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  • 1.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Wikman, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Safe introduction of battery propulsion at sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric propulsion using batteries as energy storage has the potential to significantly reduce emissions from shipping and thus the environmental impact. The battery type that is currently on the top of the agenda to be used for ship propulsion applications is Li-ion batteries. Li-ion batteries pose different safety issues than e.g. other propulsion technologies and other batteries such as lead-acid batteries. It is essential that the safety level on board, including fire safety, is maintained, when introducing electric propulsion with energy storage in batteries. This report discusses the different regulations and guidelines available today for fire safety of batteries on board in relation to current knowledge about Li-ion batteries. Also fire safety measures available on board ships today and their applicability for Li-ion batteries is discussed, as well as the different test methods available and their applicability. A workshop gathering different stakeholders from Sweden, Norway and Finland identified fire safety as the main challenge for the introduction of battery propulsion at sea. The workshop concluded that future work is desired in order to increase knowledge and to develop publicly available strategies, training and designs.

  • 2.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Decision support framework for bridge condition assessments2019In: Structural Safety, ISSN 0167-4730, E-ISSN 1879-3355, Vol. 81, article id 101874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An essential aspect in the maintenance of existing bridges is the ability to adequately and accurately assess and evaluate the condition of the structure. Condition assessments, which can be carried out in any number of ways, provide valuable information concerning the actual state of a bridge, including the severity of potential damages, and form the basis for further maintenance decisions. Any decision support concerning the management of existing structures thus requires attention towards the uncertainties associated with the assessment methods when applied in practice as well as the maintenance actions these support. These uncertainties cannot be solely described as model uncertainties but are also a result of the variation in engineering performance observed in practice. In the current paper a rational and systematic framework is presented which provides practical decision support concerning whether condition assessments are necessary, what assessment methods are recommended, if invasive actions are needed, or if some other non-invasive option may be more appropriate. The framework takes into account three main attributes of an enhanced condition assessment, namely, modelling sophistication, considerations of uncertainties and risks, and knowledge/information content. Increasing the level of one or more of these attributes may be advantageous only if the expected benefits or added value of information is considered appropriate in relation to the cost of implementation in practice. A decision making model, based on Bayesian decision theory, is adopted to evaluate this problem. Two case studies, in which the framework is applied, are provided for illustrative purposes; the first is a generic numerical example and the second a decision scenario related to the fatigue assessment of an existing railway bridge.

  • 3.
    Blomfors, Mattias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Engineering Assessment Method for Anchorage in Corroded Reinforced Concrete2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 2109-2116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing need for reliable methods to assess load-carrying capacity and remaining service life of existing infrastructure. Several previous research projects have resulted in a verified, simple 1D model for assessment of anchorage in corroded reinforced concrete structures. Previous verification has involved both experiments and detailed 3D NLFE analyses. To further develop the 1D model it needs to be extended to comprise more practical situations. In order to facilitate an efficient extension procedure in the future, the size of 3D NLFE model that is required to capture the bond behaviour between corroded reinforcement and concrete is investigated. Beam-end models and models of sub-sections were studied, and the results in terms of bond stress and crack pattern were compared. Preliminary results indicate good agreement for some situations; however for some cases a section model seems to overestimate the capacity.

  • 4.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Meso Mechanical Study of Cracking Process in Concrete Subjected toTensile Loading2018In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 13-29Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project focused on how the cracking process in concrete is influenced by both the micro and meso structures of concrete. The aim was to increase knowledge pertaining to the effect of critical parameters on the cracking process and how this is related to the material's macroscopic properties. A methodology based on the combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scales was developed. Crack propagation during tensile loading of small-scale specimens in a tensile stage was monitored by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Acoustic Emission (AE). After testing, crack patterns were studied using fluorescence microscopy.

  • 5.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Methodology for Mesomechanical Study of Concrete Material2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This project focuses on detailed studies of how the cracking process in concrete is influenced by the concrete micro- and mesostructure. The aim is to increase knowledge of how critical parameters affect the cracking process and how this is related to the material's macroscopic properties. A methodology based on the combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scale levels has been developed. Crack propagation during tensile loading of small-scale specimens in a tensile stage was monitored by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Acoustic Emission (AE). After the test, crack patterns were studied using fluorescence microscopy.

