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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Claesson, Åsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Ramböll, Sweden.
    Kardeby, Victor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Karoumi, Raid
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Digitaliseringens möjligheter och utmaningar inom förvaltning och underhållsplanering av broar: Förstudie2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapporten behandlar digitalisering – att införa ny digital teknik – i förvaltningsverksamheten av broar. Omfattningen är en förstudie med syftet att identifiera behovet av framtida forskning för en långsiktig utveckling av broförvaltningen. En grundläggande ansats var att en digitalisering ska minska behovet av kostsamma underhållsåtgärder men bibehålla en hög säkerhet för våra broar. Projektets mål var att samla information om digitala informationsmodeller som skapas under investeringsskedet, utvärdera överlämningen av digitala modeller till förvaltningsskedet, och värdera den eventuella nyttan med digital informationsinsamling för tillståndsbedömning och underhållsplanering. En viktig del av detta var beskrivningen av dagens förvaltningssystem och hur det skulle kunna utvecklas. Studierna har bedrivits genom en enkätundersökning med respondenter från konsultfirmor aktiva inom broprojektering, intervjuer med tekniska experter och litteratursökningar. Resultatet visar att projekteringen av broar idag huvudsakligen görs genom byggnads-informationsmodellering (BIM). Inriktningen är mot byggskedet där samordning och kommunikation bedöms vara de största nyttorna. Överlämningen till förvaltningen består dock av relationsritningar i formen av enkla ritningsfiler. Trots att Trafikverkets strategi för BIM beskriver att en informationsmodell bör leva kvar under hela brons livslängd, finns det tveksamheter huruvida en modell från projekteringen är lämplig som förvaltningsmodell. Istället lyfts andra metoder fram för att skapa en modell av det byggda utförandet. Till exempel optiska metoder för skanning och fotogrammetri. Förvaltningssystemen bör utvecklas med funktioner för att lagra och tillgängliggöra stora mängder digital information från sensorer maskinella inspektioner. Syftet är att minska osäkerheterna i det byggda utförandet och graden av nedbrytning, för att slutligen skapa ett bättre underlag för beslut om åtgärder. Ett framtida scenario är en digital tvilling som speglar den verkliga konstruktionen och uppdateras kontinuerligt genom sensordata. Gällande hårdvara för mätningar behöver sensorer och system utvecklas med avseende på energiförbrukning, energiskördning och underhållsåtgärder, t.ex. genom kombinationer av utbytbara komponenter med kort livslängd och andra delar med lång livslängd. Fiberoptiska sensorer visar på lovande egenskaper men utveckling behövs för att göra dem mer kostnadseffektiva i relation till konventionella sensorer.

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  • 2.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Nalin, Kajsa
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Gising, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Ferwerda, Bruce
    Jönköping university, Sweden.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Guardian Angel: Using Lighting Drones to Improve Traffic Safety, Sense of Security, and Comfort for Cyclists2023In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)Volume 14057 LNCS, Pages 209 - 223, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2023, Vol. 14057 LNCS, p. 209-223Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active mobility, such as biking, faces a common challenge in Swedish municipalities due to the lack of adequate lighting during the dark winter months. Insufficient lighting infrastructure hinders individuals from choosing bicycles, despite the presence of well-maintained bike paths and a willingness to cycle. To address this issue, a project has been undertaken in the Swedish municipality of Skara for an alternative lighting solution using drones. A series of tests have been conducted based on drone prototypes developed for the selected bike paths. Participants were invited to cycle in darkness illuminated by drone lighting and share their mobility preferences and perception. This paper summarizes the users’ perception of drone lighting as an alternative to fixed lighting on bike paths, with a special focus on the impact on travel habits and the perceived sense of security and comfort. Most participants were regular cyclists who cited bad weather, time, and darkness as significant factors that deterred them from using bicycles more frequently, reducing their sense of security. With drone lighting, the participants appreciated the illumination’s moonlight-like quality and its ability to enhance their sense of security by illuminating the surroundings. On the technology side, they gave feedback on reducing the drone’s sound and addressing lighting stability issues. In summary, the test results showcase the potential of drone lighting as a viable alternative to traditional fixed lighting infrastructure, offering improved traffic safety, sense of security, and comfort. The results show the feasibility and effectiveness of this innovative approach, supporting transformation towards active and sustainable mobility, particularly in regions facing lighting challenges.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Louise
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Selander, Anders
    Cementa, Sweden.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    Effect of High-Pressure Washing on Chloride Ingress in Concrete – Development of an Accelerated Test Method2022In: Nordic Concrete Research, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 35-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Bridges constitute an important part of the infrastructure. For bridges to have the longest possible service life with minimum repairs, the maintenance is of great importance. One type of bridge maintenance that is rarely researched is the continuous preventive maintenance. The continuous preventive maintenance consists of removal of vegetation, cleaning of bridge joints and drainage systems as well as high-pressure washing of the structure. The effect of washing is discussed but not properly researched. A study on the effectiveness of high-pressure washing on concrete is therefore being conducted. An accelerated test method is being developed to mimic field testing. The method has been developed through tests on small concrete specimens subjected to fluctuating temperature, fluctuating moisture, and repeatable exposure to de-icing salt during several cycles. The specimens are of two recipes where one represents an old concrete bridge with rather high water-cement ratio (0.6) and the other one represents a new concrete bridge with a low water-cement ratio (0.4). The first two versions of the method are described. The second version shows promising results, but the method needs further development to incorporate additional factors.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Wikman, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Safe introduction of battery propulsion at sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric propulsion using batteries as energy storage has the potential to significantly reduce emissions from shipping and thus the environmental impact. The battery type that is currently on the top of the agenda to be used for ship propulsion applications is Li-ion batteries. Li-ion batteries pose different safety issues than e.g. other propulsion technologies and other batteries such as lead-acid batteries. It is essential that the safety level on board, including fire safety, is maintained, when introducing electric propulsion with energy storage in batteries. This report discusses the different regulations and guidelines available today for fire safety of batteries on board in relation to current knowledge about Li-ion batteries. Also fire safety measures available on board ships today and their applicability for Li-ion batteries is discussed, as well as the different test methods available and their applicability. A workshop gathering different stakeholders from Sweden, Norway and Finland identified fire safety as the main challenge for the introduction of battery propulsion at sea. The workshop concluded that future work is desired in order to increase knowledge and to develop publicly available strategies, training and designs.

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  • 5.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Juntikka, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Nedev, Georgi
    SWECO, Sweden.
    Reza, Haghani
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    The Re-use of End-of-Life Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites in Construction2022In: CICE 2021: 10th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering pp 1183-1195|, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2022, p. 1183-1195Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve a more resource-efficient society and a future with reduced carbon dioxide emissions, new technological challenges must be dealt. One way to reach a more sustainable world is to start re-using end-of-life structures and waste and give them a “Second Life” with new functions in the society. As fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are lightweight, strong, stiff and durable materials, there is great potential to re-use decommissioned FRP structures for new resource-efficient solutions in the building and infrastructure sectors. The present paper investigates innovative solutions in re-using wind turbine blades and glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) pipes as structural elements in new bicycle and pedestrian bridges. Specifically, a concept design for decking system made of GFRP pipes is developed and discussed. The main design requirements for pedestrian bridges are considered and assumptions regarding end-of-life GFRP quality and their mechanical properties have been addressed. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a sustainable use of GFRP waste and at the same time provide a more cost-effective solution for short span pedestrian bridges. In a larger perspective, the authors would like to highlight the economically profitable potential of recovering and reusing/re-manufacturing end-of-life GFRP composites. © 2022, The Author(s)

  • 6.
    Aronsson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Kjellin, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    RIT – Reservkapacitet i tilldelningsprocessen : Underlagsrapport 22022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk järnvägslagstiftning ställer krav på infrastrukturförvaltaren att denne skall reservera kapacitet under den årliga kapacitetstilldelningsprocessen för tilldelning under tågplanens genomförande. Sådan så kallad reservkapacitet, till skillnad mot restkapacitet som är kapacitet som blir över vid årlig tilldelning, skall möjliggöra en följsamhet för tillkommande behov men även hantering av uppkommande förändringar så att effektiv användning av infrastrukturen säkerställs. Forsknings- och innovationsprojektet RIT, Reservkapacitet i Tilldelningsprocessen, studerar hur reservkapacitet kan åstadkommas med beaktande av krav på transparens, och rättvisa för aktörerna samt nytta för samhället. Vägledande för resultaten i RIT är att järnvägens aktörer skall kunna ställa sig bakom de principer som projektet RIT tar fram. Denna underlagsrapport två fokuserar på om och hur ett underlag för avsättning av reservkapacitet skall kunna tas fram. Två metoder har identifierats, dels att undersöka tidigare tågplaner och mängden sökta tåglägen under tågplanernas genomförande, dels möjligheterna att genom intervjuer och årligt återkommande marknadsundersökningar från aktörerna kunna identifiera behovet av reservkapacitet. Denna rapport omfattar huvudsakligen den första av de två möjliga sätten att identifiera reservkapacitet. En process som på ett grovt plan beskriver en möjlig framtida hantering av reservkapacitet ges också i rapporten. Denna process är sammanvävd med den nuvarande kapacitetstilldelningsprocessen. Ett huvudresultat i rapporten är att det är svårt att förutse nästa tågplans behov av reservkapacitet baserat på data som finns tillgänglig idag. Tidigare ansökningar visar endast det som den sökande tror sig kunna få (eller har fått reda på att denna troligen kan få sig tilldelat) vilket inte avspeglar det faktiska behovet som den sökande egentligen skulle vilja söka. Saknas gör dessutom alla de ansökningar som den sökande inte finner någon mening att söka (då t.ex. kapaciteten på nyckelsträckor är fullbelagd). Vidare söks kapacitet som skulle kunna sökas på reservkapacitet (om den funnits) idag spekulativt i den årliga tilldelningen, dvs den sökande söker det denne tror att denne behöver. Sammantaget gör detta, tillsammans med alla tåglägen som söks under tågplanens genomförande i revisionsplaneringen på grund av banarbeten, att dagens data om tillkommande trafik under tågplanen inte utgör en bra grund för att undersöka behovet av nästkommande tågplans behov.

