om trafik och kapacitetstilldelningen slutförs. Kapacitetsmåttet utgår från det gängse sättet att presentera en tågplan, den så kallade tidtabellsgrafen, eller i branschen refererad till som bara ”grafen”. För varje spårsträcka som tågläget belägger så utgör kapacitetskonsumtionen ytan som upptas i grafen. Denna yta är summan av varje individuell signalsträckas längd multiplicerat med tiden som tågläget belägger hela spårsträckan. Detta utgör kapacitetskonsumtionen för tågläget. Måttet blir intressant i de tidigare processtegen innan ansökan om kapacitet. Då ansökan ännu inte är genomförd så finns inga sökta avgångs- och ankomsttider, däremot en prognos vad som kommer sökas (t.ex. genom den i TTR angivna händelsen Capacity Needs Announcement). Genom att lägga på ett tidsfönster kan varje prognosticerat tågläge abstraheras att avgå/ankomma inom detta tidsfönster. Kapacitetskonsumtionen är dock konstant, och denna fördelas över tidsfönstret. Genom att för varje tidsögonblick ackumulera den fördelade kapacitetsåtgången fås en kapacitetsanvändningsplan. Denna är en abstraktion av det tänkta framtida schemat (tågplanen) och kräver således inte en konfliktfri tågplan som utgångspunkt. En kapacitetsanvändningsplan kan således realiseras av många olika scheman som realiserar den. Tanken är att kapacitetsanvändningsplanen, om prognosen för framtida trafik är rätt, på ett korrekt sätt lyckats abstraherat den framtida tågplanens konkreta schema. Hänsyn måste tas till de tidsmässiga kostnader som uppstår för att tåglägen har olika hastighet och på enkelspår går i olika riktning. Detta hanteras i analogi med andra industrisektorer med ställtid, vilket också är kapacitetskonsumtion och således ingår i kapacitetsanvändningsplanen. Utöver detta måste hänsyn i kapacitetsanvändnings-planen tas till tid som behövs för att reglera möten och förbigångar på omgivande driftplatser och ger upphov till ytor som inte längre kan nås i ett konkretiserat schema. Då denna kapacitetskonsumtion adderas till den övriga beskrivna kapacitets-konsumtionen har en kapacitetsbudget skapats vars syfte är att klargöra förutsättningarna för vilken trafik som kan bedrivas och som skall kunna realiseras i ett schema (tågplan) efter att ansökan om kapacitet skett. Det i denna rapport beskrivna måttet för kapacitetskonsumtion utgör en brygga mellan de tidigare processtegen i kapacitetstilldelningsprocessen och de senare.

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  • 8.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Reservkapacitet i tågplaneprocessen: Förstudie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten för tilldelningsprocessen är att den mest samhällsnyttiga trafiken, tolkat som den mest samhällsekonomiska, är den som skall genomföras varje dygn. De sökande av tåglägen för nästkommande år lämnar in sina ansökningar i april året före, vilket sedan sammanställs och planeras av infrastrukturhållaren.  Såsom i all planering så är inte alla fakta kända i förväg då de sökande lämnar in sina ansökningar. Av det skälet har svensk järnvägslag ett moment om ”reservkapacitet”, kapacitet som avsätts för att möjliggöra även tilldelning av effektiva tåglägen under pågående genomförande av tågplanen. Målet för projektet Reservkapacitet i tågplanen, RIT, är att finna modeller, metoder och verktyg för hantering av reservkapacitet genom tilldelningsprocessen. Syftet är också att i allmänhet studera hur reservering av kapacitet kan göras då diskussioner förs internationellt om en utvecklad tilldelningsprocess där möjligheten till både långsiktigt stabil trafik och effektiva tåglägen med kort framförhållning skall kunna planeras och genomföras. Skillnad görs mellan tilldelad kapacitet, reserverad kapacitet och restkapacitet, där den senare enbart är sådan kapacitet som inte efterfrågades och således är ”över”. Rapporten presenterar resultaten från förstudien där olika aspekter av reserverad kapacitet belyses, en diskussion rörande hur stort behovet av reservkapacitet är samt innehåller en genomgång av vad som finns gjort inom området både nationellt och internationellt. En principiell ansats för hantering av reserverad kapacitet presenteras, där en bärande princip är att tåglägen måste ha jämförbara värden genom hela tilldelningsprocessen för att mängden och typen av reserverad kapacitet skall bli korrekt formulerad.

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  • 9.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Transporttillgänglighet och tillgänglighetsnyckeltal för järnvägsnät och banunderhåll2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På infrastrukturförvaltaren Trafikverket åligger det att skapa en kapacitetstilldelning som både leder till punktligt genomförande av trafik och samtidigt bibehållen anläggningsstatus. Detta skall genomföras på ett sådant sätt att anläggningen används på ett optimalt samhällsnyttigt sätt. Den årliga tågplanen beskriver kapacitetsfördelningen av infrastrukturen mellan tåg och underhållsåtgärder för ett år i taget, men är slutresultatet av flera års förberedelser. Cirka 8 månader innan tågplanen börjar gälla söker järnvägsföretagen och underhållentreprenörerna kapacitet för tåglägen och banarbeten, men processen börjar avsevärt tidigare. Denna rapport beskriver hur ett transportutbud och produktions-estimat kan formuleras, beräknas och värderas som ett verktyg och underlag för dels ansökan av banarbeten, dels som ett underlag för kapacitetsfördelningsstrategier. Huvudresultatet är en frikoppling av tågläget med dess precist formulerade väg genom järnvägsnätet till ett nytt begrepp, transportläget, som definierar de huvudegenskaper som utgör viktiga leveranskvaliteter och leveransegenskaper hus transporttjänsten. Basen för ett transportläge utgör utgångsstation, slutstation samt eventuellt andra stationer med kommersiella aktiviteter såsom av/påstigande eller av/påkoppling av godsvagnar. Transportlägen med samma egenskaper formar Transporttjänsteklasser. Genom att använda prioriteringsklasserna från de i järnvägsnätsbeskrivningen beskrivna prioriteringskriterierna kan en värdering kopplas till transportlägena och transporttjänsteklasserna. Denna värdering gör det möjligt att jämföra olika transportjänsteklasser och låta transportlägen byta klass om det vid samordning och beräkning av produktions-estimatet visar sig nödvändigt på grund av exempelvis trängsel på infrastrukturen. Värderingen är också nyckeln för att värdera den påverkan trafikpåverkande åtgärder såsom banarbeten får på produktions-estimatet, dels enskilda trafikpåverkande åtgärder men kanske framför allt kombinatoriska effekter av dessa åtgärder.

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  • 10.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Transporttjänsteklasser för trafik på järnväg: Delresultat i projektet Transporttillgänglighet – tillgänglighetsnyckeltal för järnvägsnät och banunderhåll (TT-JOB)2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver ett delresultat i forsknings- och innovationsprojektet ”Transporttillgänglighet – tillgänglighetsnyckeltal för järnvägsnät och banunderhåll”, TT-JOB, som är ett projekt i branschprogrammet KAJT, Kapacitet i järnvägstrafiken. Projektet studerar möjligheten att utveckla ett (eller flera) tillgänglighetsmått baserat på transporter snarare än kapacitetsmått för individuella spårlänkar. Måttet ska vara relevant för all berörd trafik, och ska även ta i beaktande de effekter på tillgänglighet som trafiksammansättningen (den s.k. trafikmixen) på en bana skapar. Vi definierar begreppet Transporttjänsteklasser för järnväg, vilka beskriver sammanfattande egenskaper för flera liknande tåglägen. Individer (tåglägen) ur transporttjänsteklasserna skall i ett senare skede kunna kombineras för att bygga upp trafiksystem som kan användas för utfästelser om kommande planeringsperioders trafik och som underlag för t.ex. kombinationeseffekter i samband med underhållsplanering. Denna rapport beskriver grundansatsen, definierar grundläggande begrepp och sätter transporttjänsteklasserna i perspektiv gentemot t.ex. de funktionella kraven och deras transportflöden som används på Trafikverket.

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  • 11.
    Aronsson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Kjellin, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Reservkapacitet i tilldelningsprocessen (RIT) – Slutrapport2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reserve capacity in Railway capacity allocation. Each year railway undertakings (RUs) apply for capacity to run trains on the railway infrastructure. The infrastructure manager (IM) should make a complete timetable for all applications together with capacity restrictions when maintenance etc must be performed. In this process, referred to as the capacity allocation process, the IM should also schedule some reserve capacity for later use during the execution of the plan. The reserve capacity then competes with the applied capacity of the RUs, since it is only motivated to introduce reserve capacity where there is a capacity scarcity. If there is plenty of rest capacity (capacity that no one applied for in the yearly process), then there is no need for reserve capacity. Since reserve capacity competes with all other capacity applied for in the yearly capacity allocation process, the amount, location and lines where reserve capacity is introduced must be founded in fair and sound principles in order for the RUs in the yearly process to accept the costs taken to make room for the reserve capacity. This report addresses such models and methods for the Swedish capacity allocation process. The report in part summarizes in condensed form the two earlier reports that have been published, as well as reports some new material regarding process descriptions, data analyses of previous years’ timetables and interviews with three different RUs. The report also gives some recommendations to the Swedish IM Trafikverket about tools for representing reserve capacity, design of the process and how to allocate paths based on reserve capacity once capacity has been reserved. One key recommendation is that a new timetabling object should be introduced, called Capacity reservation, CR. A CR is a named (has identity) timetabling object that can be used in a train path in the future. If an RU wants to use such a CR in a train path, the RU must apply for it and exceed a valuation criterion to be able to get it. This valuation criterion is a connection to the costs that other yearly applied traffic has to take in order to make room for the reserve capacity. CRs are managed (not “allocated”) by the IM and are not allocated to an RU or entrepreneur until they have applied for it. CRs are available for allocation after the timetable is finalized and the short-term process (ad hoc) is started, including the process step Late path requests. The report also relates the models and methods to the upcoming new capacity allocation process called Timetabling and capacity redesign, TTR. TTR introduces Advance planning, i.e. planning in advance of the RU allocations. For this to work, it is crucial to be able to reserve capacity in various forms, both segmentation and reserve over time (safeguarding).