  • 6.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    3D Analysis of Strains in Fibre Reinforced Concrete Using X-Ray Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In fibre reinforced concrete (FRC), understanding the underlying interaction mechanisms between discrete fibres and the surrounding concrete matrix can lead to the optimization of the fibre-matrix combination. This paper presents the initial development of a method enabling the analysis of this given interaction on ameso-mechanical level. The method is such that volume images are initially captured using X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) on small-scale FRC specimens under loading which are thereafter analysed to measure full 3D strainand deformation via Digital Volume Correlation (DVC). It is anticipated that the method developed in this project can be a useful tool for the developmentof new innovative and high performance FRC.

  • 7.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hall, Stephen
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Engqvist, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Analysis of Failure Modes in Fiber Reinforced Concrete Using X-rayTomography and Digital Volume Correlation2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pull-out mechanisms for different common steel fibers were investigatedusing adapted pull-out tests performed in-situ in an x-ray micro tomograph(µXRT). High-resolution volume images from the µXRT scans enable clearvisualization of aggregates, pores, the fiber and the fiber-matrix interface.Furthermore, the natural density speckle pattern from aggregate distributionand pores was found suitable for Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) analysis.From the DVC results it was possible to visualize and quantify the straindistribution in the matrix around the fiber at the different load levels up tofinal failure, being marked by either pull-out or fiber rupture. This studydemonstrates that strain measurements within the concrete matrix can beobtained successfully using µXRT imaging and DVC analysis, which leads to anincreased understanding of the interaction mechanisms in fibre reinforcedconcrete under mechanical loading.

  • 8.
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul Christian
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Long-term performance of MSWI Bottom ash in a test road construction2016In: International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2180-3242, Vol. 7, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on long-term performances of MSWI bottom ash used as a reinforcement layer in a 8 years old road-construction. Long term properties may change under the combined effects of loading, climate- and chemical conditions. Characterization of the chemical changes in aged MSWI bottom ash is thus of prime interest as secondary alteration is a key process for the ageing of these kind of materials. The MSWI bottom ash in this study comprises a 60 meter-long segment of a test road, which was sampled eight years after construction. The objective of the sampling was to obtain a very low degree of disturbance to the application’s in-situ properties. Access to the sub-base was achieved by removing the surface course and unbound base course, leaving the top surface of the unbound sub-base reachable.  Epoxy impregnated slabs were also used for a micro textural and chemical characterization by SEM/EDS of the bottom ash sub-base layer. No cracks that imply movements or rotation of particles in the road construction or other disturbances as due to the sampling process were found. This undisturbed material made it possible to study chemical processes and structural changes that have been ongoing in the test road since it was constructed. The SEM/EDS analysis showed that most particles had reacted to some extent and that reaction-products surrounding aluminum particles were undisturbed. Partly decomposed particles indicate that the reaction (that has been ongoing since the road was constructed) has been slow and incomplete because of the coexistence of metallic aluminum and aluminum hydroxide. It also shows that the material not has been subjected to any physical influence during these 8 years that otherwise would have moved the reaction products from the particles that originally have reacted. Clay mineralization that indicates long-term ageing of the ash material was also detected by XRPD. The pH of the material was lower than 8.5, indicating a mature degree of carbonization. It is also concluded from the study that chemical reactions consistent with this maturity have been taking place in the road construction as indicated by textural relationships.