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  • 7.
    Arun Chaudhari, Ojas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Ghafar, AN
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Zirgulis, Giedrius
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Mousavi, Marjan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Fontana, P
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Pousette, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Ellison, T
    BESAB AB, Sweden.
    A Practical Construction Technique to Enhance the Performance of Rock Bolts in Tunnels2021In: Proc of ICTC 2021, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish tunnel construction, a critical issue that has been repeatedly acknowledged is corrosion and, consequently, failure of the rock bolts in rock support systems. The defective installation of rock bolts results in the formation of cavities in the cement mortar that is regularly used to fill the area under the dome plates. These voids allow for water-ingress to the rock bolt assembly, which results in corrosion of rock bolt components and eventually failure. In addition, the current installation technique consists of several manual steps with intense labor works that are usually done in uncomfortable and exhausting conditions, e.g., under the roof of the tunnels. Such intense tasks also lead to a considerable waste of materials and execution errors. Moreover, adequate quality control of the execution is hardly possible with the current technique. To overcome these issues, a nonshrinking/ expansive cement-based mortar filled in the paper packaging has been developed in this study which properly fills the area under the dome plates without or with the least remaining cavities, ultimately that diminishes the potential of corrosion. This article summarizes the development process and the experimental evaluation of this technique for the installation of rock bolts. In the development process, the cementitious mortar was first developed using specific cement and shrinkage reducing/expansive additives. The mechanical and flow properties of the mortar were then evaluated using compressive strength, density, and slump flow measurement methods. In addition, isothermal calorimetry and shrinkage/expansion measurements were used to elucidate the hydration and durability attributes of the mortar. After obtaining the desired properties in both fresh and hardened conditions, the developed dry mortar was filled in specific permeable paper packaging and then submerged in water bath for specific intervals before the installation. The tests were enhanced progressively by optimizing different parameters such as shape and size of the packaging, characteristics of the paper used, immersion time in water and even some minor characteristics of the mortar. Finally, the developed prototype was tested in a lab-scale rock bolt assembly with various angles to analyze the efficiency of the method in real life scenario. The results showed that the new technique improves the performance of the rock bolts by reducing the material wastage, improving environmental performance, facilitating and accelerating the labor works, and finally enhancing the durability of the whole system. Accordingly, this approach provides an efficient alternative for the traditional way of tunnel bolt installation with considerable advantages for the Swedish tunneling industry.

  • 8.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Decision support framework for bridge condition assessments2019In: Structural Safety, ISSN 0167-4730, E-ISSN 1879-3355, Vol. 81, article id 101874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An essential aspect in the maintenance of existing bridges is the ability to adequately and accurately assess and evaluate the condition of the structure. Condition assessments, which can be carried out in any number of ways, provide valuable information concerning the actual state of a bridge, including the severity of potential damages, and form the basis for further maintenance decisions. Any decision support concerning the management of existing structures thus requires attention towards the uncertainties associated with the assessment methods when applied in practice as well as the maintenance actions these support. These uncertainties cannot be solely described as model uncertainties but are also a result of the variation in engineering performance observed in practice. In the current paper a rational and systematic framework is presented which provides practical decision support concerning whether condition assessments are necessary, what assessment methods are recommended, if invasive actions are needed, or if some other non-invasive option may be more appropriate. The framework takes into account three main attributes of an enhanced condition assessment, namely, modelling sophistication, considerations of uncertainties and risks, and knowledge/information content. Increasing the level of one or more of these attributes may be advantageous only if the expected benefits or added value of information is considered appropriate in relation to the cost of implementation in practice. A decision making model, based on Bayesian decision theory, is adopted to evaluate this problem. Two case studies, in which the framework is applied, are provided for illustrative purposes; the first is a generic numerical example and the second a decision scenario related to the fatigue assessment of an existing railway bridge.

  • 9.
    Blomfors, Mattias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Engineering Assessment Method for Anchorage in Corroded Reinforced Concrete2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 2109-2116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing need for reliable methods to assess load-carrying capacity and remaining service life of existing infrastructure. Several previous research projects have resulted in a verified, simple 1D model for assessment of anchorage in corroded reinforced concrete structures. Previous verification has involved both experiments and detailed 3D NLFE analyses. To further develop the 1D model it needs to be extended to comprise more practical situations. In order to facilitate an efficient extension procedure in the future, the size of 3D NLFE model that is required to capture the bond behaviour between corroded reinforcement and concrete is investigated. Beam-end models and models of sub-sections were studied, and the results in terms of bond stress and crack pattern were compared. Preliminary results indicate good agreement for some situations; however for some cases a section model seems to overestimate the capacity.

  • 10.
    Bontekoe, Eelke
    et al.
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Tsarchopoulos, Panagiotis
    CERTH, Greece.
    Kamadanis, Nikos
    CERTH, Greece.
    Koutli, Maria
    CERTH, Greece.
    Deliverable 9.5: Report on monitoring framework in LH cities and established baseline2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The IRIS project has defined goals and targets in the project proposal, and the monitoring and evaluation work package (WP) 9 will analyse to what extent the project reaches these goals and objectives. The monitoring and evaluation will also provide information concerning the performance of the different solutions demonstrated in the Lighthouse (LH) cities in IRIS which is important for the replication of the solutions both in the LH cities and in other cities. This is of importance for the replicability of the solutions, both in the LH cities (Utrecht, Nice and Gothenburg) and in other cities. The project consists of several demonstration projects which are divided by 5 transition tracks (TTs): TT1; Smart renewables and closed- loop energy positive districts, TT2; Smart Energy Management and Storage for Grid Flexibility, TT3; Smart e-Mobility Sector, TT4; City Innovation Platform (CIP) Use Cases, TT5; Citizen engagement and co-creation.

    D9.5 is the result of 2 years of work with several iterative processes involving the LH cities and their partners with the ultimate goal to:

    Define a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) which evaluate the effectiveness and impact of the cities proposed measures.Setup monitoring plans for each IS to define how each parameter is being measured to ensure that the KPIs can be calculated.Define how the baseline and the targets are defined and measured.This work started as described in D9.2 (Report on monitoring and evaluation schemes for integrated solutions) [1] with:The definition of the initial list of KPIs and how to calculate them, based on Smart Cities Information System (SCIS) [2], the CITYKeys Project [3] and the IRIS project itself .The assignment of KPIs to relevant measures within the project.An evaluation plan to measure performance on project level, including aggregation of KPIs.

    The process has continued with D9.3 (Report on data model and management plan for integrated solutions) [4] and D9.4 (Report on unified framework for harmonized data gathering, analysis and reporting) [5], which define the basis of the methodologies used to come to the results written in this report.

    Feedback from several workshops on this topic has led to a guideline that supports the partners responsible for implementation of the demonstrators in setting up their projects such that:KPIs that are being measured are well understood.KPIs give a meaningful result.The right data is being measured to calculate the required KPIs during the implementation of the measures.

    An important part of this process is to have a close look at the KPIs that are projected for each demonstrator, the calculation method of the KPIs, and the expected results. By means of KPI interpretation forms. By doing so:

    • KPIs are defined and calculated such that only one way of interpretation is possible. This way results from different projects and cities are homogenized.

    • It is well understood what result the measurement of a KPI leads to.The method and results of this process are described in this report, which is a revised KPI list where KPIs are added, removed or adapted.

    In addition to this, the KPI interpretation forms created the basis for the formulation of detailed monitoring plans for all measures within the project. Together with template forms for reporting these plans and a common data structure, which were provided to the affiliated partners, these plans are obtained and described for all measures per Transition Track and per Lighthouse city in this report.

    Another essential part of measuring the performance of the IRIS project is the establishment of the baseline measurements and review if targets are met. Tables with KPI data requirements, consisting of the associated parameters, data sources, baseline and (possible) targets for all measures are incorporated.

    An important part of the monitoring strategy of the IRIS project is the KPI tool, which is described in detail in report D9.4 [5]. This tool is established to collect all relevant monitoring data from the IRIS project in order to calculate and visualize the performance of the project. The tool partly obtains it’s data by means of the City Information Platforms (CIP). The monitoring details combined with the updated KPIs, result in an inventory containing an overview of all data sources with as main objective:

    • To make sure that all data sources are known and will be measured by the responsible partners.

    • To know what kind of data needs to be collected by the KPI tool.

    • To know when monitoring in each demonstrator starts and data can be expected.

    • To have a clear overview for all responsible partners what to deliver.

    Besides setting up the collection of the indicators data, D9.5 also continues the work on aggregation of KPIs. For each city a revised list is made that indicates which KPIs will be aggregated to Transition Track-, City- and IRIS-level.