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  • 12.
    Autili, Marco
    et al.
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Pompilio, Claudio
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Tivoli, Massimo
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems: Choreography-Based Urban Traffic Coordination2021In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 2088-2099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the emerging connected automated vehicles, 5G and Internet of Things (IoT), vehicles and road infrastructure become connected and cooperative, enabling Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS). C-ITS are transport system of systems that involves many stakeholders from different sectors. While running their own systems and providing services independently, stakeholders cooperate with each other for improving the overall transport performance such as safety, efficiency and sustainability. Massive information on road and traffic is already available and provided through standard services with different protocols. By reusing and composing the available heterogeneous services, novel value-added applications can be developed. This paper introduces a choreography-based service composition platform, i.e. the CHOReVOLUTION Integrated Development and Runtime Environment (IDRE), and it reports on how the IDRE has been successfully exploited to accelerate the reuse-based development of a choreography-based Urban Traffic Coordination (UTC) application. The UTC application takes the shape of eco-driving services that through real-time eco-route evaluation assist the drivers for the most eco-friendly and comfortable driving experience. The eco-driving services are realized through choreography and they are exploited through a mobile app for online navigation. From specification to deployment to execution, the CHOReVOLUTION IDRE has been exploited to support the realization of the UTC application by automatizing the generation of the distributed logic to properly bind, coordinate and adapt the interactions of the involved parties. The benefits brought by CHOReVOLUTION IDRE have been assessed through the evaluation of a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs).

  • 13.
    Bach, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Forsström, Ellinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Haraldson, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Lind, Kenneth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Lind, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Piehl, Hampus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Raza, Zeeshan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Rydbergh, Torbjörn
    Marine Benchmark, Sweden.
    HAMNEN SOM ENERGINOD : Ett koncept för hamnens roll i omställningen mot ett hållbart transportsystem2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transportsystemet står inför en enorm utmaning då trycket på genomförandet av hållbara operationer aldrig varit större. Enligt IEA står transportsektorn för 16% av det totala koldioxidutsläppet i världen som med nödvändighet måste minska för att vi ska kunna lämna efter oss en planet med resurser för framtida generationer. Utmaningen kräver att alla delar av transportsystemet gör sitt bidrag, oavsett om det handlar om transportoperatörer, transportnoder, myndigheter på såväl lokal, regional som global nivå och tvärs samtliga transportslag. Det slutar dock inte där, det är lika viktigt att de som konstruerar olika typer av lastbärare och fordon för både gods- och persontransporter också beaktar den energi som förväntas vara tillgänglig i rätt kvantitet och till rätt pris. Energiproducenter behöver också tillgodose att efterfrågade energibärare produceras och finns att tillgå vid rätt plats och i tillräcklig kvantitet då den behövs. Detta är i linje med de behov av insatser som Sveriges regering lyfter inom transporteffektivitet, hållbara förnybara drivmedel samt energieffektiva fordon och fartyg, för att reducera Sveriges territoriella CO2 utsläpp i linje med de globala målen. En viktig del av transportsystemet är hamnar som har fönster mot flera olika transportslag och utgör multimodala noder som förväntas ombesörja en så sömlös övergång mellan olika transportslag som möjligt, såsom till/från sjö, järnväg och väg. Svenska hamnar är inget undantag, utan i Sverige med sin längsta europeiska kustremsa behöver Sveriges hamnar också etablera tillräcklig kapabilitet för att hantera såväl inhemska transportbehov som förväntade transporter för import och export på ett hållbart sätt. Hamnar står inför utmaningen att både bedriva sina operationer på ett så hållbart sätt som möjligt genom nyttjande av fossilfri energi, att förse besökare med fossilfria energibärare, och att balansera sitt nyttjande och distribution av hållbar energi med de behov som omgivningen har. Organisationer med lastbilar, tåg, och fartyg som besöker en transportnod, däribland hamnar, förväntar sig att de kan försörjas med viss energi. Transportnoder kan således inte bara betraktas utifrån att vara en effektiv omlastningspunkt, utan behöver också betraktas utifrån den roll som transportnoden har och kan komma att ta i den del av energisystemet som relaterar till transportsystemet. Hamnar som transportnoder behöver således etablera en förmåga som energinod. I föreliggande projekt har trender beaktats för utvecklingen inom olika transportslag, intervjuer genomförts med svenska hamnar samt en enkätundersökning genomförts riktad till en majoritet av Sveriges hamnar. I projektet identifieras att de viktigaste drivkrafterna för hamnarnas hållbarhets- och omställningsarbete är kundkrav, kostnadsbesparingar, hamnens interna målsättning (ofta baserad på ägarnas krav och vision) samt regelverk. Slutsatsen är att Sveriges hamnar har en stark ambition att utveckla sin förmåga som energinod för olika roller. Samtidigt råder en villrådighet om vilka satsningar som skulle ge störst effekter för hamnens verksamhet. Viktigt att notera är också att olika hamnar har olika förutsättningar och roller i transportsystemet, beroende på dess geografiska placering, storlek och typ av gods / passagerare som hanteras. Samtidigt görs stora investeringar i Sveriges hamnsystem, för att proaktivt utveckla en kapabilitet att möta dagens och morgondagens transportbehov, särskilt i ljuset av den omflyttning som sker från vägbundna transporter till järnväg och sjö. Det är vanligt att hamnar etablerar inlandsterminalskapabilitet, d v s skapar förmåga för omlastning mellan tåg och väg där inte någon sjötransport behöver vara inblandad. Många av Sveriges järnvägsoperatörer ser hamnar som strategiska noder i järnvägssystemet. Dessutom det är tydligt från intervjuerna, vilket även styrks av enkätsvar, att respondenterna anser att otillräckliga finansiella medel, höga kostnader och skatt, omogen teknik, infrastruktur, effekt, standardisering, kompetens, och politisk otydlighet är de största utmaningar som påverkar svenska hamnars roll i hållbarhets- och omställningsarbete. Baserat på genomförd trend- och nulägesanalys föreslås en mognadsmodell som rådgivande för hamnens proaktiva utveckling av sin energinodskapacitet. Denna modell tar utgångspunkt i att hamnen etablerar en energistrategi som tar höjd för nödvändiga samarbeten och investeringar som de både blir tvingade till genom regelverk, påverkade av genom beslut och själva har rådighet över. Hamnarna är tydliga med att huvudverksamheten är att utgöra en transportnod, men att de, för att möjliggöra en omställning mot ett hållbart transportsystem, också behöver ge utrymme för andra aktörer, såsom energiproducenter och energidistributörer att bedriva sin verksamhet relaterat till hamnens geografiska område. Således behöver det kluster av aktörer som ingår i hamnen som nod expanderas till att också innefatta producenter och distributörer av energi. Hamnens energistrategi är rådgivande för att hamnen skall kunna etablera en förmåga som säkerställer att de krav som hamnens operationer, hamnens besökare och hamnens roll med sin geografiska placering, möts. Föreslagen mognadsmodell riktar uppmärksamhet just till dessa nivåer av förmåga och skapar grunder för formuleringen av en proaktiv strategi för den enskilda hamnens roll i transportsystemets energiomställning. En viktig grund blir då att simulera framtida energibehov, såsom inom elförsörjnings- och eldistributionsområdet, men även för andra energibärare, varför detta projekt föreslår ett fortsättningsprojekt där förväntade energibehov kan simuleras och bli rådgivande för strategi, samverkan och investering för Sveriges hamnar. En sådan simuleringsmodell bygger på hamnens digitala förmåga att fånga och använda data från operationer för att säkerställa att hamnen bidrar till transporteffektivitet, användning av hållbara förnybara drivmedel samt energieffektiva fordon och fartyg. Samspelet mellan hamnen som energinod och transportbärares kapabilitet att drivas på hållbar energi samt energiproducenters/energidistributörers förmåga att tillhandahålla fossilfri energi, utgör grunden till fossilfria transporter. Fossilfria väg-, järnvägs- och sjötransporter kan således inte etableras utan att ta hänsyn till alla ingående komponenter. I denna nödvändiga transformation har hamnar och andra transportnoder en nyckelroll.