  • 9.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. RISE.
    Hacker, Florian
    Öko-Institut e.V., Germany.
    Helms, Hinrich
    Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg, Germany.
    Overview of ERS concepts and complementary technologies2019Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Salt-frostprovning av betong med slagg och flygaska2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the project has been to develop the salt-freeze-thaw method (the slab method in CEN TS/12390-9 and method A in SS 137244) further so that the results reflect what is taking place in the long run during real conditions in Swedish climate in concrete with binders containing slag and fly ash and thereby can be used to in initial tests in order to predict the salt-frost resistance of such concretes. By doing this basic knowledge about the salt-frost resistance of concretes containing slag a fly ash has been assembled.Since several studies have shown that the salt-frost resistance of slag concrete in particular is affected by carbonation, the influence of carbonation was studied. Concrete with slag and fly ash has a slower strength development at the early stages and the influence of this fact has also been included in the investigation.In the project 14 different concretes with varying binder compositions and the water-to-binder ratio 0.45 have been subjected to the standardized salt-frost scaling method and 5 variations of the method, where the age at sawing, the length of the conditioning period in 65 % RH and the carbon dioxide conditions have been varied. The tests have been accompanied by determination of strength development, air pore structure, weight gain during wetting and the first 28 frost cycles, inner degradation and analysis of the surface by XRD and microscopy. With some binder combinations mortar specimens have been prepared and on these sorption isotherms have been determined and TG-analysis and low temperature calorimetry tests have been carried out. Specimens for field exposure at the site adjacent to the main road 40 has also been prepared and placed. Within the project time only measurements after one winter season has been performed.The conclusion regarding the applicability of the existing test method is that for compositions with maximum 20 % slag or fly ash the method works well without adjustments. For compositions with higher amounts of slag or fly ash the conditioning should be completed with about one week exposure to 1 % CO2, in order to take into account the increased scaling due to carbonation. As regards the use on concretes with considerably slower strength development than normal the age of the specimens at the start of the salt-frost cycling can be increased to up to 90 days in order to reflect the performance in the long run. It should then also be ascertained that the concrete in question in a real case is not exposed to salt-frost attack at a lower maturity than what this represents.When it comes to the requirements on binder compositions for exposure class XF4, it is shown that the requirements which exist in SS 137003:2015 are fully adequate. Maximum 20 % slag or fly ash can be used without influencing the salt-frost resistance more than marginally at a water-to-binder ratio =0,45. Using 35 % fly ash or 65 % slag results in very large scaling. Using 35 % slag gives is ambiguous results, but may perhaps be acceptable if the maximum water-to-binder ratio in that case is decreased to 0,40.

  • 11.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Silva, Nelson
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Eva, Rodum
    Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Norway.
    Torkkeli, Minna
    Finnish Transport Agency, Finland.
    Hejll, Arvid
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    A Nordic method for testing hydrophobic impregnations with regard to prevention of chloride ingress2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chloride induced corrosion of the reinforcement is the major cause of degradation of reinforced concrete structures. In particular in the Nordic countries, the use of de-icing salts during winter, leads to severe degradation of edge beams in road bridges. Thus, in order to extend the service life and decrease maintenance costs, hydrophobic impregnations are commonly used to prevent or slow down chloride ingress into concrete. There is a harmonised European standard for hydrophobic impregnations, EN 1504-2 [1], but the property “diffusion of chloride ions” is “subject to national standards and regulations”. The transport and road administrations of Sweden, Norway and Finland use different national methods to evaluate the performance of this type of products meaning that the same CEmarked product needs to meet different requirements. Therefore, the transport and road administrations of Sweden, Norway and Finland initiated a project with the aim to establish a common Nordic method for classification of hydrophobic impregnations with regard to their capability to protect concrete from chloride ingress. The project was divided into three phases consisting on the analysis of existing test standards (national and international), a pre-study to evaluate the influence of different tests parameters and a round robin test involving three laboratories (one in each country). A thorough comparison of the existing methods and review of relevant literature made it possible to define which test parameters could be used in the formulation of the new method and which ones required further studies. It was found that the type of surface to be treated, the length of the preconditioning period, the length of the curing period and whether the surface to be impregnated should be soaked with Ca(OH)2-solution or not should be further investigated. The results of the pre-study showed that the application of the impregnation to form surfaces led to somewhat better chloride blocking effect. Despite this, it was decided to use sawn surfaces in the method, since it is much easier to obtain reproducible surface characteristics that way. The characteristics of a form surface depend on e.g. the form material, use of release agents, curing conditions. Saturation of the surface with calcium hydroxide solution before impregnation was found slightly beneficial on the chloride blocking effect compared to when such a treatment was omitted. However, since this did not contribute to the robustness of the test results, it increased the number of experimental steps and it is not representative of practice in real structures, it was decided not to incorporate such a treatment in the new method. The chloride protection slightly increases with the impregnation curing time. It was not clear which factor was most dominant; if the continuous polymerization of the hydrophobic impregnation or the continuous cement hydration. Since enough curing time is necessary for the treatment to be efficient, it was decided that the curing period before exposure to chlorides should be 28 days. With the primary objective of determining the reliability and reproducibility of the new method, a round robin exercise was carried out. Three laboratories were involved in this phase; CBI-Borås in Sweden, SINTEF in Norway and VTT in Finland. The results show that despite some differences in both materials and methods, such as the type of cement or preconditioning and curing environments, highly reproducible results were obtained. In addition, a detailed discussion on the influence of the details of the method on the chloride profiles and on the filter effect is presented. Within the round robin test, the relative humidity before and after impregnation and the dry condition of the powder samples were found to be the major parameters leading to the discrepancy of the results. In addition, handling of the wet concrete surfaces after exposure to chlorides and the time period (and temperature) between the end of the chloride exposure and powder sampling for chloride analysis were found to have surprisingly large effects on the form of the chloride profiles in the samples. Therefore, these parts of the procedures were made much more precise in the final method, in order to increase its reproducibility. The method can be briefly described as follows: Concrete specimens are prepared by sawing 100 mm cubes into two halves, three cubes per test series. The sawn surfaces are defined as exposure faces. Three halves are treated with the hydrophobic impregnation to be tested and the other three halves are kept as untreated references. The specimens are exposed submerged in 15% NaCl-solution for 56 days. After exposure, the chloride ingress is determined by profile grinding and the total amount of penetrated chlorides is calculated. The chloride blocking effect of the hydrophobic impregnations, expressed as the Filter Effect, FE, which is determined as 1 minus the ratio between the amount of penetrated chlorides in treated and in non-treated concrete specimens. The results obtained in both the pre-study and round robin exercise were compared to those obtained with the existing national methods in order to establish proper requirement levels with the new method. Despite the many differences between the methods, it was found that a filter effect of approximately 0.65 correlates well with the existing requirement in the Swedish method and in the Norwegian method. However, given limited data available and also considering data from field investigations, a level of 0.60 is proposed as appropriate for a really well performing hydrophobic impregnation. The method was accepted as a Nordtest method in December 2015 with the denomination NT Build 515.