    In the conclusion the challenges that where met during the process of setting up the monitoring framework are described. Because of delays within the IRIS project, not all monitoring plans have been obtained yet. Therefore, a future update of this report will be submitted as soon as this information is available. Further on a perspective is described for future work to start gathering the data and visualize results of the IRIS project.

    The target group for this report is mainly people who:

    -  Are interested in how to apply a unified monitoring and evaluation scheme into a large Smart City project with many different partners and stakeholders. For example, people working on comparable (Smart City) projects, or the follower cities within the IRIS project.

    -  Are interested in how the performance of several different Smart city projects can be evaluated.

    -  Are interested in the implementation of KPIs from projects such as SCIS and CITYkeys.

    -  Want to learn from project partners from within the IRIS project who work on similar projectsabout their monitoring. For example, partners from different cities affiliated with the same transition track or transition track leaders.

    - Want to find out what kind of data can be expected from the IRIS project. For example, external researchers interested in the results of Smart City projects, but also partners working on WP4 (CIP) and WP9 (monitoring and evaluation).Want to learn what the current state is of the monitoring and evaluation of the IRIS project.

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  • 11.
    Bontekoe, Eelke
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Tsarchopoulos, Panagiotis
    CERTH, Greece.
    Isaioglou, George
    CERTH, Greece.
    Tsompanidou, Eleni
    CERTH, Greece.
    Agelakoglou, Komninos
    CERTH, Greece.
    Apostolopoulos, Vasilios
    CERTH, Greece.
    Zestanakis, Panagiotis
    CERTH, Greece.
    Nikolopoulos, Nikolaos
    CERTH, Greece.
    Deliverable 9.6: Intermediate report after one year of measurement2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present document is the Deliverable D9.6 “Intermediate report after one year of measurement”. The document describes the work carried out within the task 9.5 entitled “Overall evaluation and impact analysis for impact enhancement”. The focus of this task is to provide intermediate results of the demonstration activities in the three Lighthouse (LH) cities and to present the data currently transferred to the IRIS Key Performance Indicators (KPI) tool.

    The deliverable D9.6 is based on the work done in the Work Package (WP) 9, in particular the work in task 9.4 and task 9.5 (presented previously in D9.4 and D9.5). In this deliverable, the monitoring framework and established baselines developed in D9.5 are used to collect the data needed for the calculation of the KPIs. The KPIs are in turn used to evaluate the outcome and impact of the implemented measures. The collected data is transferred to the KPI tool, which was created and presented in D9.4. The tool processes and calculates the KPIs and visualizes the results. Data can be transferred to the KPI tool automatically, through a CIP, or manually through a template. A process which is described in this deliverable.

    This deliverable was intended to be an intermediate report to provide an initial insight to the results for all measures in the IRIS project. However, due to the lack of data from measures, which in part is due to the Covid-19 pandemic, this report focuses more on providing information about the process of collecting data and transferring it into the KPI tool. This process is collaborative and has been carried out within the IRIS LH cites with support from the technical partners and the WP9 team. Complexity of APIs and the lack of standards have made data extraction and transfer into the KPI tool more difficult. Furthermore, not all measures in IRIS are connected to CIP which means that manual data collection was required and a systematic procedure for this collection needed to be developed and introduced to the partners.

    There are several different reasons for lack of data and the resulting exclusion of some measures from this deliverable. A few measures are not yet in operation, while for other data collection have not started or the data transfer to the KPI tool has not been established yet. However, the work done in task 9.5 has provided new knowledge on issues and errors that can occur in the process of transferring data and establishing KPIs. Through dialogues with the project partners, the need to clarify some KPI cards with i.e. units, formulas or use cases has been highlighted. The close cooperation with the project partners has led to continued work on the definitions of the KPIs and what KPIs to include, taking steps in the direction of clearer interpretation and more consistent use. Further adaptation of several KPI-cards was done by the WP9 team. In the process of adjusting KPIs, the effect these adjustments would have on all measures that use them were considered. The process of developing KPIs involves a balance between finding indicators that can be used more generally and indicators that are more specific and thus better capture the purpose of a specific measure.

    The improvements of KPIs and lessons learned in task 9.5 will be of great use in the continued work of WP9. Focus will be on transfer of data from all measures into the KPI tool. A continuous dialogue with responsible project partners to ensure this data transfer and discussions on deviation and errors in the initial results will be established.

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  • 12.
    Bontekoe, Eelke
    et al.
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Tsarchopoulos, Panagiotis
    CERTH, Greece.
    Lampropoulos, Ioannis
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Deliverable 9.10 : Third update of the Data Management Plan (DMP)2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this document is to provide the procedure to be adopted by the project partners and subcontractors to produce, collect and process the data from the IRIS demonstration activities. The adopted procedure follows the guidelines provided by the European Commission in the document Guidelines on FAIR Data Management in Horizon 2020.

    This document is based on the Horizon 2020 FAIR Data Management Plan (DMP) template (Version: 26 July 2016) [1], which provides a set of questions that the partners should answer. Furthermore, the Horizon 2020 template from DMP online [2] is utilized to expand the questions and provide more detailed explanations. This fourth report on DMP, submitted at M48 (Autumn 2021) of the project, describes a plan for data production, collection and processing, and the first input from the different lighthouse cities. It will be continuously updated until the end of the project, as part of work package 9, WP9 Monitoring and evaluation, activities. Specifically, DMP will be updated again in M60 (D9.11: Fourth and final update on the Data management plan).

    The development of the DMP is part of the work undertaken in T9.2 Defining the data model and the data management plan for performance and impact measurement (M4-M60). Since the DMP development started in M4 (spring of 2018) of the project, this third report of the DMP provides templates for data reporting and emphasises on the interactions of task 9.2, T9.2 Defining the data model and the data management plan for performance and impact measurement, with other work packages.

    An important part of this document is the data management template (DMP template). This template is supposed to be used by all partners who produce or handle datasets within the IRIS project. For example, the partners responsible for the implementation of the measures in the Lighthouse cities. By making use of this template, it is ensured that the project research data will be 'FAIR', that is findable, accessible, interoperable and re-usable. This is achieved by:

    • Making data Findable, including provisions for metadata
    • Making data openly Accessible
    • Making data Interoperable
    • Increase data Re-use (through clarifying licences)

    The template is accompanied by a chapter which describes all topics that are required to be filled in. Further on, 3 DMP examples are added to illustrate what is expected, in order to facilitate the task of providing the data.

    Besides the Ethical aspects as defined in the DMP template for all ‘sub’-projects, a separated chapter is written on these aspects on IRIS level.

    The aggregation of data within the IRIS project has started after M30. Which means that data was generated within several measures. For this reason, the template as presented in D9.9 could be filled in as far as possible for 27 datasets. The resulting information about these datasets can be found in the DMP Excel sheet on EMDESK and as tables in Appendix 0.

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  • 13.
    Bontekoe, Eelke
    et al.
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Tsarchopoulos, Panagiotis
    CERTH, Greece.
    Lampropoulos, Ioannis
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Deliverable 9.9 : second update of the data management plan2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this document is to provide the procedure to be adopted by the project partners and subcontractors to produce, collect and process the data from the IRIS demonstration activities. The adopted procedure follows the guidelines provided by the European Commission in the document Guidelines on FAIR Data Management in Horizon 2020.

    This document is based on the Horizon 2020 FAIR Data Management Plan (DMP) template (Version: 26 July 2016) [1], which provides a set of questions that the partners should answer. Furthermore, the Horizon 2020 template from DMP online [2] is utilized to expand the questions and provide more detailed explanations. This third report on DMP, submitted at M30 (spring 2020) of the project, describes a plan for data production, collection and processing, and will be continuously updated until the end of the project, as part of work package 9, WP9 Monitoring and evaluation, activities. Specifically, the DMP will be updated again in M42 (D9.10: Third update on the Data management plan), and in M60 (D9.11: Fourth and final update on the Data management plan).

    The development of the DMP is part of the work undertaken in T9.2 Defining the data model and the data management plan for performance and impact measurement (M4-M60). Since the DMP development started in M4 (spring of 2018) of the project, this third report of the DMP provides templates for data reporting and emphasises on the interactions of task 9.2, T9.2 Defining the data model and the data management plan for performance and impact measurement, with other work packages.

    An important part of this document is the data management template (DMP). This template is supposed to be used by all partners who produce or handle datasets within the IRIS project. For example the partners responsible for the implementation of the measures in the Lighthouse cities. By making use of this template, it is ensured that the project research data will be 'FAIR', that is findable, accessible, interoperable and re-usable. This is achieved by:

    • Making data Findable, including provisions for metadata
    • Making data openly Accessible
    • Making data Interoperable
    • Increase data Re-use (through clarifying licences)

    The template is accompanied by a chapter which describes all topics that are required to be filled in. Further on, 3 DMP examples are added to illustrate what is expected, in order to facilitate the task of providing the data.

    Besides the Ethical aspects as defined in the DMP template for al ‘sub’-projects, a separated chapter is written on these aspects on IRIS level.

    After M30 the aggregation of data in the IRIS project will start to take place. Meaning that D9.10 (the third update of the data management plan) will be a version where the templates presented in this document will be largely filled in. Further on D9.10 will include the final template of data collection, which will be mainly defined by the experience built up during the collection of data during the project.