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  • 14.
    Bernecker, Tobias
    et al.
    Heilbronn University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Speiser, Jonas
    Heilbronn University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Engwall, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hasselgren, Björn
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Helms, Hinrich
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Widegren, Fredrik
    WSP, Sweden.
    Business models, Ownership, and Financing Strategies: Implications of an introduction of electric road systems on markets and possible business models2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for a rapid and substantial decarbonization of the transport system runs counter to the established development trends in road freight. While the challenges that station-based energy supply systems are facing mainly involve replacing and overcoming propulsion technology, a major challenge facing the implementation of an electric road system (ERS) also includes, to a greater extent, the organizational, financial, and more complicated regulatory issues based on energy-road interactions. The question of whether an ERS is seen as part of the (public) road system or the (private) energy system will fundamentally affect the market structure of an ERS. Different ERS configurations can create new business opportunities for road operators. Different archetypes of business models for ERS-related services can be identified which could enable an opportunity for new value creation for the private sector. Policy measures enabling business model development for an ERS should be diversified and target all actors involved.

    In cross-border ERS projects, business models for infrastructure operators, freight forwarders, and energy suppliers of ERS have to be embedded in the respective national contexts as well as in an international perspective in order to be sustainable. Otherwise the establishment and operation of ERS are likely to fail. Different legal, economical, and environmental national conditions have to be taken into account and need to be respected. This will most probably lead to country-specific balances between policy push and market pull measures along cross-border ERS corridors. Local differences in the division of responsibilities between public and private actors could also occur and need to be taken into account. By paying proper attention to these points from the very beginning, a key success factor of cross-border ERS is met.

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  • 15.
    Boyer, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    D6.1 : STRONGER COMBINED MaaS IN 2020 : A REVIEW OF EXISTING RESEARCH AND ROUTES FOR THE FUTURE2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report was composed as part of Stronger Combined – an international R&I project funded by Interreg to explore the role of combined mobility, primarily within rural regions and areas. As such, this report examines the academic literature on Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) to investigate the geographical and conceptual areas that are covered by existing MaaS research and those which have been overlooked, aiming to deliver insights that can 1) spur developments in rural areas; and 2) inform future R&I programming within the broader MaaS field. Hence in addition to the above aims, this report also identifies gaps and shortcomings in academic scholarship, making recommendations for future research. The main findings of this report are summarized as follows: - MaaS is a concept forming in real-time. There is still much debate about the ‘true meaning’ of MaaS and the steps necessary to fully realize it. - MaaS research is overwhelmingly focused on urban places and populations. Rural and suburban areas are severely underrepresented in existing peer-reviewed research. MaaS for special populations and purposes like riders with disabilities or tourists is also underrepresented. - Authors of MaaS scholarship come from institutions in multiple countries, but 80% of articles come from seven countries: Sweden, Australia, UK, Netherlands, Switzerland, and Finland. These countries also tend to be the focus of MaaS research, although a sizeable number of articles are context-free (e.g. theoretical or conceptual). - Existing experimental and pilot-based research shows that access to MaaS has a measurable influence on individuals’ use of different travel modes, including a decline in personal vehicle use. However, multiple studies cast doubt on the ability of MaaS to displace personal vehicles completely. - The individuals most likely to adopt MaaS are mode agnostic – they already use multiple transportation modes for daily travel and are not strongly committed to any single mode. - Stated-preference surveys reveal that 10-15 percent of surveyed individuals are enthusiastic about adopting MaaS while another 30-40 percent are at least open-minded to the concept. The remainder are unlikely to adopt MaaS as currently conceived, for a variety of reasons. - Subscription-based MaaS with multiple bundled transportation services faces many obstacles including the complexity of service agreements and low stated-preferences for mobility bundles (albeit with exceptions). Several papers recommend that MaaS initiatives advance incrementally by including a small number of service providers and/or pay-as-you-go rather than subscription payment. - The governance of MaaS (i.e., the approach that different government entities take to making MaaS work) is critical. Different cities and public transit systems have approached MaaS governance in different ways. While there is no apparent “one-size-fits-all” approach, there is some consensus in the governance literature that enhanced data sharing, standardization, and participatory visioning processes have been and will continue to be important to the success of MaaS in the coming years. - The COVID-19 pandemic presents challenges to MaaS as conventionally envisioned, but some experts see opportunities for MaaS with expanded service offerings or as a tool for transportation resilience.

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  • 16.
    Boyer, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    D6.2 STRONGER COMBINED : SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stronger Combined is a research and innovation project co-funded by the Interreg North Sea Region Programme. The overarching goal of the Stronger Combined project is to support experimentation with multimodal and intermodal passenger travel solutions in rural, small-town, and tourist (RUSTT) regions. The project consists of nine independent experimental sites, or living labs, in seven Interreg North Sea Region countries. Living labs are administered by either regional public transit authorities or municipalities with support from research institutes, universities, or private consultancies. Each living lab conducted at least one transportation pilot that attempted, through various means, to encourage alternatives to the personal motor vehicle. In all living lab contexts, the personal motor vehicle is the single dominant mode of transportation, which presents environmental, social, and economic challenges that Europe and the world must begin to address. The purpose of this report is to summarize and assess the performance of each pilot with special attention to increases in use of public transportation and decreases in carbon dioxide (equivalent) emissions. Communities in RUSTT regions face special transportation challenges largely because they lie outside dense transportation networks that tend to make multimodal transportation more efficient in larger cities. The Stronger Combined project aims to address these special challenges by piloting alternatives to the personal motor vehicle that allow travellers to more easily transition among multiple modes of transportation on a single journey. The piloted solutions vary enormously across living labs. They include several bikeshare programs that serve unique purposes in each context, a ridesharing service, a contractual restructuring that affords populations with special needs easier access to traditional public transit, a technical pilot testing a new national ticketing-and-payment standard, and a demand-responsive bus program in a mountainous tourist region. The pilots targeted user groups in very different ways and tested solutions over different time scales, making of pilots very challenging. At the beginning of the Stronger Combined project, the authors of this report endeavoured to apply the KOMPIS framework a series of data collection tools designed to evaluate mobility-as-a-service (MaaS) to each pilot. In most living labs this framework had to be adapted and downscaled to fit the capabilities and time scale of individual pilots. As a brief example, the full KOMPIS framework involves travellers completing travel diaries every day for a full week. Such a task is well suited for a pilot in which the key goal is for travellers to adopt multimodal travel habits, but it is unnecessarily detailed for a pilot that involves endusers renting a cargo bike for one or small number of specific trips. The COVID-19 pandemic also meant that several pilots were delayed or overhauled, requiring the relatively rapid development of new data collection strategies tailored to each pilot. The report below summarizes each pilot􀂶s contribution to public transit ridership and carbon savings, yet the most important and perhaps ironic finding in this report is that the context-specific nature of piloted solutions does not lend itself well to a one-size-fits-all evaluation framework. Substantial Stronger Combined D6.2 5 increases in public transit ridership were apparent in several pilot projects, however calculating the number of individuals that shifted to public transit modes was either irrelevant or impossible in most of the pilots. Similarly, we calculate substantial CO2 savings due to shifts in travel modes across many of the pilots, but it is arguably unfair to compare shifts across living labs. Living labs collected data in a variety of ways at a variety of time scales in pilots of varying size. Some pilots achieved relatively large absolute carbon savings (due in part to a larger number of participants) while others achieved impressive per person- or per kilometre savings relative to a baseline scenario (due in large part to a focus on transitions from personal vehicles to bicycles). Improving person-transportation in RUSST regions is it is effectively a set of unique problems that resist being solved at scale. A bike sharing program that works well as a first/last mile solution for hospital employees in a semi-rural Swedish region would not offer much value to a Danish village where many households have access to personal bicycles for local trips and where transportation outside the village by bicycle is practically impossible. The different pilots presented in this report each present unique and useful findings beyond the reported target KPIs. A sample of these findings include:  Introducing e-bikes as a mode of transportation makes the biggest difference for utility trips (e.g. trips to work or school), but is associated with relatively little change in individuals leisure travel or short trips around the neighbourhood (Genk pilot).  Elderly and disabled travellers will use public buses when offered for free or when given lowcost access (Groningen Drenthe pilot). Ridesharing in small towns is already rather common but tends to occur among family, friends, and familiar neighbours. Encouraging the use of ridesharing mobile apps will require enhancing drivers sense of familiarity with potential co-riders (Skive pilot).  Experts project that ID-based ticketing will be most useful to individuals that already use public transportation uncertain. These findings reflect existing academic research on MaaS, which shows that the most likely users of combined mobility offerings those without strong loyalties to any particular mode (Hallandstrafiken pilot). A sizeable majority (87.5 percent) of registered uses of a bikeshare service appear to use their subscription at least once a month, suggesting they are integrating bikeshare as a part of their routines rather than as a one-time solution (HiTrans pilot). Subscribers to an e-cargo bike pilot tended to be individuals that use a standard bicycle for travel several times a week and have positive attitudes toward bicycles. Thus, familiarity and positive attitudes about non-cargo bicycling may influence willingness to adopt cargo bikes as an option for transporting heavier loads or children (Rinteln pilot).