  • 12.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Parg, Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Ellison, Tommy
    BESAB, Sweden.
    Hydrofoberande medel i sprutbetong: Inverkan på egenskaper och beteendet vid sprutning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall goal with this project is to acquire more profound knowledge and experiences as regards the use of hydrophobic agents added to fresh concrete (hydrophobic admixtures) intended for sprayed concrete with low-alkali binders, with the purpose to enhance the durability and serviceability of the sprayed concrete. The results from this project contribute to increased understanding of the practical possibilities with and limitations for hydrophobic admixtures in sprayed concrete. Thus the need for costly field tests, with trial and error can be decreased.A large part of the project has been devoted to study the influence of the hydrophobic admixtures on the properties at an early stage, since these are decisive for the practical application. In addition the influence on strength development and bond have been determined. The hydrophobicity that these admixtures give the concrete has also been investigated. These tests have primarily been carried out on paste, mortar or concrete cast in a traditional way, not on sprayed concrete. Spraying tests have been carried out with one of the hydrophobic admixtures and a reference without admixture in order to study the behaviour at spraying. On samples from the sprayed concrete the bond, hydrophobicity and chloride intrusion have been determined.Two hydrophobic admixtures, Sitren P 750 (E) and Silres BS 1001 (W) have been used, both based on organosilicates. Admixture E consist of a modified siloxan which is attached to silica fume and admixture W is a water based emulsion of silan/siloxan. Most of the tests were carried out on a pure Portland cement (Degerhamns Anläggningscement from Cementa) and on a Portland-fly ash cement (Slite Anläggning FA from Cementa). Both cements are sulphate resistant and have low alkali content. Tests with and without accelerator have been carried out.When used without accelerator admixture W influenced the setting time and the heat development much more than admixture E. Admixture W had a clear retarding effect. It was though possible to compensate for this effect by adding an accelerator. The 28 day strength decreased when both admixtures were used, most with admixture W. But also in this case this effect was to some extent compensated by adding an accelerator. The accelerator did not have a decisive influence when admixture E was used. When the bond was determined on cast concrete admixture W gave higher and less deviating results than admixture E. The hydrophobicity in mixtures with the two admixtures was comparable.The spray test was carried out with admixture W and an accelerator. With the admixture less water was needed to give the same workability. The behaviour at spraying was as good as, or somewhat better, with the hydrophobic admixture compared to the mix without. The hydrophobic admixture did not influence the bond of the sprayed concrete. The water absorption of the sprayed concrete with the hydrophobic admixture was approximately 30 % lower than without, and the resistance to chloride intrusion was approximately 40 % higher.

  • 13.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ívar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Decision support for bridge condition assessment2017In: SMAR 2017 Proceedings, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the first steps of the development of a theoretical framework for a rational yet practical decision making process concerning the condition assessment of existing bridges in Sweden. The main focus is on how to choose the appropriate level of enhanced conditions assessment considering aspects of model sophistication, uncertainty consideration and knowledge content utilisation. A conceptual case study is presented exemplifying how the framework can be used to structure the assessment actions of a steel bridge subjected to fatigue deterioration.