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  • 14.
    Cederstav, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Bygga-projektet. Mätning av GC-bro i Varberg.: Nyttor och konsekvenser av HCT i tätort, även kallat ”Bygga”-projektet2023Report (Other academic)
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  • 15.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Gråsjö, Mikael
    Carmenta AB, Sweden.
    Adebahr, Martin
    CEVT China Euro Vehicle Technology AB, Sweden.
    King, Philip
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Cloud-based traffic control: a system of systems for accelerating c-its deployment and autonomous vehicle integration2020In: Proceedings of Virtual ITS European Congress, 2020, article id Paper number ITS-TP18522Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The traffic system is transforming into a highly complex system of systems with increasing connectivity and automation. Engineering such a system of systems requires close interaction between related stakeholders including authorities, car manufacturers, and the service and technology providers, both from the organizational and technical perspective. This paper describes a cloud-based traffic control system that provides a platform to support cross-sector interoperable information sharing, and data intelligence for future connected and autonomous vehicle integration. The system is engineered from a system of systems perspective with multi-stakeholder engagement and is designed to be cloud-native for stakeholder and service scalability. The paper discusses the motivation of the system, followed by a detailed description on the system architecture and the constituent systems. Supported services are presented with their working process, information flow, as well as their public demonstrations.

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  • 16.
    Eklund, Jorgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sorting and disposing of waste at recycling centres: A users perspective2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 355-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates Swedish recycling centres from the users perspective. The aim was to describe the characteristics and experiences of the users and their activities when sorting and disposing of waste, and to identify improvements for the users. The typical recycling centre user is a recently retired man, living in a house with a garden, having travelled 5 km alone in his own car. The users requested longer opening hours and better information available at home and at the recycling centre. The major difficulty for the users is to understand which fraction their waste belongs to, and consequently into which container they should throw it. The most important sources of sorting information, in addition to experience from earlier visits, are signs and asking the personnel. Although the service at recycling centres is perceived positively by a majority of users. substantial improvements can still be made, and a number of such suggestions are given.

  • 17.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Meso Mechanical Study of Cracking Process in Concrete Subjected toTensile Loading2018In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 13-29Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project focused on how the cracking process in concrete is influenced by both the micro and meso structures of concrete. The aim was to increase knowledge pertaining to the effect of critical parameters on the cracking process and how this is related to the material's macroscopic properties. A methodology based on the combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scales was developed. Crack propagation during tensile loading of small-scale specimens in a tensile stage was monitored by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Acoustic Emission (AE). After testing, crack patterns were studied using fluorescence microscopy.

  • 18.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Methodology for Mesomechanical Study of Concrete Material2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This project focuses on detailed studies of how the cracking process in concrete is influenced by the concrete micro- and mesostructure. The aim is to increase knowledge of how critical parameters affect the cracking process and how this is related to the material's macroscopic properties. A methodology based on the combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scale levels has been developed. Crack propagation during tensile loading of small-scale specimens in a tensile stage was monitored by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Acoustic Emission (AE). After the test, crack patterns were studied using fluorescence microscopy.

  • 19.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    3D Analysis of Strains in Fibre Reinforced Concrete Using X-Ray Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In fibre reinforced concrete (FRC), understanding the underlying interaction mechanisms between discrete fibres and the surrounding concrete matrix can lead to the optimization of the fibre-matrix combination. This paper presents the initial development of a method enabling the analysis of this given interaction on ameso-mechanical level. The method is such that volume images are initially captured using X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) on small-scale FRC specimens under loading which are thereafter analysed to measure full 3D strainand deformation via Digital Volume Correlation (DVC). It is anticipated that the method developed in this project can be a useful tool for the developmentof new innovative and high performance FRC.

  • 20.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hall, Stephen
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Engqvist, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Analysis of Failure Modes in Fiber Reinforced Concrete Using X-rayTomography and Digital Volume Correlation2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pull-out mechanisms for different common steel fibers were investigatedusing adapted pull-out tests performed in-situ in an x-ray micro tomograph(µXRT). High-resolution volume images from the µXRT scans enable clearvisualization of aggregates, pores, the fiber and the fiber-matrix interface.Furthermore, the natural density speckle pattern from aggregate distributionand pores was found suitable for Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) analysis.From the DVC results it was possible to visualize and quantify the straindistribution in the matrix around the fiber at the different load levels up tofinal failure, being marked by either pull-out or fiber rupture. This studydemonstrates that strain measurements within the concrete matrix can beobtained successfully using µXRT imaging and DVC analysis, which leads to anincreased understanding of the interaction mechanisms in fibre reinforcedconcrete under mechanical loading.

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  • 21.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hall, Stephen
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Engqvist, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Analysis of Fiber-matrix Interaction in FRC using X-ray Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation2019In: proc. of 10th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures (FraMCoS-X), Bayonne, France: International Association of Fracture Mechanics for Concrete and Concrete Structures , 2019, , p. 8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fiber pull-out is generally considered to be the dominating failure mechanism in fiber reinforced concrete (FRC). Accordingly, pull-out tests are typically performed to characterize the fiber-matrix interaction. However, little direct insight can be gained on the actual mechanisms ofthe pull-out from such a test. Deeper understanding could however be gained through the addition of non-destructive techniques to pull-out tests to enable the visualization and quantification of the mechanical interaction. Pull-out mechanisms for different common steel fibers were investigated using adapted pull-out tests performed in-situ in an X-ray micro tomography (µXRT). High resolution volume images from the µXRT scans enable clear visualization of aggregates, pores, fiber and fiber-matrix interface. Furthermore, the natural density speckle pattern from aggregate distribution and pores was found to be suitable for Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) analysis. From the DVC results it was possible to visualize and quantify the strain distribution in the matrix around the fiber at different load levels up to final failure, being marked by either pull-out or fiber rupture. The load transfer mechanism was initially dominated by shear along the fiber. As the load increased, slip occurred in the end-hook region and mechanical locking became the governing mechanism. This study demonstrates that strain measurements within the concrete matrix and passive end-slip can be obtained successfully using µXRT imaging and DVC analysis, which leads to an increased understanding of the interaction mechanisms in fiber reinforced concrete under mechanical loading.

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  • 22.
    Flydén, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Persson, Olle
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Sällström, Jan Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    SUSPIPE Pilotprojekt 3 – Framgångsfaktorer för bättre elektromuffsvetsning2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a result of the SUSPIPE project. Within SUSPIPE, the water and sewage industry's manufacturers, suppliers and customers collaborate. In this sub-project, the possibilities for better products and methodology for electrofusion of large-dimension polyethylene pipes have been investigated through interviews, measurements, and simulations. When building new water and sewage pipe networks of polyethylene pipes, the network owners should demand that the work complies with “AMA Anläggning 20,” that the welders have training with an EWF certificate and that procedure testing is carried out before the construction starts. Furthermore, they should have inspectors present at the construction sites. The members of INSTA-CERT should review the certification regulations regarding requirements for ovality and indirect methods for measurements of residual internal stresses in polyethylene pipes for water and sewage. To achieve good quality joints in polyethylene pipes, rotating scraping tools, fixing tools and rounding clamps must be used. Furthermore, the trenches must be wide and long enough for fitting equipment and personnel and for adjusting the positions of the pipe ends.  

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  • 23.
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul Christian
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Long-term performance of MSWI Bottom ash in a test road construction2016In: International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2180-3242, Vol. 7, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on long-term performances of MSWI bottom ash used as a reinforcement layer in a 8 years old road-construction. Long term properties may change under the combined effects of loading, climate- and chemical conditions. Characterization of the chemical changes in aged MSWI bottom ash is thus of prime interest as secondary alteration is a key process for the ageing of these kind of materials. The MSWI bottom ash in this study comprises a 60 meter-long segment of a test road, which was sampled eight years after construction. The objective of the sampling was to obtain a very low degree of disturbance to the application’s in-situ properties. Access to the sub-base was achieved by removing the surface course and unbound base course, leaving the top surface of the unbound sub-base reachable.  Epoxy impregnated slabs were also used for a micro textural and chemical characterization by SEM/EDS of the bottom ash sub-base layer. No cracks that imply movements or rotation of particles in the road construction or other disturbances as due to the sampling process were found. This undisturbed material made it possible to study chemical processes and structural changes that have been ongoing in the test road since it was constructed. The SEM/EDS analysis showed that most particles had reacted to some extent and that reaction-products surrounding aluminum particles were undisturbed. Partly decomposed particles indicate that the reaction (that has been ongoing since the road was constructed) has been slow and incomplete because of the coexistence of metallic aluminum and aluminum hydroxide. It also shows that the material not has been subjected to any physical influence during these 8 years that otherwise would have moved the reaction products from the particles that originally have reacted. Clay mineralization that indicates long-term ageing of the ash material was also detected by XRPD. The pH of the material was lower than 8.5, indicating a mature degree of carbonization. It is also concluded from the study that chemical reactions consistent with this maturity have been taking place in the road construction as indicated by textural relationships.