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  • 17.
    Broman, Emanuel
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Efficient capacity allocation on deregulated railway markets2022In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 21, article id 100294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As railway markets are increasingly deregulated, coordinating and prioritising between capacity requests becomes more complex and more important. This paper describes the advantages and challenges of different allocation methods in vertically separated open-access railway markets, with several railway operators and heterogeneous traffic, and where a public infrastructure manager must resolve operators’ conflicting path requests. Three broad groups of allocation methods are described: administrative methods, allocation by social cost-benefit analysis and willingness-to-pay based allocation. We describe pros and cons of these allocation principles for three different market segments: commercial traffic with long planning horizons, (subsidized) traffic controlled by public transport agencies, and traffic with short planning horizons. We then outline an allocation process that meets the requirements of a deregulated market better than conventional methods. It is a mixed method, which uses an auction-like mechanism to allocate pre-defined paths to commercial operators on specified, capacity-constrained lines. The net social benefits of capacity reserved for traffic controlled by public transport agencies is assessed through social cost-benefit analysis of timetables. The benefits decrease when timetables are adjusted to make room for additional commercial train paths; the size of this loss determines the reservation price of the auction-like mechanism. Dynamic pricing is used for short-term allocation on congested line segments. © 2021

  • 18.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Amanuel, Mahdere DW
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Ramboll, Sweden.
    Olsson, Ola
    Ramboll, Sweden.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Lunds kommun, Sweden.
    Ulander, Gustaf
    Skellefteå kommun, Sweden.
    Bassioukas Hanseklint, Petra
    Skellefteå kommun, Sweden.
    Vainio, Jyrki
    Region Gotland, Sweden.
    Lindberg Helander, Gustav
    Eskilstuna kommun, Sweden.
    Körkkö, Jani
    Eskilstuna kommun, Sweden.
    Zarghampour, Hamid
    Trafikverket, Sweden.
    Självkörande landsbygd2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur skulle autonoma fordon kunna användas inom kollektivtrafiken på landsbygden? Genom intervjuer, workshops och en RFI (request for information, ett första steg mot upphandling) har vi undersökt frågan utifrån fyra konkreta områden i Sverige – Lund, Gotland, Eskilstuna och Skellefteå. 

    Med en definition av landsbygd baserad på individens mobilitet har vi sett att Sveriges landsbygd rymmer mindre orter på väg att avfolkas där äldre, barn och de utan körkort hade kunnat få bättre tillgång till samhällelig service med autonoma fordon. Vi har också sett att flera av landets nya arbetsplatser kommer befinna sig på landsbygden och därmed skapa ett mobilitetsbehov från staden till landet. 

    För att kunna realisera de identifierade möjligheterna finns ett behov av att framföra fordonen i högre hastigheter samt att de ska kunna hantera mer komplexa trafiksituationer än vad dagens piloter i städerna visat. På landsbygden finns alltså ett utrymme för nya fordon att visa upp sig. Samtidigt ser vi hur man inte ska förvänta sig att investeringarna i autonoma fordon kommer betala sig på en linje, snarare behöver man lyfta blicken och se systemeffekten när stomlinjetrafiken blir mer attraktiv då bussarna går raka vägen istället för via mindre samhällen. 

    Vi har inte sett några belägg på att den digitala infrastrukturen behöver utvecklas för att möjliggöra försök med autonoma fordon på någon av de undersökta rutterna. Dagens 4G-täckning är fullgod och fordonen borde ha tillgång till tillräckligt bra positioneringsdata för att bedriva verksamheten. Däremot ställs flera frågor om hur ersättningstrafiken organiseras när fordonen inte klarar av vädret, vem som står för säkrare hållplatser och hur chaufförens övriga ansvar realiseras när fordonet är förarlöst. 

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  • 19.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Skoglund, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    The role of policy labs for introducing autonomous vehicles2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explains the methodological approach of policy labs as used in applied research projects on autonomous vehicles in Sweden. While introducing new technologies we need to ensure that regulations and policies keep up with the fast-paced technological development.  Policy labs is one way of managing the perceived conflict between technological innovation and existing regulations. Within a policy lab, a wide range of stakeholders gather to solve the bottlenecks for innovations together. We show through three different R&D projects how the policy lab approach can be applied and which results, improvements and challenges it revealed for introducing autonomous vehicles.  

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  • 20.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Carlgren, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Sjöblom, Ted
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Policylabb Smarta Fartyg2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish Shipping Policy Lab

    Smart ships, or Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships as they are also known, have a great potential to advance shipping and sustainable development through optimisation of operations and maintenance. In situations that pose a risk to humans or where humans tend to lose their concentration, smart ships can also contribute to increased safety onboard and for the environment. In short, smart ships are suitable for operations that are dirty, dull and dangerous. The Swedish Shipping Policy Lab was an initiative to support on-going projects within smart shipping with policy-developing activities with the ambition to strengthen Swedish competitiveness. The project has actively strived for a systematic approach to how shipowners, technology developers and authorities among others can foster policy development and innovation in relation to smart ships. As an outcome the project has identified three policies related to the investigated cases (see Appendix G for more details): 1. Navigational assistance from land – A shared statement by the Swedish Maritime Administration and the Swedish Transport Agency on the role of navigational assistance from land and the need to further investigate the service before it can be regulated in more detail. 2. The Ljusterö Ferry – Certification of ferries is commonly done in relation to an established and consistent set of technical requirements. For smart ships such as the new road ferries procured for the Ljusterö-connection it is reasonable to complement traditional certification with a safety case to ensure that the ship is seaworthy. 3. Smart maritime drones – Ships less than five meters long that do not carry passengers are excluded from national rules regulating the supervision performed by the Swedish Transport Agency. As long as there is no explicit need to inspect a specific ship, the probability of a supervision is low. If an inspection were to incur, it is necessary to show how the smart ship and its operation complies to applicable regulation in terms of laws and collision avoidance. Despite the maritime sector having a long tradition of international governance there are still no international instruments explicitly for smart ships. A conclusion from the policy lab is that while such work is ongoing, there is room for the flag states and their authorities to develop and operate smart ships in accordance with national policies. Or, to paraphrase, smart ships seem suitable for operations that are dirty, dull, dangerous and domestic.

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  • 21.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Olsson, Måns
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Proposed EU Regulations’ Impact on Data Utilisation– A Multi-Case Study within Public Transport2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation: In a broad sense data sharing onboard public transport vehicles is governed by two different business models – interoperable and free of charge access for some data versus data that is restricted to specific uses by commercial contracts and existing legislation. Under the Digital Decade the EU has proposed new legislation with the ambition to promote a single digital market. The question then arises – how will the upcoming regulations affect existing business models for data utilisation?

    Method: We have investigated two different cases where existing technology meets upcoming EU legislation. The questions have been framed through dialogue with actors in the industry, to cover topics and questions that are both concrete and current. Using the policy lab methodology, we have investigated the possibility to re-use surveillance film from public transport vehicles for passenger counting. The analysis compares GDPR and the Swedish camera surveillance act with the proposed AI Act, to see what new possibilities or obstacles arise. We have also explored the changes that the Data Act may impose on different actors’ access to data derived from the batteries installed in an electric bus.

    Results: The AI Act will not change the business models within the eco-system but facilitate access to more personal data (including personal data where GDPR otherwise would be a barrier), useful for training automated passenger counting. Those responsible for placing the system on the market will still need to ensure that they are compliant with GDPR in terms of processing personal data. In terms of the Data Act the outcome is more disruptive as the owner and user of a vehicle is entitled to all data representing their usage, free of charge, and this will impair existing business models for data access. It is also possible for multiple actors to be users, for instance if the vehicle is owned by a public transport authority and leased by an operator.

    Discussion: Our analysis shows that while the impact of the Data Act can resonate with the ambitions behind the regulation in terms of making more data interoperable and available free of charge, it can also have the opposite effect. The latter is specifically the case where altruistic data sharing already is in place and the Data Act imposes standard contracts for and role-based restrictions towards utilisation. Both the AI Act and the Data Act are complex and often difficult to assess. In relation to the Data Act, the recitals were helpful for interpreting the application of articles and definitions. For understanding the relationship between the AI Act and GDPR we combined the legal analysis with prototyping the impacts and relied on sharing insights with other actors. This highlights the need for multiple ways of performing the data collection and analysis as well as the suitability of policy labs as a research method

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  • 22.
    Börjesson, Conny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    User Perspectives on Electric Roads2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric Road Systems (ERS) is a technology area that has the potential to significantly reduce the fossil fuel dependency in the transport sector. The success of ERS depends on acceptance from potential users and it is thus crucial to study the user perspective prior to a large-scale implementation. There seems to be a general positive opinion regarding electric roads among hauliers and forwarders, but it will be crucial that large goods owners and transport buyers order transports utilizing electric roads. Innovative technology and business models could provide opportunities for actors in the transport sector and influence their ability for competition.