  • 14.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lechner, Thomas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Köhler, Jochen
    NTNU, Norway.
    Rational maintenance of timber bridges2017In: Conference proceedings, ICTB 2017. 3rd International Conference on Timber Bridges / [ed] Gustafsson, Anders; Pousette, Anna; Hagman, Olle; Ekevad, Mats, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper provides some ideas about how decisions concerning maintenance of timber bridges should be made in a rational way. First, a brief discussion is provided concerning the evolution of maintenance strategies in general and it is suggested that maintenance of timber bridges should follow a risk-based approach. Then the discussion moves on to the condition assessment of timber bridges with a main focus on inspection and monitoring. The use of non-destructive testing methods and structural health monitoring is highlighted with regard to collecting useful information for maintenance decisions. It is argued that the information collected, should be used in a Bayesian decision analysis framework, which is especially useful in quantifying to value of information and thus the worth of various inspection and monitoring alternatives.

  • 15.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ívar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Plos, Mario
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carneiro, Erica
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Lechner, Thomas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Jonas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Henrik
    Tyréns AB, Sweden.
    Inspection and monitoring of bridges in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview about recent research activities and current practice concerning inspection and monitoring of the structural performance of bridges and the related decision-making process. A brief review of common methods of collecting information on structural performance of bridges is presented, followed by a description of the use of the information collected in structural analysis and maintenance planning. An overview about the state of the art is given including recent scientific developments. Finally, the current Swedish practice for bridge management is presented.

  • 16.
    Ioannou, Ioanna
    et al.
    University College London, UK.
    Aspinall, Willy
    University College London, UK.
    Bouffier, Christian
    INERIS, France.
    Carreira, Elisabete
    INOV, Portugal.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Strukturer och Komponenter.
    Lange, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Melkunaite, Laura
    DBI, Denmark.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Rosetto, Tiziana
    University College London, UK.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Teixeira, Rui
    DAS Divisão de Águas e Saneamento, Portugal.
    IMPROVER D2.1 Methodology for identifying hazard scenarios to assess  the resilience of critical infrastructure2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructure is exposed to a wide range of hazards, capable to disrupt its operations in various degrees. This raises the question of which hazard scenario an operator shall use to assess the resilience of their critical infrastructure asset. Various techniques aiming to prioritize the various risks are commonly used in the literature. This study proposed an 8-step methodology, which aims to rank the risks of pre-defined hazard scenarios by eliciting the opinions of the stakeholders through a structured expert elicitation technique termed paired comparison. The novelty of the proposed technique is its ability to quantify the degree of disagreement regarding the ranking order of the scenarios and thus to capture the uncertainty associated with these risks.

     

    The proposed methodology has been applied to four living labs, namely: the Oresund region, the port of Oslo, the A31 Highway in France and the potable water network in Barreiro. The applications aims to rank scenarios of natural and operational hazards according to their disaster- and emergency-risk. Despite the small number of participants, the results provide an excellent basis for further discussion regarding the most likely disaster or emergency risk scenarios. For most living labs, the ranking of the hazards using paired comparison was successful in identifying the scenarios associated with the highest risk. Overall, ranking the natural hazards according to their disaster- or emergency-risk has been associated with a higher degree of consensus than the ranking of the operational hazards reflecting on the higher complexity and perhaps the limited understanding of the later.

     

    In more detail, snow storm is the hazard with the highest disaster risk for the A31 Highway. Similarly, earthquake is the hazard with the highest disaster risk for the water network in Barreiro. Three meteorological hazards ranked the highest for both the likelihood to occur and to cause disaster to the Øresund region. By contrast, the ranking of the hazards for the port of Oslo identified several scenarios with similar likelihood to cause disaster, which ranked very different in their likelihood to occur in the next 5 years. This raises question as to whether the most of least likely to occur scenarios is most suitable which can be answered in collaboration with the stakeholders.