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  • 24.
    Godio, Michele
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Low-velocity out-of-plane impact tests on double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls instrumented with optical measurements2023In: International Journal of Impact Engineering, ISSN 0734-743X, E-ISSN 1879-3509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unreinforced brick masonry makes up today a significant piece of the European built environment, including not only residential buildings but also strategically important structures that are not designed to withstand blasts and impacts. Yet, it is difficult to accurately estimate the response of these structures and the extent of damage they sustain during such extreme loading conditions. This paper presents the implementation and discusses the results of laboratory impact tests conducted on natural-scale double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls, a typology that is frequently found in Northern Europe. The walls were spanning vertically between two reinforced concrete slabs and were subjected to low-velocity drop-weight pendulum tests in which they were repeatedly hit until the opening of a breach in the center of the wall. The tests were instrumented with both hard-wired and optical measurements, the latter consisting of high-speed cameras and digital image correlation techniques, to face the difficulty of observing cracks and determining the deflections of the walls with adequate accuracy at the time of the impact. Investigated in these tests were the out-of-plane response of the walls and their capacity to resist the impacts. The axial load applied on the top of the walls was varied for two wall configurations and monitored throughout the tests to study the effect of arching on the failure mechanism produced and number of repeated hits needed to open the breach. Of interest was also the evidence of cracking, more specifically the way it initiated on the undamaged walls and next propagated upon consecutive hits. The data generated from these tests are made available to support further investigations on unreinforced masonry structures subjected to extreme actions.

  • 25.
    Godio, Michele
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Low-velocity out-of-plane impact tests on double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls instrumented with optical measurements2023In: International Journal of Impact Engineering, ISSN 0734-743X, E-ISSN 1879-3509, Vol. 178, article id 104597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unreinforced brick masonry makes up today a significant piece of the European built environment, including not only residential buildings but also strategically important structures that are not designed to withstand blasts and impacts. Yet, it is difficult to accurately estimate the response of these structures and the extent of damage they sustain during such extreme loading conditions. This paper presents the implementation and discusses the results of laboratory impact tests conducted on natural-scale double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls, a typology that is frequently found in Northern Europe. The walls were spanning vertically between two reinforced concrete slabs and were subjected to low-velocity drop-weight pendulum tests in which they were repeatedly hit until the opening of a breach in the centre of the wall. The tests were instrumented with both hard-wired and optical measurements, the latter consisting of high-speed cameras and digital image correlation techniques, to face the difficulty of observing cracks and determining the deflections of the walls with adequate accuracy at the time of the impact. Investigated in these tests were the out-of-plane response of the walls and their capacity to resist the impacts. The axial load applied on the top of the walls was varied for two wall configurations and monitored throughout the tests to study the effect of arching on the failure mechanism produced and number of repeated hits needed to open the breach. Of interest was also the evidence of cracking, more specifically the way it initiated on the undamaged walls and next propagated upon consecutive hits. The data generated from these tests are made available to support further investigations on masonry structures subjected to extreme actions.

  • 26.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Research & Innovation for Electric Roads2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research organizations, industry, and public authoritiesin Sweden and Norway have collaborated within the project “Research and Innovation Platform for Electric Roads” and investigated benefits of Electric Road Systems (ERS) to society, future business ecosystem, and how to support a large-scale deployment. The results cover electricity supply; environmental impact; construction, operations and maintenance; economic impact; business models; and standards. 

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  • 27.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Börjesson, Conny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Jelica, Darijan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Sundelin, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Johnsson, Filip
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Taljegård, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Engwall, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Halse, Askill Harkjerr
    Norwegian Institute of Transport Economics, Norway.
    Lina, Nordin
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Almestrand Linné, Philip
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Käck, Andreas
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Research & Innovation Platform for Electric Road Systems2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government has prioritized achieving a fossil fuel-independent vehicle fleet by 2030 which will require radical transformation of the transport industry. Electrifying the vehicle fleet forms an important part of this transformation. For light vehicles, electrification using batteries and charging during parking is already well advanced. For city buses, charging at bus stops and bus depots is being developed, but for heavy, long-distance road transport, batteries with enough capacity to provide sufficient range would be too cumbersome and too much time would have to be spent stationary for charging.

    One solution might be the introduction of electric roads, supplying the moving vehicle with electricity both to power running and for charging. In the longer term, this approach could also be used for light vehicles and buses.

    The objective of the Research and Innovation Platform for Electric Roads was to enhance Swedish and Nordic research and innovation in this field, this has been done by developing a joint knowledge base through collaboration with research institutions, universities, public authorities, regions, and industries.

    The work of the Research and Innovation Platform was intended to create clarity concerning the socioeconomic conditions, benefits, and other effects associated with electric roads. We have investigated the benefits from the perspectives of various actors, implementation strategies, operation and maintenance standards, proposed regulatory systems, and factors conducive of the acceptance and development of international collaborative activities.

    The project commenced in the autumn of 2016 and the main research continued until December 2019, the work during year 2020 has been focused on knowledge spread and coordination with the Swedish-Germany research collaboration on ERS (CollERS). The results of the Research and Innovation Platform have been disseminated through information meetings, seminars, and four annual international conferences. Reports have been published in the participating partners’ ordinary publication series and on www.electricroads.org. The project was funded by Strategic Vehicle Research and Innovation (FFI) and the Swedish Transport Administration.

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  • 28.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria. RISE.
    Hacker, Florian
    Öko-Institut e.V., Germany.
    Helms, Hinrich
    Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg, Germany.
    Overview of ERS concepts and complementary technologies2019Report (Other academic)
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  • 29.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Maturity of power transfer technologies for electric road systems2020In: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, April 27-30, 2020, Helsinki, Finland, Finnish Transport and Communications Agency , 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the method associated with Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and previous efforts, this article provides a maturity assessment of several electric road system (ERS) technologies with focus on the power transfer technology subsystem, and the transition context is also discussed. ERS involves electric power transfer from the road to the vehicle while the vehicle is in motion and could be achieved through different technologies such as rail, overhead line, and wireless solutions. ERS is a technology area with immense potential to reduce fossil fuel dependency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce air pollution as well as reduce noise in urban environments, while increasing energy efficiency in the transport sector. There are numerous promising ERS development and demonstration projects globally since several years. However, the investment cost for large-scale deployment of ERS is considerable and decision makers will require knowledge about how mature different solutions are compared to other transportation solutions.

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    TRA2020_Gustavsson_Lindgren_Maturity_ERS
  • 30.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Mottschall, Moritz
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Hacker, Florian
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Jöhrens, Julius
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Helms, Hinrich
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Johnsson, Filip
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Taljegård, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bernecker, Tobias
    Heilbronn University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Engwall, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Almestrand Linné, Philip
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Hasselgren, Björn
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Key Messages on Electric Roads: Executive Summary from the CollERS Project2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric road systems (ERS) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. The market-ready ERS drive systems are characterised by high energy efficiency and low operational costs compared to fossil fuels and biofuels for combustion engines.

    The introduction of ERS will depend on governmental support, balancing the overall need for GHG-reduction with the business perspectives of the transport market and the energy market.

    There is an urgent need to establish standards for core components and important interfaces in order to build confidence among potential ERS users.

    Since ERS will take time to scale up, we should begin to transform the electricity system to meet the demand for ERS while also meeting GHG reduction goals aligned with strong climate policies.

    There is a need to clarify whether an ERS system is part of the road infrastructure market or the energy market, and to define the role of the public sector in ERS deployment.

    Since a significant part of long-haul road freight transport is international, ERS deployment will benefit from cross-country cooperation.

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    CollERS_Key_Messages_on_ERS_20210326
  • 31.
    Hacker, Florian
    et al.
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Mottschall, Moritz
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Jöhrens, Julius
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Helms, Hinrich
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Kräck, Jan
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Rücker, Julius
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    National and EU freight transport strategies: Status quo and perspectives and implications for the introduction of electric road systems (ERS)2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    National and international freight transport in Europe is significantly influenced by both, national and the European Union (EU) strategies and regulations. The successful market launch of Electric Road Systems (ERS) can only succeed with knowledge of the current state of the European freight transport system and its framework conditions. Within the framework of the collERS project, a possible ERS corridor between Sweden and Germany via Denmark is being investigated. The present paper therefore examines the current strategic orientation of freight transport in the affected countries and at EU level with a view to a possible introduction of ERS. The aim is to identify barriers and opportunities for ERS on a national and European level as well as potential fields of governmental action and possible conflicts with regard to a successful international market ramp-up of ERS.

     

    After an overview of the economic and ecological importance of the European transport sector, the following section first deals with the development of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transport and especially in road freight transport at national and European level. In this context, strategies for reducing GHG emissions in transport that have been adopted so far will also be discussed.

     

    Subsequently, an overview of the socio-economic conditions in the countries considered and their logistics markets is given and possible opportunities and risks for the use of ERS are discussed.

     

    A look at the status and perspectives of freight transport in the countries under consideration and at the available transport infrastructure provides further indications of the importance that alternative drive technologies could have for road freight transport in the future.

     

    The analysis of the framework in terms of policy measures in the transport sector provides an overview of the conditions already existing or to be expected at EU and national level for the use of alternative propulsion technologies in road freight transport.

     

    Finally, based on the preceding analyses, the possible implications of the existing framework conditions in the transport sector for the introduction of ERS are discussed and potential fields of action are defined.

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    CollERS_Freight_Transport_Strategies_ERS_20200603
  • 32.
    He, Kun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation2023In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 133, article id 104967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation were investigated by analyzing the experimental data from a series of fire tests in a 1:15 scale tunnel. Further, a simple theoretical model for gas temperature in a tunnel with multiple fire sources was proposed and used in analysis of the experimental data. The results showed that, for objects (wood piles) placed at a same separating distance downstream of the fire, the fire spread occurred faster and faster along the tunnel. Validation of the simplified temperature model for multiple fire sources was made against both model and full-scale tunnel fire tests. The model was further used to predict the critical conditions for fire spread to the second and third objects. Comparisons with the test data showed that average excess temperature of 465 K (or an equivalent incident heat flux of 18.7 kW/m2) could be used as the criterion for fire spread, and this was verified further by other model-scale tests and full-scale tests. The results showed that the critical fire spread distance monotonously increases with the heat release rate, and decreases with the tunnel perimeter. For multiple fire sources with equivalent heat release rates, as the separation distance between the first two fire sources increases, the critical fire spread distance from the second fire source to the third fire source decreases, but the total fire spread distance from the first fire source to the third one increases. If the total heat release rate at the site of a downstream fire source is greater than that at the former fire source, the critical fire spread distance becomes longer.