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  • 23.
    Callesen, Gustav
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pedersen, Sören
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Carolus, Johannes
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Thuenen Institute of Farm Economics, Germany.
    Johannesdottir, Solveig L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    López, Jesica
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Hjerppe, Turo
    SYKE, Finland.
    Barquet, Karina
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Recycling Nutrients and Reducing Carbon Emissions in the Baltic Sea Region—Sustainable or Economically Infeasible?2022In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 213-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecotechnologies have the potential to reduce the use of finite resources while providing a variety of co-benefits to society, though they often lack in market competitiveness. In this study, we investigate the sustainability of ecotechnologies for recovering carbon and nutrients, and demonstrate how a so-called “bottom-up” approach can serve as a decision-making instrument. Based on three case study catchments with a focus on domestic wastewater in Sweden and Poland, and on manure, grass and blackwater substrates in Finland, we apply a cost–benefit analysis (CBA) on system alternatives derived from a participatory process. After drawing on an initial systematic mapping of relevant ecotechnologies, the scope of the CBA is determined by stakeholder suggestions, namely in terms of the considered assessment criteria, the physical impacts and the utilised data. Thus, this CBA is rooted in a localised consideration of ecotechnologies rather than a centralised governmental approach to systems boundaries. The key advantage of applying such a bottom-up approach is that it has gone through a robust participatory selection process by local stakeholders, which provides more legitimacy to the decisions reached compared with traditional feasibility studies. Despite considering the revenues of the recovered products as well as the provision of the non-market goods CO2 mitigation and reduced eutrophication, findings from this study indicate that the benefits of the considered ecotechnologies are often outweighed by their costs. Only anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes appears to be economically feasible under the current conditions, highlighting that further efforts and incentives may be required to mainstream ecotechnologies. © 2021, The Author(s), 

  • 24.
    Castrellon, Juan Pablo
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia.
    Sanchez-Diaz, Ivan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Roso, Violeta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Altuntas-Vural, Ceren
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rogerson, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Santén, Vendela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Kalahasthi, L. K.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Assessing the eco-efficiency benefits of empty container repositioning strategies via dry ports2023In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 120, article id 103778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trade imbalances and global disturbances generate mismatches in the supply and demand of empty containers (ECs) that elevate the need for empty container repositioning (ECR). This research investigated dry ports as a potential means to minimize EC movements, and thus reduce costs and emissions. We assessed the environmental and economic effects of two ECR strategies via dry ports—street turns and extended free temporary storage—considering different scenarios of collaboration between shipping lines with different levels of container substitution. A multi-paradigm simulation combined agent-based and discrete-event modelling to represent flows and estimate kilometers travelled, CO2 emissions, and costs resulting from combinations of ECR strategies and scenarios. Full ownership container substitution combined with extended free temporary storage at the dry port (FTDP) most improved ECR metrics, despite implementation challenges. Our results may be instrumental in increasing shipping lines’ collaboration while reducing environmental impacts in up to 32 % of the inland ECR emissions. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 25.
    Cederstav, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Wandel, Sten
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Segerborg-Fick, Ann
    Ecoloop, Sweden.
    Rylander, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Asp, Thomas
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Ranäng, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    High capacity city transport with intelligent access - A Swedish case study of transporting excavated material2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This project studies how the HCT-concept (High Capacity Transport) can be applied in cities, by performing pilots in Varberg and Stockholm. The project will test the hypothesis that the HCT-concept will improve both productivity and transport efficiency and thereby reduce CO2 by up to 40%. The pilots include tests of new optimized trucks and new concepts with connected trucks, road machines and bridges. Demonstration of digital access control including geofencing of speed and routes will be included. A system analysis on a societal level will be performed, with the target to incorporate HCT-city in the existing HCT roadmap. The results will be a foundation for a strategy including dispensations and regulatory changes on national roads and a recommendation how HCT-city can be designed to reach the highest possible productivity and transport efficiency.

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  • 26.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Gråsjö, Mikael
    Carmenta AB, Sweden.
    Adebahr, Martin
    CEVT China Euro Vehicle Technology AB, Sweden.
    King, Philip
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Cloud-based traffic control: a system of systems for accelerating c-its deployment and autonomous vehicle integration2020In: Proceedings of Virtual ITS European Congress, 2020, article id Paper number ITS-TP18522Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The traffic system is transforming into a highly complex system of systems with increasing connectivity and automation. Engineering such a system of systems requires close interaction between related stakeholders including authorities, car manufacturers, and the service and technology providers, both from the organizational and technical perspective. This paper describes a cloud-based traffic control system that provides a platform to support cross-sector interoperable information sharing, and data intelligence for future connected and autonomous vehicle integration. The system is engineered from a system of systems perspective with multi-stakeholder engagement and is designed to be cloud-native for stakeholder and service scalability. The paper discusses the motivation of the system, followed by a detailed description on the system architecture and the constituent systems. Supported services are presented with their working process, information flow, as well as their public demonstrations.

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  • 27.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Johnson, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Public and private partnership platform for quik and effective implementation of digital transport infrastructure2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This pre-study aims at analyzing the needs of digital infrastructure for connected and automated transport systems in Sweden and building roadmaps with concrete actions for accelerating the implementation of digital infrastructure. The pre-study has conducted extensive literature studies on projects, activities, and policies related to digital infrastructure in Sweden, the EU, and globally. The pre-study focuses on supporting existing activities, goals, and roadmaps within the Swedish transport sector and follows closely the roadmap for a connected and automated road transport system from Trafikverket. Expert interviews with both public and private stakeholders have been conducted to collect opinions and to formulate concrete actions. The report consists of mainly two parts, the description of physical and digital transport infrastructure, and the identified focus areas, roadmaps, and action plans. Also, state-of-the-art digital transport infrastructure is given as an appendix to support the roadmap. The report describes physical digital transport infrastructure as the IT, communication, and data infrastructure that together with regulations and standards enables interoperable and digital cooperation between connected vehicles, people, infrastructure, and other data sources. It is a system of systems that requires both bottom-up and top-down approaches with balanced public and private investments. A layered description is given including the communication infrastructure, transport data eco-system, applications and services, and organizational partnership. The report proposes the establishment of a long-term public-private partnership platform to join forces to accelerate the implementation of physical digital transport infrastructure. The platform requires strong engagement from all stakeholders for addressing common challenges and for stimulating innovative policies and business models. As a trigger, eight focus areas are proposed including connectivity, positioning, control tower, data, architecture, evaluation, policies and regulations, and business models. For each area, the roadmap describes in detail the actions that should be taken together with the expected results for the year 2021 to 2025. The transport system is a system of systems that evolves fast. Stakeholder roles and responsibilities may change with new business models and new actors emerge all the time. To accommodate such evolution, the roadmap proposes iterative development processes. The proposed actions are by no means fixed, instead, the stakeholders need to yearly conduct evaluations, agree on prioritized tasks and expected results, identify gaps, and decide on new prioritized activities. The pre-study is financed by the strategic innovation program Drive Sweden, which is a joint investment by Vinnova, Formas and Energimyndigheten, and Trafikverket through the project Plattform för snabb och effektiv implementering av digital infrastruktur för transportsystem with project number 2019-04787

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  • 28.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Torstensson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Federated Learning to Enable Automotive Collaborative Ecosystem: Opportunities and Challenges2020In: Proceedings of Virtual ITS European Congress, 2020, article id Paper number ITS-TP18524Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the strong interests in creating data economy, automotive industries are creating data silos with each stakeholder maintaining its own data cloud. Federated learning (FL), designed for privacy-preserving collaborative Machine Learning (ML), offers a promising method that allows multiple stakeholders to share information through ML models without the exposure of raw data, thus natively protecting privacy. Motivated by the strong need for automotive collaboration and the advancement of FL, this paper investigates how FL could enable privacy-preserving information sharing for automotive industries. We first introduce the statuses and challenges for automotive data sharing, followed by a brief introduction to FL. We then present a comprehensive discussion on potential applications of federated learning to enable an automotive collaborative ecosystem. To illustrate the benefits, we apply FL for driver action classification and demonstrate the potential for collaborative machine learning without data sharing.

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  • 29. Cider, Lennart
    et al.
    Ranäng, Sara
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Slutrapport Duo2-Trailer2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Godstransporter på väg står för en ökande andel1 av utsläppen av växthusgasen CO2. Sverige har förbundit2 sig att minska utsläppen av CO2. Målsättningen med projektet är att minska utsläppen av koldioxid i relativa tal genom att minska antalet fordon och att öka godsvolymen per fordon. I projektet har, med föreskrift och dispens från myndigheter, en fordonskombination med dragbil som drar två semitrailrar istället för endast en semitrailer tagits fram och körts under snart 18 månader. Målet om minskat utsläpp har uppnåtts. Projektet har visat på en minskning på 27% i både CO2 och bränsle per transporterad godsmängd. Detta sker utan någon negativ påverkan på trafiksäkerhet, fordons eller infrastruktur. Vidare fungerar logistiken utmärkt då fordonskonceptet bygger på existerande transportenheter, s.k. moduler. Projektet kommer att fortsätta med ytterligare en etapp där den existerande kombinationen uppdateras samt en helt ny typ av fordonskombination. Visionen är att fordonskombinationer av typ Duo2 och andra hög kapacitets transporter (HCT) ska tillåtas i allmän trafik och på så sätt nå målet om kraftigt minskade utsläpp av växthusgaser från vägtransporter. NVF rapporten3 1/2013 sammanfattar att i stället för småskaliga försök med godkännande av varje enskild fordonskombination så bör framgångsreceptet snarast skalas upp i omfattning, eftersom ett större antal högkapacitetsfordon kan göra stor nytta för samhället. De viktigaste slutsatserna är att Duotrailer: - kan ge kraftigt minskade utsläpp av CO2 i relativa tal - fungerar i praktiken då det bygger vidare på dagens moduler - har inte visat på några negativa effekter på trafiksäkerhet - tar upp mindre vägyta, mindre trängsel, för samma mängd transporterad last