     

    With regard to the operational hazards, the contamination of the water in the water source or the distribution network due to an accident at the high-risk industrial SEVECO operations has been identified as the single scenario with the highest risk of disaster for the water network in Barreiro. Three events including a multiple day strike and two accidents in the wet bulk terminal have been identified as having the highest disaster risk for the port of Oslo. By contrast, no operational hazards can be identified as having the highest risk of occurrence for the A31 highway and the Øresund region

  • 17.
    Jacobsson, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Betongskador i vattenverk2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report is intended to be a brief introduction to concrete damages that may be found in water plants. Typical concrete damages are presented along the water treatment process in a water plant.Most water plants suffer from similar concrete damages. On the wetter side of a concrete structure the most common damages are surface erosion and leaching, while on the dry side, it is more common with reinforcement corrosion, surface cracking and leakage. The most common damages within concrete structures are mineral expansion and different kinds off corrosion. All damages may evaluate into sever problems. Therefore, is it important to make frequent controls of concrete structures in water plants.

  • 18.
    Jonasson, Hans G.
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Storeheier, Svein
    SINTEF.
    Nord 2000. New nordic prediction method for road traffic noise2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new Nordic method to predict road traffic noise is proposed. It is based on a complete

    separation of source emission and sound propagation. Each vehicle is modelled as a

    number of point sources each with a certain sound power with or without directivity. The

    source model is connected to point source sound propagation theory to yield the sound

    pressure level in an arbitrary receiver position. The propagation model is based on

    accurate analytical models and it is capable of predicting propagation effects both with

    and without the influence of meteorological parameters.

  • 19.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Resilient infrastructures for resilient communities2017In: Proceedingsof the 12th International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability: Safety,Reliability, Risk, Resilience and Sustainability of Structures andInfrastructure, 2017, p. 3155-3164Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Leander, John
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Björnsson, Ívar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Risk-based planning of assessment actions for fatigue life prediction2017In: procedia structural integrity, Vol. 5, p. 1221-1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is vital to extend the service life of existing bridges as far as possible as a means for improved sustainability leading to reduced economic cost and resource consumption. This requirement is especially valid for bridges which are critical components of highly vulnerable infrastructure systems. Achieving this aim requires enhanced methods involving various actions and methods influencing different aspects of the assessment process. A framework is presented in this paper based on three common factors used to describe the assessment actions of existing bridges; (i) model sophistication, (ii) uncertainty consideration, and (iii) knowledge content. The framework elucidates the influence of different decisions on the assessment process and facilitates the planning of appropriate assessment actions. Furthermore, it provides a basic scheme for a risk-based decision analysis for determining suitable assessment actions or activities. A fatigue assessment of an existing bridge detail is used to demonstrate the application of the framework in practical cases.

  • 21. Li, Ying Zhen
    Study of fire and explosion hazards of alternative fuel vehicles in tunnels2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of fire and explosion hazards of different types of alternativefuel vehicles in tunnels is presented. The different fuels are divided into four types:liquid fuels, liquefied fuels, compressed gases, and electricity, and detailed parameters are obtained. Three types offire hazards for the alternativefuel vehicles: pool fires, jet fires and fireballs are identified andinvestigated in detail. Fromthe perspective of pool fire size, the liquid fuels pose equivalent or evenmuch lower fire hazards compared to the traditionally used fuels, but theliquefied fuels may pose higher hazards. For pressurized tanks, the fires are generally much larger in size butshorter in duration. The gas releases from pressure relief devices and the resulting jet firesare highly transient. Forhydrogen vehicles, the fire sizes are significantly higher compared to CNGtanks, while flame lengths only slighter longer. Investigation of the peakoverpressure in case of an explosion in a tunnel was also carried out. Theresults showed that, for the vehicles investigated, the peak overpressure of tankrupture and BLEVE are mostly in a range of 0.1 to 0.36 bar at 50 m away. Thesituations in case of cloud explosion are mostly much more severe andintolerable. These hazards need to be carefully considered in both vehiclesafety design and tunnel fire safety design. Further researches on thesehazards are in urgent need.