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  • 33.
    He, Kun
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Shi, Long
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Experimental study on the maximum ceiling gas temperature driven by double fires in a tunnel with natural ventilation2024In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 144, article id 105550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maximum gas temperature below the ceiling is an important parameter for tunnel safety. The present study analyzed the characteristics of the maximum excess ceiling gas temperature driven by double fire sources in a naturally ventilated tunnel. A series of small-scale tunnel fire experiments were carried out with different fire separation distances and heat release rates. Theoretical analysis based on the equivalent virtual origin was also performed. The results showed that there exists only one peak gas temperature when the two fire plumes are merged before reaching the ceiling, while two peak gas temperatures can be observed when the two fire plumes are completely separated. The maximum excess gas temperature below the tunnel ceiling gradually decreases with an increasing fire separation distance in the plume merging region (S < Scp). When the fire separation distance increases further (S > Scp), the effect of the fire separation distance on the maximum gas temperature below the ceiling is very limited. Furthermore, a model using an equivalent fire source was proposed to predict the maximum excess gas temperature below the ceiling, considering different plume merging states. The present study contributes to the understanding of the maximum excess gas temperature characteristics of the smoke flow driven by double fires with an equal heat release rate in naturally ventilated tunnels. 

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  • 34.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Salt-frostprovning av betong med slagg och flygaska2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the project has been to develop the salt-freeze-thaw method (the slab method in CEN TS/12390-9 and method A in SS 137244) further so that the results reflect what is taking place in the long run during real conditions in Swedish climate in concrete with binders containing slag and fly ash and thereby can be used to in initial tests in order to predict the salt-frost resistance of such concretes. By doing this basic knowledge about the salt-frost resistance of concretes containing slag a fly ash has been assembled.Since several studies have shown that the salt-frost resistance of slag concrete in particular is affected by carbonation, the influence of carbonation was studied. Concrete with slag and fly ash has a slower strength development at the early stages and the influence of this fact has also been included in the investigation.In the project 14 different concretes with varying binder compositions and the water-to-binder ratio 0.45 have been subjected to the standardized salt-frost scaling method and 5 variations of the method, where the age at sawing, the length of the conditioning period in 65 % RH and the carbon dioxide conditions have been varied. The tests have been accompanied by determination of strength development, air pore structure, weight gain during wetting and the first 28 frost cycles, inner degradation and analysis of the surface by XRD and microscopy. With some binder combinations mortar specimens have been prepared and on these sorption isotherms have been determined and TG-analysis and low temperature calorimetry tests have been carried out. Specimens for field exposure at the site adjacent to the main road 40 has also been prepared and placed. Within the project time only measurements after one winter season has been performed.The conclusion regarding the applicability of the existing test method is that for compositions with maximum 20 % slag or fly ash the method works well without adjustments. For compositions with higher amounts of slag or fly ash the conditioning should be completed with about one week exposure to 1 % CO2, in order to take into account the increased scaling due to carbonation. As regards the use on concretes with considerably slower strength development than normal the age of the specimens at the start of the salt-frost cycling can be increased to up to 90 days in order to reflect the performance in the long run. It should then also be ascertained that the concrete in question in a real case is not exposed to salt-frost attack at a lower maturity than what this represents.When it comes to the requirements on binder compositions for exposure class XF4, it is shown that the requirements which exist in SS 137003:2015 are fully adequate. Maximum 20 % slag or fly ash can be used without influencing the salt-frost resistance more than marginally at a water-to-binder ratio =0,45. Using 35 % fly ash or 65 % slag results in very large scaling. Using 35 % slag gives is ambiguous results, but may perhaps be acceptable if the maximum water-to-binder ratio in that case is decreased to 0,40.

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  • 35.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Silva, Nelson
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Eva, Rodum
    Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Norway.
    Torkkeli, Minna
    Finnish Transport Agency, Finland.
    Hejll, Arvid
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    A Nordic method for testing hydrophobic impregnations with regard to prevention of chloride ingress2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chloride induced corrosion of the reinforcement is the major cause of degradation of reinforced concrete structures. In particular in the Nordic countries, the use of de-icing salts during winter, leads to severe degradation of edge beams in road bridges. Thus, in order to extend the service life and decrease maintenance costs, hydrophobic impregnations are commonly used to prevent or slow down chloride ingress into concrete. There is a harmonised European standard for hydrophobic impregnations, EN 1504-2 [1], but the property “diffusion of chloride ions” is “subject to national standards and regulations”. The transport and road administrations of Sweden, Norway and Finland use different national methods to evaluate the performance of this type of products meaning that the same CEmarked product needs to meet different requirements. Therefore, the transport and road administrations of Sweden, Norway and Finland initiated a project with the aim to establish a common Nordic method for classification of hydrophobic impregnations with regard to their capability to protect concrete from chloride ingress. The project was divided into three phases consisting on the analysis of existing test standards (national and international), a pre-study to evaluate the influence of different tests parameters and a round robin test involving three laboratories (one in each country). A thorough comparison of the existing methods and review of relevant literature made it possible to define which test parameters could be used in the formulation of the new method and which ones required further studies. It was found that the type of surface to be treated, the length of the preconditioning period, the length of the curing period and whether the surface to be impregnated should be soaked with Ca(OH)2-solution or not should be further investigated. The results of the pre-study showed that the application of the impregnation to form surfaces led to somewhat better chloride blocking effect. Despite this, it was decided to use sawn surfaces in the method, since it is much easier to obtain reproducible surface characteristics that way. The characteristics of a form surface depend on e.g. the form material, use of release agents, curing conditions. Saturation of the surface with calcium hydroxide solution before impregnation was found slightly beneficial on the chloride blocking effect compared to when such a treatment was omitted. However, since this did not contribute to the robustness of the test results, it increased the number of experimental steps and it is not representative of practice in real structures, it was decided not to incorporate such a treatment in the new method. The chloride protection slightly increases with the impregnation curing time. It was not clear which factor was most dominant; if the continuous polymerization of the hydrophobic impregnation or the continuous cement hydration. Since enough curing time is necessary for the treatment to be efficient, it was decided that the curing period before exposure to chlorides should be 28 days. With the primary objective of determining the reliability and reproducibility of the new method, a round robin exercise was carried out. Three laboratories were involved in this phase; CBI-Borås in Sweden, SINTEF in Norway and VTT in Finland. The results show that despite some differences in both materials and methods, such as the type of cement or preconditioning and curing environments, highly reproducible results were obtained. In addition, a detailed discussion on the influence of the details of the method on the chloride profiles and on the filter effect is presented. Within the round robin test, the relative humidity before and after impregnation and the dry condition of the powder samples were found to be the major parameters leading to the discrepancy of the results. In addition, handling of the wet concrete surfaces after exposure to chlorides and the time period (and temperature) between the end of the chloride exposure and powder sampling for chloride analysis were found to have surprisingly large effects on the form of the chloride profiles in the samples. Therefore, these parts of the procedures were made much more precise in the final method, in order to increase its reproducibility. The method can be briefly described as follows: Concrete specimens are prepared by sawing 100 mm cubes into two halves, three cubes per test series. The sawn surfaces are defined as exposure faces. Three halves are treated with the hydrophobic impregnation to be tested and the other three halves are kept as untreated references. The specimens are exposed submerged in 15% NaCl-solution for 56 days. After exposure, the chloride ingress is determined by profile grinding and the total amount of penetrated chlorides is calculated. The chloride blocking effect of the hydrophobic impregnations, expressed as the Filter Effect, FE, which is determined as 1 minus the ratio between the amount of penetrated chlorides in treated and in non-treated concrete specimens. The results obtained in both the pre-study and round robin exercise were compared to those obtained with the existing national methods in order to establish proper requirement levels with the new method. Despite the many differences between the methods, it was found that a filter effect of approximately 0.65 correlates well with the existing requirement in the Swedish method and in the Norwegian method. However, given limited data available and also considering data from field investigations, a level of 0.60 is proposed as appropriate for a really well performing hydrophobic impregnation. The method was accepted as a Nordtest method in December 2015 with the denomination NT Build 515.

  • 36.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Suchorzewski, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Gabrielsson, Ida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Kortversion av SVU-rapport 2022:5 ”Klimatförbättrad betong för dricksvattenanläggningar”2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This RISE report is a short version of SVU report 2022:5 “Klimatförbättrad betong för dricksvattenanläggningar” (Low carbon concrete for drinking water infrastructure). The purpose of the project was to clarify if the carbon footprint of concrete for drinking water infrastructure can be lowered by replacing Portland cement with supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) accepted for use in concrete without influencing the quality of the drinking water negatively with regard to trace substances and PAH. In addition to reviewing the literature, leaching tests and LCA analyses were conducted on thirteen concretes mixes with varying binder compositions. The results show that it is possible to replace up to 50 % of the cement with the SCMs, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), silica fume and fly ash. All this may be GGBS and up to 35 % fly ash may be used. This is valid under condition that a drinking water facility which in its entirety is new drinking goes through a tuning period of some days up to a week during which the water quality is monitored before water is delivered to clients. Leaching of some substances is somewhat increased and others are decreased by the replacement of the cement, however the changes are so small that the content in the drinking water in a real facility is only marginally influenced. Which type of binder to use should be decided based on other these materials influence on other concrete properties, for instance on the strength development. The decrease of the carbon footprint is roughly proportional to the cement replacement ratio.