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  • 30.
    Dixit, Saubhagya
    et al.
    Scientist Central Pollution Control Board, India.
    Rao, K Ramachandra
    Indian Institute of Technology, India.
    Tiwari, Geetam
    Indian Institute of Technology, India.
    von Wieding, Sönke
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Urban freight characteristics and externalities – A comparative study of Gothenburg (Sweden) and Delhi (India)2022In: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management, ISSN 2310-8789, E-ISSN 1995-5235, Vol. 16, article id a629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The urban freight transportation (UFT) system is an essential facilitator for the smooth functioning of city logistics. It also contributes significantly to transportation-related issues, such as vehicular congestion, pollution, accidents, infrastructure damage and other related problems. Objectives: This study aimed to understand and compare the urban freight traffic characteristics and their impact in two cities: Gothenburg, Sweden and Delhi, India, having high socio-economic differences. The findings of this study will be helpful for practitioners and policymakers in the development and successful implementation of UFT management policies. Method: Using the cordon count (traffic data), retailers’ interviews (receivers’ data) and freight vehicle drivers’ interviews, UFT characteristics such as sector-specific contribution, trip characteristics, vehicular characteristics and negative impacts in terms of external cost to society are evaluated. This study also discusses the prediction of attracted trips in the study zone using freight trip attraction (models. Results: About 75% of the trips in Gothenburg and 92% of the trips in Delhi are made by light commercial and other small-sized vehicles. Gothenburg has formally organised sectors involved in freight vehicle movement; however, Delhi has informally organised sectors. Conclusion: The results revealed substantial differences in characteristics of freight trip operations in both the cities, compared with few similarities. Measures taken considering the specific local attributes of freight traffic and stakeholders’ requirement may lead to a sustainable transportation system in cities. © 2022. The Authors.

  • 31.
    Dolins, Sigma
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Strömberg, Helena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wong, Yale Z.
    University of Sydney Business School, Australia.
    Karlsson, MariAnne
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sharing Anxiety Is in the Driver’s Seat: Analyzing User Acceptance of Dynamic Ridepooling and Its Implications for Shared Autonomous Mobility2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 14, article id 7828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As connected, electric, and autonomous vehicle (AV) services are developed for cities, the research is conclusive that the use of these services must be shared to achieve maximum efficiency. Yet, few agencies have prioritised designing an AV system that focuses on dynamic ridepooling, and there remains a gap in the understanding of what makes people willing to share their rides. However, in 2017, the Australian transport authority Transport for New South Wales launched over a dozen trials for on-demand, shared public transport, including AVs. In this paper, we investigate the user willingness-to-share, based on experiences from one of these trials. Four focus groups (19 participants in total) were held in New South Wales with active users of either the trialled on-demand dynamic ridepooling service (Keoride) or commercial ridepooling (UberPool). Through thematic analysis of the focus group conversations, the cost, comfort, convenience, safety, community culture, and trust in authority emerged as factors that influenced the willingness-to-share. When presented with driverless scenarios, the focus group participants had significant concerns about the unknown behaviour of their co-passengers, revealing sharing anxiety as a significant barrier to the adoption of shared AVs. This paper identifies previously disregarded factors that influence the adoption of AVs and dynamic ridepooling and offers insights on how potential users’ sharing anxiety can be mitigated.

  • 32.
    Dolins, Sigma
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Wong, Yale
    University of Sydney Business School, Australia.
    Nelson, John
    University of Sydney Business School, Australia.
    The ‘sharing trap’: A case study of societal and stakeholder readiness for on-demand and autonomous public transport in New South Wales, Australia2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 17, article id 9574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focus groups on shared, autonomous vehicles (SAVs) in New South Wales expressed “sharing anxiety”—an intense concern about the prospect of sharing their mobility journey with strangers, without a driver or authority figure present. This presents a significant barrier to the acceptance of SAVs, particularly autonomous public and on-demand transport (ODT), which is a major focus for Transport for New South Wales (TfNSW). Given this potential barrier, we interviewed (N = 13) operators, academics, and regulators with TfNSW to assess their role and abilities in overcoming sharing anxiety. However, our findings revealed a relative lack of awareness from experts in the mobility industry about the existence of sharing anxiety in users, suggesting additional barriers to adoption. We make suggestions for policy considerations for stakeholders that could mitigate sharing anxiety: promoting dynamic ridepooling products in commercial services, using tax breaks as incentivization; requiring ODT services and operators in jurisdiction to use a standardized, unified interface for users (“single-app”); shared, on-demand transport services likely need longer incubation/pilot periods in order for the sharing behavior to become culturally established. We conclude with a reflection on how COVID-19 has impacted the development of shared mobility and suggest further exploration in policy implementation. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 33.
    Eriksson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Cederstav, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Ranäng, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Lyrberg, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Einarsson Lindvall, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    von Wieding, Sönke
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Slutrapport inom Gothenburg Green City Zone (GGCZ): Metodik för analys och införande av klimatneutrala mobilitets- och transportlösningar i städer2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är ett arbetsdokument som har efterfrågats i arbetet inom Gothenburg Green City Zone (GGCZ), där det pågår en process för att ta fram en mer detaljerad planering för en övergång till helt fossilfria transporter i Göteborg. Rapporten resonerar först kring zonbegreppet, vilken forskning som tidigare gjorts, vilka slags zoner som redan finns och som implementerats i Sverige och Europa. Rapporten föreslår sedan en metodik för hur zoner kan definieras och hur en generell zonindelning skulle kunna upprättas som skulle kunna användas som mall för både Göteborg och andra städer. Arbetet är inte färdigt utan kommer att fortsätta under kommande år både inom RISE och tillsammans med övriga samarbetspartners. Det som kvarstår är att definiera i detalj vilka parametrar och egenskaper som gör en viss zon unik, exempelvis genom mätetal som stadsdelars täthet, demografi, socioekonomiska förhållanden, infrastruktur samt befintlig framkomlighet. Målet med arbetet har varit att utveckla och förbättra kunskapen om zonmetodiken, visa på dess möjliga fördelar och utveckla ett verktyg för att användas i omställningen och att hjälpa Göteborg och andra städer att lyckas med omställningen mot klimatneutrala transporter till år 2030.

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    DIVA_RISE-Rapport_GGCZ
  • 34.
    Eriksson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    von Wieding, Sönke
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Lyrberg, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Ranäng, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Carlén, Vanja
    Closer, Sweden.
    Hansson, Marcus
    Closer, Sweden.
    REDIG- Regionala godshubbar i Göteborg: FÖRSTUDIE – DRIVE SWEDEN2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är ett resultat av en förstudie kring en logistik- och transportlösning (som kan realiseras i form av en gemensam hubb) för aktörer som är placerade i evenemangsstråket i Göteborg. Rapporten svarar på frågor kring nulägesanalys av aktörernas logistiklösningar, leveranstrafik inom evenemangsstråket, samt hur leveranstrafik kan se ut under 2030+ om inga förändringar i leverans/logistikupplägget görs. En viktig slutsats som framgår är att det krävs åtgärder som minskar leveranstrafiken, eftersom elektrifiering av fordon inte kan eliminera trängsel och buller som står för den största delen av de samhällsekonomiska kostnaderna. Utan förändringar i logistikupplägget och fordonsflottan förväntas de samhällsekonomiska kostnaderna öka med cirka 30%. Förändringar i logistikupplägget kan nås genom ett optimerad trafikflöde, vilket i sin tur kan realiseras genom en gemensam samlastningshubb för små och fragmenterade flöden som kan minska antalet anlöp och fordonstrafiken i området. Baserat på intervjuer med aktörerna, studiebesök, studerande av underlag, workshops och analys av logistikbehoven, kan det sammanfattas att verksamheterna, utmaningar och logistikbehoven i stort sett är ganska lika. En gemensam extern hubb kan frigöra yta hos verksamheterna som kan användas för att skapa nya affärsmöjligheter. En möjlighet för att upphandla en tredjeparts logistik- och transportlösning är att bygga ett konsortium där alla aktörer delar på kostnaden för terminalhantering samt samlastning/samkörning. Det finns stora möjligheter att hitta lösningar för logistikhubb som uppfyller kraven på geografisk närhet och säkra leveranser i trafiksystemet – och det är klokt att anpassa leveranstider för att undvika trängsel. Det finns en vilja hos aktörerna att minska transporterna, anpassa sin verksamhet för effektivisering vid mottagning och förvaring, ställa om mot fossilfrihet och på det sättet bidra till transporteffektivitet som krävs för att nå mål inom klimatneutralitet 2030. Det finns stora behov för förändring i trafikflödet inom GGCZ och det finns en stor potential att optimera det genom att konsolidera och styra leveranser.