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  • 37.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Parg, Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Ellison, Tommy
    BESAB, Sweden.
    Hydrofoberande medel i sprutbetong: Inverkan på egenskaper och beteendet vid sprutning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall goal with this project is to acquire more profound knowledge and experiences as regards the use of hydrophobic agents added to fresh concrete (hydrophobic admixtures) intended for sprayed concrete with low-alkali binders, with the purpose to enhance the durability and serviceability of the sprayed concrete. The results from this project contribute to increased understanding of the practical possibilities with and limitations for hydrophobic admixtures in sprayed concrete. Thus the need for costly field tests, with trial and error can be decreased.A large part of the project has been devoted to study the influence of the hydrophobic admixtures on the properties at an early stage, since these are decisive for the practical application. In addition the influence on strength development and bond have been determined. The hydrophobicity that these admixtures give the concrete has also been investigated. These tests have primarily been carried out on paste, mortar or concrete cast in a traditional way, not on sprayed concrete. Spraying tests have been carried out with one of the hydrophobic admixtures and a reference without admixture in order to study the behaviour at spraying. On samples from the sprayed concrete the bond, hydrophobicity and chloride intrusion have been determined.Two hydrophobic admixtures, Sitren P 750 (E) and Silres BS 1001 (W) have been used, both based on organosilicates. Admixture E consist of a modified siloxan which is attached to silica fume and admixture W is a water based emulsion of silan/siloxan. Most of the tests were carried out on a pure Portland cement (Degerhamns Anläggningscement from Cementa) and on a Portland-fly ash cement (Slite Anläggning FA from Cementa). Both cements are sulphate resistant and have low alkali content. Tests with and without accelerator have been carried out.When used without accelerator admixture W influenced the setting time and the heat development much more than admixture E. Admixture W had a clear retarding effect. It was though possible to compensate for this effect by adding an accelerator. The 28 day strength decreased when both admixtures were used, most with admixture W. But also in this case this effect was to some extent compensated by adding an accelerator. The accelerator did not have a decisive influence when admixture E was used. When the bond was determined on cast concrete admixture W gave higher and less deviating results than admixture E. The hydrophobicity in mixtures with the two admixtures was comparable.The spray test was carried out with admixture W and an accelerator. With the admixture less water was needed to give the same workability. The behaviour at spraying was as good as, or somewhat better, with the hydrophobic admixture compared to the mix without. The hydrophobic admixture did not influence the bond of the sprayed concrete. The water absorption of the sprayed concrete with the hydrophobic admixture was approximately 30 % lower than without, and the resistance to chloride intrusion was approximately 40 % higher.

  • 38.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Enerbäck, Oscar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Utvärderingsmetod för utbyggnad av elvägssträckor i Sverige : en delanalys i Genomförbarhetsstudie elväg E222022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation method for development of electric road system network in Sweden – an analysis within the Feasibility study E22-project

    This report is the result of the work package on Evaluation method within the project “Feasibility study of the electric road system pilot E22”. The original objective with the work package was to describe an evaluation method for the introduction of electric road systems. Important objectives for electric road system (ERS) projects and parameters for measuring goal achievement and, customer satisfaction was to be defined. The results are based on documentation from comparable infrastructure projects, workshops and interviews with stakeholders and project partners. The method was kept as originally outlined but instead of identifying objectives, which can depend on the actor that initiates/is the owner of the ERS, we have taken the existing framework and the processes for evaluation of large-scale infrastructure projects that is already established as the starting point. The existing processes and methods are described at the Swedish Transport Administrations websites for industry. The evaluation process is done according to established calculation and evaluation tools with corresponding manuals. The project has focused on identifying parameters that are unique to ERS or of specific importance for the outcome of an ERS project. Consideration was taken to the fact that ERS is a new technology and that there are knowledge gaps especially for the implementation and operational phases that needs to be filled. For these phases extra evaluations could give important feedback during the development of a larger ERS network. The study has not assumed a specific technology for implementation or for the transmission of electricity to the vehicles, i.e., neither overhead line nor road based. The results from this work package shows that there is an existing framework for evaluations that can be used, and many important parameters are already included in this framework. Some additions to the framework´s methods and tools of parameters specific for ERS needs to be done. Examples of parameters for which new evaluation tools need to be developed and included in the existing framework include: • profitability from a business perspective and in comparison, to other alternatives, • climate impact from a life cycle perspective that also includes the vehicle and fuels/energy used for propulsion and • the optimal level of the user fee from a socioeconomic perspective. How often follow-ups are made also needs to be adjusted in the existing framework. Follow-ups needs to be done more frequently and more parameters needs to be evaluated. There is also a need for a learning process and knowledge sharing framework to enable a fast enrollment of electric road systems in a cost-efficient way. Additional evaluations are also required for ERS since it is new technology that has not been implemented on a large scale. Examples of such parameters include operational and maintenance for ERS, accidents, noise, emissions of particulates, impact on plant and animal life, electromagnetic fields and electromagnetic compatibility. As a next step to develop the evaluation methods for the build-out of ERS we recommend to using the first permanent stretch being built between Örebro and Hallsberg to develop a learning process framework and a process for knowledge sharing of planning, procurement and building of ERS. At this first permanent stretch, parameters with uncertainty should also be evaluated. A direct continuation of this project would also be to connect the results from the work-packages on evaluation and upscaling to quantify uncertain parameters to better evaluate their real importance.

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  • 39.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ívar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Decision support for bridge condition assessment2017In: SMAR 2017 Proceedings, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the first steps of the development of a theoretical framework for a rational yet practical decision making process concerning the condition assessment of existing bridges in Sweden. The main focus is on how to choose the appropriate level of enhanced conditions assessment considering aspects of model sophistication, uncertainty consideration and knowledge content utilisation. A conceptual case study is presented exemplifying how the framework can be used to structure the assessment actions of a steel bridge subjected to fatigue deterioration.

  • 40.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lechner, Thomas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Köhler, Jochen
    NTNU, Norway.
    Rational maintenance of timber bridges2017In: Conference proceedings, ICTB 2017. 3rd International Conference on Timber Bridges / [ed] Gustafsson, Anders; Pousette, Anna; Hagman, Olle; Ekevad, Mats, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper provides some ideas about how decisions concerning maintenance of timber bridges should be made in a rational way. First, a brief discussion is provided concerning the evolution of maintenance strategies in general and it is suggested that maintenance of timber bridges should follow a risk-based approach. Then the discussion moves on to the condition assessment of timber bridges with a main focus on inspection and monitoring. The use of non-destructive testing methods and structural health monitoring is highlighted with regard to collecting useful information for maintenance decisions. It is argued that the information collected, should be used in a Bayesian decision analysis framework, which is especially useful in quantifying to value of information and thus the worth of various inspection and monitoring alternatives.

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  • 41.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ívar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Plos, Mario
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carneiro, Erica
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Lechner, Thomas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Jonas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Henrik
    Tyréns AB, Sweden.
    Inspection and monitoring of bridges in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview about recent research activities and current practice concerning inspection and monitoring of the structural performance of bridges and the related decision-making process. A brief review of common methods of collecting information on structural performance of bridges is presented, followed by a description of the use of the information collected in structural analysis and maintenance planning. An overview about the state of the art is given including recent scientific developments. Finally, the current Swedish practice for bridge management is presented.

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  • 42.
    Hörteborn, Axel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Allision modelling in IWRAP Mk II – A verification and sensitivity study: Chapter 82023In: Advances in the Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 9th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COLLISION AND GROUNDING OF SHIPS AND OFFSHORE STRUCTURES (ICCGS 2023), NANTES, FRANCE, 11-13 SEPTEMBER 2023, CRC Press, 2023, Vol. 12, p. 51-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment is important both while planning to build new infrastructure and for maintenance of existing structures. The probability of ship-structure allisions could be estimated with IWRAP Mk II, which is a commonly used software for estimating maritime risks. However, the research coverage of the software is limited with regards to groundings and allisions. The aim of this study is to verify how IWRAP Mk II estimates the accident probability. To perform this verification a separate tool is constructed, OMRAT, based on the same theory as IWRAP Mk II. The aim is also to highlight the sensitivity of different parameters in these types of models. It is concluded that IWRAP Mk II estimates the probability of allisions and groundings with the same equations. Another conclusion is that some parameters have a linear effect on the accident probabilities and other parameters are also influenced by the model layout.

  • 43.
    Ioannou, Ioanna
    et al.
    University College London, UK.
    Aspinall, Willy
    University College London, UK.
    Bouffier, Christian
    INERIS, France.
    Carreira, Elisabete
    INOV, Portugal.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Strukturer och Komponenter.
    Lange, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Melkunaite, Laura
    DBI, Denmark.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Rosetto, Tiziana
    University College London, UK.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Teixeira, Rui
    DAS Divisão de Águas e Saneamento, Portugal.
    IMPROVER D2.1 Methodology for identifying hazard scenarios to assess  the resilience of critical infrastructure2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructure is exposed to a wide range of hazards, capable to disrupt its operations in various degrees. This raises the question of which hazard scenario an operator shall use to assess the resilience of their critical infrastructure asset. Various techniques aiming to prioritize the various risks are commonly used in the literature. This study proposed an 8-step methodology, which aims to rank the risks of pre-defined hazard scenarios by eliciting the opinions of the stakeholders through a structured expert elicitation technique termed paired comparison. The novelty of the proposed technique is its ability to quantify the degree of disagreement regarding the ranking order of the scenarios and thus to capture the uncertainty associated with these risks.

     

    The proposed methodology has been applied to four living labs, namely: the Oresund region, the port of Oslo, the A31 Highway in France and the potable water network in Barreiro. The applications aims to rank scenarios of natural and operational hazards according to their disaster- and emergency-risk. Despite the small number of participants, the results provide an excellent basis for further discussion regarding the most likely disaster or emergency risk scenarios. For most living labs, the ranking of the hazards using paired comparison was successful in identifying the scenarios associated with the highest risk. Overall, ranking the natural hazards according to their disaster- or emergency-risk has been associated with a higher degree of consensus than the ranking of the operational hazards reflecting on the higher complexity and perhaps the limited understanding of the later.

     

    In more detail, snow storm is the hazard with the highest disaster risk for the A31 Highway. Similarly, earthquake is the hazard with the highest disaster risk for the water network in Barreiro. Three meteorological hazards ranked the highest for both the likelihood to occur and to cause disaster to the Øresund region. By contrast, the ranking of the hazards for the port of Oslo identified several scenarios with similar likelihood to cause disaster, which ranked very different in their likelihood to occur in the next 5 years. This raises question as to whether the most of least likely to occur scenarios is most suitable which can be answered in collaboration with the stakeholders.

     

    With regard to the operational hazards, the contamination of the water in the water source or the distribution network due to an accident at the high-risk industrial SEVECO operations has been identified as the single scenario with the highest risk of disaster for the water network in Barreiro. Three events including a multiple day strike and two accidents in the wet bulk terminal have been identified as having the highest disaster risk for the port of Oslo. By contrast, no operational hazards can be identified as having the highest risk of occurrence for the A31 highway and the Øresund region

    Download full text (pdf)
    IMPROVER D2.1
  • 44.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Genell, Anders
    VTI, Sweden.
    Val av vägbeläggning : Hur påverkas buller, partiklar (vägdamm) och rullmotstånd?2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pavement choice - effects on noise, road dust and rolling resistance.

    A literature review of environmental effects related to the choice of road pavement is presented here, starting from noise-reduced pavements, and with a focus on non-exhaust particles, as a great deal of research is being performed in the area of road dust. A simple description of pavements based on the Swedish Transport Administration's requirements introduces the description of the relationship between pavements and the three areas of noise, road dust and rolling resistance. The conclusions are that environmental aspects are important to address already when choosing the pavement. There is great potential to limit the negative environmental effects through pavement choices, especially if simpler connections can be made, e.g. using the ideas we present in this report. We recommend further research on functional relationships, especially in the particle domain where the relationships between pavement and emissions of non-exhaust particles is seldom quantified. The relationships between pavement and each of the parameters; noise; non-exhaust particles; and rolling resistance, need to be modelled to be able to understand the processes fully, preferably including friction. Road dust also creates a risk of reducing the acoustic life of porous pavements, i.e. a type of pavement reducing noise emissions. Including the resuspension of road dust in the emissions is of great importance to increase the possibilities of using pavement choices to limit road dust emissions. A first detailed description is published in this report.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Javadi, Hossein
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Urchueguía, Javier F.
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Badenes, Borja
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Mateo, Miguel Á.
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    Implenia Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Arun Chaudhari, Ojas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Zirgulis, Giedrius
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Lemus, Lenin G
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Laboratory and numerical study on innovative grouting materials applicable to borehole heat exchangers (BHE) and borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems2022In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 194, p. 788-804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a laboratory-scale prototype of a borehole field has been designed and built to assess various innovative grouting products in a fully controlled environment. Three novel grout formulations are developed and evaluated: enhanced grout, a mixture of enhanced grout and microencapsulated phase change material, and a mixture of enhanced grout and shape stabilized phase change material. The objective is to evaluate the enhancement in their thermal properties (i.e., thermal conductivity and thermal energy storage capacity) compared to those using a commercial reference grout. Besides, three-dimensional numerical modeling is performed to provide a better understanding of the heat transfer and phase transition inside and outside the grout columns and to study the capability of the developed grouts to be used in a borehole heat exchanger or as borehole thermal energy storage system. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there have been just a few numerical studies on using phase change materials inside borehole heat exchangers to assess thermal energy storage applications. The experimental and numerical results showed much higher efficiency of the grout developed with a high thermal conductivity than the reference grout in terms of heat transfer in both the grout column and the surrounding sand. Furthermore, the results indicated the noticeable influence of the microencapsulated phase change material's presence in the grout formulation in terms of heat absorption/storage during the phase transition (from solid to liquid). However, it is concluded that reengineering shape stabilized phase change material should be conducted to make it more appropriate for thermal energy storage applications.

  • 46.
    Joborn, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Wahlborg, Magnus
    Trafikverket, Sweden.
    KAJT Projektkatalog 2023-03-31: BRANSCHPROGRAMKAPACITET I JÄRNVÄGSTRAFIKEN2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanställning av aktuella projekt inom Branschprogram Kapacitet i järnvägstrafiken (KAJT).

  • 47.
    Jonasson, Hans G.
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Storeheier, Svein
    SINTEF.
    Nord 2000. New nordic prediction method for road traffic noise2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new Nordic method to predict road traffic noise is proposed. It is based on a complete

    separation of source emission and sound propagation. Each vehicle is modelled as a

    number of point sources each with a certain sound power with or without directivity. The

    source model is connected to point source sound propagation theory to yield the sound

    pressure level in an arbitrary receiver position. The propagation model is based on

    accurate analytical models and it is capable of predicting propagation effects both with

    and without the influence of meteorological parameters.

    Download full text (pdf)
    SP_rapport_2001_10
  • 48.
    Klingberg, Josefine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Dolk, Elin
    Kungsbacka Municipality, Sweden.
    KAVA Kartläggning av vattenanvändning2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    KAVA mapping of water use.

    There is limited data on how much drinking water is used for different purposes and how water use varies over time in relation to various factors such as temperature and precipitation. This lack of knowledge means that we don’t know where the water goes for example on hot days when usage increases significantly, which creates a load on raw water sources, drinking water treatment and/or drinking water distribution systems. This project has analyzed water consumption data from a total of seven participating water utilities to create an understanding of how consumers contribute to flow peaks. Data has been collected from water treatment plants, pumping stations and water meters from various consumer groups such as households and businesses together with weather data. The results show, among other things, that water use, in most cases, rises when the temperature (maximum daily temperature) rises, that villas with a pool have a higher water use than villas without a pool during the second quarter of the year. Results also shows that and that flow peaks occur when many people use a little more water than when a few people use a lot more water, and that flow peaks are driven by local conditions as they usually do not occur simultaneously for drinking water plants in different locations. As more water meters with stationary readings are replaced with digital water meters, new opportunities are created to analyze water usage data. The new data base also provides opportunities to inform and visualize water use for consumers and give them direct feedback when they change their behavior pattern. The most important experience that is highlighted regarding communication of sustainable water use is to stick to a predetermined communication plan and to convey a clear and well-thought-out why consumers should reduce their water use. We hope that this project will create a better understanding of how and when flow peaks occur and with that information water utilities can better avoid flow peaks, irrigation bans and events with depressurized distribution networks from occurring.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Resilient infrastructures for resilient communities2017In: Proceedingsof the 12th International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability: Safety,Reliability, Risk, Resilience and Sustainability of Structures andInfrastructure, 2017, p. 3155-3164Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Larsson, Krister
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Digital verktygslåda för god ljudmiljö i stationssamhällen2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Densification around railway stations and near infrastructure can lead to benefits from the climate and resource efficiency point of view. Living near infrastructure nodes can reduce car dependency and enable more sustainable travel. At the same time, noise from rail traffic causes annoyance and negative health effects for residents, and densification can therefore lead to an increase in the number of people exposed to noise, with increased social costs as a result.

    The purpose of the project is to facilitate the implementation of noise measures in the infrastructure at railway stations, thereby enabling climate smart and sustainable densification in public transport-related locations, as well as efficient use of resources at the source. The goal is to compile a digital toolbox with methodology and sample collection for demonstration of technical noise-reducing measures in railway infrastructure.

    The digital toolbox contains auralization of different track-close noise measures for different train types, which can be used as a complement to traditional noise predictions to create a more realistic experience of the sound environment. The auralizations are based on recordings of train passages in station-close locations, which have been corrected with calculated insertion losses for the various measures.

    In addition, the socio-economic costs of noise and the corresponding benefits for a noise measure are calculated using updated valuation models based on WHO's latest recommendations. The results are compared with the current official Swedish valuation model ASEK.

    The project uses co-creation to develop the tool where design and content are prioritized at a workshop together with the intended target group. The tool is openly available and an executable version for PC can be downloaded via https://sourceforge.net/projects/ljudmiljo-i-stationssamhallen/. The source code is openly accessible via https://github.com/larssonkrister/Stationsnara/.

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    fulltext
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