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  • 35.
    Eriksson, Linnea
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Olsson, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    The role of middle actors in electrification of transport in Swedish rural areas2022In: Case Studies on Transport Policy, ISSN 2213-624X, E-ISSN 2213-6258, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 1706-1714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we use the middle-out perspective to analyze the diffusion of electric cars and plug-in hybrids in Swedish rural areas and small towns. In Sweden, electrification of the transport system is a priority, particularly in car-dependent rural areas. However, the transition to electromobility mainly takes place in major urban areas. To understand the dynamics of the transition to electrified transport and identify how it may be facilitated, we identify top actors, bottom actors, and middle actors and analyze how middle actors exert influence. Our case study is based on in-depth interviews with civil servants who work with energy and transport issues in rural areas throughout Sweden and with representatives of energy companies and government agencies. We show that three middle actors are important: municipalities, local energy companies, and local car dealers. The municipalities and local energy companies mainly exert influence by knowledge diffusion and by contributing to projects such as charging infrastructure development. The car dealers are examples of middle actors who could play a central role by influencing consumers, but who currently often obstruct electric vehicle diffusion. We find that the support of top actors is very important for middle actors to be able to facilitate diffusion of electric cars and plug-in hybrids. Municipalities are in a unique position to use their knowledge, local networks, and sideways and upwards connections to strengthen the agency and capacity of citizens and small businesses (bottom actors). However, as small Swedish municipalities often have limited resources, long-term support from government agencies (top actors) is crucial. As middle actors are so important for the diffusion of electric vehicles, especially in the rural context where market forces are weaker than in the urban context, national policy for electrification of transport should support them.

  • 36.
    Gazzotti, Raphaël
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Logistics Ontologies Landscape: Challenges, Gaps, and Opportunities for Improved Representation2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data standards are essential for coordinating logistics information across diverse stakeholders. This report explores the role of ontologies in shaping logistics data structures and enhancing interoperability. By assessing current logistics ontologies, it identifies challenges and gaps in data representation, aiming to describe the current state of logistics data standards.

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  • 37.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Slutrapport för Detaljering i tidtabellsplanering: mikro och makro (MIMA)2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens kapacitetstilldelningsprocess konstrueras en tidtabell i TrainPlan baserat på en datamodell som ligger på så kallad makro-nivå. Likaså är många av de optimeringsmetoder för tidtabellkonstruktion som tagits fram inom KAJT-projekt baserade på makro-modeller. Framtidens planeringssystem, TPS, har däremot en mer detaljerad datamodell, en modell på så kallad mikro-nivå. Målet med projektet MIMA var att undersöka och kartlägga vilka olika sorters detaljeringsnivåer som behövs och finns inom Trafikverkets planeringsverksamhet. Projektet fokuserade särskilt på (1) vilken detaljeringsgrad som efterfrågas i olika delar av planeringsprocessen och (2) hur detaljeringsgraden påverkar möjligheterna för framtida stödsystem med automatisk tidtabellsgenerering.

    Resultaten av ett flertal intervjuer och studier av forskningspublikationer och annan teknisk dokumentation visar att det finns flera olika datamodeller inom Trafikverket och att dessa inte alltid är kompatibla med varandra. Det finns också behov på Trafikverket av att kunna planera på både mikro- och makro-nivå. Förenklat kan man säga att om planeringen ska gå snabbt och kunna hantera större ändringar krävs en makro-modell, men om t.ex. påverkan av små infrastrukturförändringar ska analyseras är en mikro-modell nödvändig. När det kommer till möjligheterna för framtida stödsystem med automatisk tidtabellsgenerering så är de flesta modeller som utvecklats makro-modeller. Det finns dock vetenskapliga publikationer som presenterar metoder för att iterativt anpassa en makro-lösning så att den blir kompatibel även med en mikro-modell, samt för hur man kan konstruera en makro-modell som ger lösningar som är kompatibla med en underliggande mikro-modell.

    En intressant iakttagelse är att mikro-modeller företrädelsevis används vid strategisk planering och utbildning, medan man i operativ drift använder grövre modeller (undantaget EBICOS Trafikbilder). Detta väcker frågeställningar om vilken information det egentligen är som fjärrtågklarerare har behov av i det operativa skedet, och om tidtabellsprocessen är anpassat för att ta fram denna. Vi har i MIMA inte haft möjlighetatt intervjua driftledningspersonal, och detta är således en viktig uppgift för framtiden. Likaså vore det värdefullt om Trafikverket skapade en enad modellflora med både mikrooch makro-modeller för planering.

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    MIMA_slutrapport
  • 38.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Flexibilitet för ökad kapacitet på Malmbanan2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I denna rapport undersöks förutsättningar för LKAB att trafikera Malmbanan med större flexibilitet än vad dagens hantering och processer medger. Syftet att säkerställa leveranser och utnyttja transportresurser effektivt – utan att försämra förutsättningarna för annan trafik. Ett antal åtgärder har identifierats som avses förbättra flexibiliteten och anpassningsförmågan. Analys av dagens trafikering visar att trafikledningen redan idag har god förmåga att hantera trafiken flexibelt i avseendet att trafiken ofta avviker från tidtabellen, även om det saknas rutiner och stödsystem för att nyttja flexibiliteten på ett strukturerat sätt. Experiment med ett verktyg för tidtabellsoptimering visar att om man ger andra tåg möjlighet att ändra mellanliggande passagetider med 10 minuter så skapas möjlighet att både senarelägga och tidigarelägga avgångar samt möjlighet att addera kvalitativa tåglägen - utan att påverka andra tågs leveransåtaganden. Detta visar att nyttjande av tidtabellens inneboende flexibilitet skapar möjligheter för ytterligare flexibilitet i t.ex. form av ändrade avgångstider eller tillagda tåg.

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  • 39.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Kjellin, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Backman, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Association, Sweden.
    Slutrapport for Grafiska Prognostidtabeller2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver det arbete som utfördes i projektet Grafiska Prognostidtabeller (GRAPRO). Projektets mål var att undersöka om optimering kan vara ett stöd för kapacitetsanalytiker när en tidtabell ska konstrueras utifrån prognostiserade trafikdata. Rapporten inleds med en genomgång av analysmetoder som Trafikverket använder för att bedöma vilken trafik en viss infrastrukturutveckling kan hantera, och beskriver hur optimering passar in bland dessa metoder. Sedan presenteras den metodutveckling som gjorts inom projektet, och databehov och tillgång diskuteras. Metoden testas på ett exempelfall med infrastrukturförändringar i Skåne, och de resulterande tidtabellerna analyseras. Under projektet gång, och under arbetet med exempelfallet, identifierades ett flertal områden där ytterligare utveckling behövs för att den presenterade metoden ska kunna användas av en kapacitetsanalytiker, och rapporten avslutas med att dessa utvecklingsbehov diskuteras.

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  • 40.
    Gonzales, Sebastian
    et al.
    Clean Motion AB, Sweden.
    Sveder, Christoffer
    Clean Motion AB, Sweden.
    Oscarsson, Ellen
    Clean Motion AB, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Simon
    Clean Motion AB, Sweden.
    Challenges and potential business applications of Automated Delivery Vehicles – a brief overview2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report addresses some of the driving forces behind the development of Automated Delivery Vehicles, (ADV), e.g. increased urbanization, increased e-commerce, demands for efficient transport and the demands to meet climate goals, national as well as international. There are also challenges for ADVs to operate on a commercial scale. On the one hand, the technology (sensors and software) is not ready to have driverless vehicles operating in public spaces (some ADVs can drive in limited areas under supervision by so-called safety drivers), and on the other hand, the freight volumes are relatively small. The logistics chain also requires manual work. In addition, manually operated transports can deliver packages door-to-door, which ADVs cannot. Since ADVs are driverless, there is the potential to reduce wage costs, but the drivers do more than just driving the vehicle. The drivers handle complex traffic situations, and deliver the packages all the way to the addressees, certifying, having the dialogue with customers, etc. For many companies, the drivers are key in maintaining the relations with their customers. The report lists eight different ADV concepts around the world. The report also addresses some potential use cases for ADVs, as well as the business challenges with ADVs. The basis has been a couple of workshops with stakeholders of ADVs, as well as interviews with representatives of three possible application areas for ADVs in Sweden: airports, food deliveries and deliveries and smaller packages. At airports, for example, ADVs could transport luggage, but also goods from suppliers of food and materials. For suppliers of smaller packages, ADVs could carry out certain transports, and for food deliveries, ADVs could contribute to more and faster home deliveries. The need for transports in urban areas will increase, which suggests that ADVs could play an important role in last-mile/last-mile deliveries. Companies such as Google, Amazon, Nvidia and Apple are investing in the development of ADVs, but there are still technical, legal and market related challenges be handled.

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  • 41.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Börjesson, Conny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Kenani Dahlgren, Henrik
    Ericsson, Sweden.
    Revenue Management for Electric Road Systems2019In: Proc. EVS32, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric Road Systems (ERS) is a technology area that has the potential to significantly reduce fossil fuel dependency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce air pollution, reduce noise in urban environments, and increase energy efficiency in the transport sector. ERS deployed in commercial operation will need to charge for the use of infrastructure, electric energy and potentially other services. An ERS revenue management solution need to handle use cases with multiple actors, roles and commercial relationships. In addition, the future revenue management solutions should be interoperable and independent of business models in order to flexibly meet the needs of new situations for emerging ERS.

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  • 42.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Harkjerr Halse, Askill
    Institute of Transport Economics, Gaustadalléen, Norway.
    Socioeconomic Analysis of Electric Road Systems2019In: Proc. of EVS32, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric road systems (ERS) is a technology area that has the potential to significantly reduce fossil fuel dependency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce air pollution, and increase energy efficiency in the transport sector. The implementation of ERS at national and international levels will however be associated with large investments and it is therefore important to study the economic impact and benefits for the society. The present work describes methodology for conducting socioeconomic analysis on electrification of an existing road infrastructure.

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  • 43.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Maturity of power transfer technologies for electric road systems2020In: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, April 27-30, 2020, Helsinki, Finland, Finnish Transport and Communications Agency , 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the method associated with Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and previous efforts, this article provides a maturity assessment of several electric road system (ERS) technologies with focus on the power transfer technology subsystem, and the transition context is also discussed. ERS involves electric power transfer from the road to the vehicle while the vehicle is in motion and could be achieved through different technologies such as rail, overhead line, and wireless solutions. ERS is a technology area with immense potential to reduce fossil fuel dependency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce air pollution as well as reduce noise in urban environments, while increasing energy efficiency in the transport sector. There are numerous promising ERS development and demonstration projects globally since several years. However, the investment cost for large-scale deployment of ERS is considerable and decision makers will require knowledge about how mature different solutions are compared to other transportation solutions.

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    TRA2020_Gustavsson_Lindgren_Maturity_ERS
  • 44.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Helms, Hinrich
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Mottschall, Moritz
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Real-world experiences of ERS: Best practices from demonstration projects in Sweden and Germany2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Demonstration projects currently underway will test Electric Road Systems (ERS) along public roads and in real-life environments, addressing various legal, political, economic, and efficiency aspects of ERS. Public road tests provide decision makers and investors with a foundation for further investments that would bring ERS to commercial operation. 

    At the time of writing, Sweden and Germany together represent the largest collection of real-world experiences in ERS: The Swedish Transport Administration has funded four demonstration projects along public roads in Sweden, and has also initiated planning of a full-scale ERS pilot. Similarly, in Germany there are two ongoing demonstration projects along public roads and the German federal government is funding the construction of one additional demonstration project.

    The purpose of this report is to report best practices from

    • demonstrations of ERS technologies along public roads in Sweden, and
    • procurement and the start of ERS demonstration projects in Germany.

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    Real-world_expericences_of_ERS-CollERS-20200924
  • 45.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Nåbo, Arne
    VTI, Sweden.
    Forsknings- och innovationsplattform för elvägar: Resultat från samarbete mellan forskning, industri och myndigheter2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att lyckas uppnå en fossilbränsleoberoende fordonsflotta och minskade utsläpp av växthusgaser krävs en radikal omvandling av transportbranschen. Att elektrifiera fordon är en viktig del i omvandlingen. En del av en sammansatt lösning kan vara elektriska vägar som förser fordon med el, för både framdrift och laddning, medan de kör. Med elvägar kan våra personbilar ha mindre batterier än i dagsläget, men ändå köra långt. Elbussar i stadstrafik behöver inte stanna och ladda på hållplatser. Utöver detta möjliggör elvägar elektrifiering av tunga långväga godstransporter, för vilka batterikapaciteten annars kan vara en utmaning. Forsknings- och innovations-plattform för elvägar Hur tar vi steget från att testa elvägsteknik till storskalig drift? Hur ser affärsekosystemet ut och hur kan gränssnitten standardiseras? Vilka är fördelarna för samhället? Aktörer från forskning, industri och myndigheter har samarbetat i ett gemensamt projekt för att tillsammans undersöka dessa frågor – och mycket mer. I det här dokumentet presenterar vi kortfattat projektets resultat per forskningsområde.

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  • 46.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Nåbo, Arne
    VTI, Sweden.
    Research & Innovation Platform for Electric Road Systems: Results from collaboration between research organizations, industry, and public authorities2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving a fossil fuel-independent vehicle fleet and reducing greenhouse gas emissions will require a radical transformation of the transport industry. Electrifying the vehicle fleet forms an important part of this transformation. One part of a complete, socieTy-wide solution could be electric roads that supply vehicles with electricity, to both power them and charge them as they drive. With electric roads, cars can have smaller batteries than at present, but still drive long distances. Electric buses in cities would not need to stop to charge at bus stops. Of equal significance, electric roads facilitate the electrification of heavy long-distance road freight, for which battery capacity would otherwise be a challenge. Research & Innovation Platform for Electric Road Systems How do we take the step from testing electric road technology to large-scale deployment? What does the business ecosystem look like and how can interfaces be standardized? What are the benefits to society? Actors from research organizations, industry, and public authorities have collaborated on a joint project to investigate these questions and much more. In this document, we briefly present the project’s results in each research area.

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  • 47.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Connected Automated Vehicles: Technologies, Developments, and Trends2021In: International Encyclopedia of Transportation / [ed] Roger Vickerman, Elsevier, 2021, p. 180-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Hult, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Perjo, Liisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. Region Västra Götaland, Sweden; University of Sydney, Australia.
    Shared Mobility in Rural Contexts: Organizational Insights from Five Mobility-as-a-Service Pilots in Sweden2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 18, article id 10134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a growing interest in using Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) as a tool to address rural transport problems, the question of how to organize such a concept remains unanswered. To address this knowledge gap, this article explores organizational elements of rural MaaS pilots. The analysis, which is based on participatory observation and interviews with actors involved in five pilots in rural areas of Sweden, reveals that the motives of the actors involved in rural MaaS both overlap with and diverge from the frequently stated objectives of urban MaaS developments. Both concepts center on complementing and extending public transport, but while urban MaaS is underpinned by the fight against climate change, congestion, and local pollution, the main objective of rural MaaS is to reduce transport poverty. The analysis, moreover, illustrates that despite the geographic differences, actors involved in rural MaaS pilots face similar organizational challenges as have been reported from urban MaaS developments. In both cases, actors struggle with finding their roles, mitigating uncertainties, distributing responsibilities, and negotiating business models. Finally, the analysis finds that rural MaaS puts higher expectations on user involvement than urban MaaS and identifies a risk that rural MaaS developments might contribute to spatial injustice since the studied pilots only supported rural communities with high social capital.

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  • 49.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Quant, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately, concerns regarding fires in electric vehicles in enclosed spaces such as in road tunnels and parking garages have been raised and there are indications that parking of electric vehicles may be prohibited in some spaces. For the success of electromobility and the transition from fossil to renewable fuels, it is important to understand the risks and consequences of fires in electric vehicles and to provide technical solutions if necessary, so as not to hinder the widespread adoption of electric vehicles.

    In this work, a literature review on fires in vehicles has been conducted. The focus was on fires in enclosed spaces involving electric vehicles. A comprehensive risk assessment of electric vehicle fires was performed using systematic hazard identification. In addition, a workshop with representatives from three Swedish fire and rescue services was carried out to evaluate the emergency rescue sheets/response guides.

    The main conclusions are; That statistics regarding vehicle fires need to be improved, as of today the root causes of fires are missing in the data, which could potentially result in non-fact based regulations; The data studied in this work does not imply that fires in electric vehicles are more common than fires in internal combustion engine vehicles; Fires in electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles are similar in regards to the fire intensity and peak heat release rates. 

    The most effective risk reductions measures on vehicle level, to decrease the number of fires in EVs, could not be defined based on that relevant data on the root causes of fires in EVs are currently not publicly accessible. The most effective risk reduction measures, to limit fire spread, on infrastructure level were the use of fire sprinkler systems, fire detection systems (early detection) and increased distance between parked vehicles.

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    Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces
  • 50.
    Jabbari, Mona
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. CitUpia AB, Sweden.
    Fonseca, Fernando
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. University of Sydney Business School, Australia.
    Conticelli, Elisa
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Tondelli, Simona
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Ribeiro, Paulo
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Papageorgiou, George
    European University Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Ramos, Rui
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    The Pedestrian Network Concept: A Systematic Literature Review2023In: Journal of Urban Mobility, ISSN 2667-0917, Vol. 3, article id 100051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of urban spaces that foster sustainable practices requires new analytical and structural approaches to spatial planning. An appropriate pedestrian network could significantly contribute to sustainable urban development goals, particularly by promoting sustainable mobility and pedestrian friendliness. With such goals, several attempts have been made to develop suitable models for pedestrian networks. However, something that is missing from the current literature is a framework that incorporates the main findings of the various studies as an integrated concise concept of the pedestrian network. To address this knowledge gap, this paper reviews studies on pedestrian networks and evaluates this concept based on the systematic 3W1H analysis method, which asks where, what, who, and how. In essence, the following questions are thus analyzed: Where is the pedestrian network located, What criteria play a role in the pedestrian network's performance, Who uses the pedestrian network, and How can the pedestrian network be analyzed? In this context, a systematic literature review is carried out by investigating studies conducted during the period 2001 to 2023 that appear in the Scopus database. The paper presents the results of the review of a selection of 67 papers dealing with pedestrian networks. Findings show that different models have been developed based on particular characteristics. Overall, researchers aimed to identify the most suitable network based on specific criteria for optimizing the walking experience in urban areas. By synthesizing the findings reported in these papers, this paper arguably contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of pedestrian networks, provides insights into the prioritization of design phases, facilitates the use of pedestrian network assessment models for future research, and creates a bigger picture for urban planners with a multidimensional view to a new sustainable urban structure.

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