  • 22.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Analysis of Muskö tunnel fire flows with automatic sprinkler activation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of the present study is analyzing the best position of a sprinkler nozzle in a tunnel cross-section in the Muskö tunnel, south of Stockholm, Sweden. Activation of the sprinklers installed along the centerline and along the sidewall is investigated through analysis of full scale experiments and by three dimensional numerical modelling. Then the tunnel velocity is analyzed by one dimensional numerical modelling for various fire locations in the Muskö tunnel. For both activating the automatic sprinklers nearby the fire and avoiding activation of the sprinklers further downstream, the automatic sprinklers are recommended to be installed along the centerline of the tunnel. It has also been found that the tunnel velocity varies significantly with the fire location. When the fire is on the left side of the tunnel, the flow velocity mostly remains in a range of 1 m/s (positive or negative) within the first 10 minutes, which helps early activation of the automatic sprinklers. When the fire is on the right side of the tunnel, the flow velocity mostly remains within a range of -1 m/s and 1 m/s within the first 5 minutes, and the velocity mostly increases to 2 m/s at around 10 min. Therefore, the scenario for fire located on the left side is better than that for fire on the right side, especially when it is located between the middle of the right section and the right portal. As one typical case with fire on the right side, the tunnel velocity maintains at 1 m/s for the first 5 min and gradually increases to 2 m/s at 10 min. Under such conditions, the automatic sprinkler system is expected to perform well. 

  • 23.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    New models for calculating maximum gas temperatures in large tunnel fires2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this report focuses on estimating maximum gas temperatures at ceiling level during large tunnel fires. Gas temperature is an important parameter to consider when designing the fire resistance of a tunnel structure. Earlier work by the authors has established correlations between excess ceiling gas temperature and effective tunnel height, ventilation rate, and heat release rate. The maximum possible excess gas temperature was set as 1350°C, independent of the tunnel structure and local combustion conditions. As a result of this research, two models have been developed to better estimate possible excess maximum gas temperatures for large tunnel fires in tunnels with differing lining materials and structure types (e.g. rock, concrete). These have been validated using both model- and full-scale tests. Comparisons of predicted and measured temperatures show that both models correlate well with the test data. However, Model I is better and more optimal, due to the fact that it is more conservative and easier to use. The fire duration and flame volume are found to be related to gas temperature development. In reality, the models could also be used to estimate temperatures in a fully developed compartment fire.

  • 24.
    Lindgren, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Amanuel, Mahdere
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    ITS-solutions for the identification of dangerous goods and non-moving vehicles research within the Stockholm Bypass project2014In: The 6th International symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS), 2014, p. 613-620Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Lundgren, Monica
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Babaahmadi, Arezou
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    State-of-the-Art Report on: Material Type, Requirements and Durability aspects of Sprayed Concrete in Tunnels2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report summarizes a state-of-the-art for sprayed concrete applied for ground support in tunnel environments, in Sweden and several European countries, with focus on the components, the mix design and the guidelines and specifications. It focuses also on the addition of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), where the use, the common practice and the long-term experience vary from country to country. The report presents numerous examples of applications in Sweden and seven other European countries. It also gives an overview about the possible exposure risks and summarizes the relevant durability issues. Along with specifications in international standards and guidelines it also reviews the national requirements in Sweden, Norway, Finland, Austria, France, Germany and Switzerland.

  • 26.
    Mathern, Alexandre
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; NCC Infrastructure, Sweden.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Ingemar
    Thomas Concrete Group, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Jonas
    NCC Infrastructure, Sweden.
    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF TIME-DEPENDENTPROPERTIES OF A LOW-PH CONCRETE FOR DEPOSITIONTUNNELS2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company developed a method for the final disposal of canisters for spent nuclear fuel in tunnels at depths of about 500 meters. The concept for closure of the deposition tunnels is based on a bentonite seal supported by a spherical concrete dome structure. In order to fulfil the requirements specific to the repository concept, a special mix of lowpH self-compacting concrete was developed. A series of large-scale castings and laboratory tests were conducted to gain experience on this low-pH concrete mix, in conjunction with the full-scale demonstration test of an unreinforced concrete dome plug in the underground hard rock laboratory in Äspö, Sweden. The laboratory tests aimed at studying the creep properties under high sustained compressive stresses of the low-pH concrete mix, its shrinkage properties and the properties of the rock-concrete interface. This paper provides an overview of these tests and analyses the latest results of the recently completed creep tests, which include 6 years of measurements. These results allow to improve understanding of the structural behaviour of the concrete plug and to assess the effects of the very high pressure acting on the plug on its deformations, cracking and water tightness.

  • 27.
    Melkunaite, Laura
    dbi dansk brand- og sikringsteknisk institut, Denmark.
    Baker, Greg (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Cadete, Goncalo (Contributor)
    INOV.
    Carreira, Elisabete (Contributor)
    INOV.
    Gaspar, Carlos (Contributor)
    INOV.
    Gattinesi, Peter
    JRC, Italy.
    Guay, Fanny (Contributor)
    dbi dansk brand- og sikringsteknisk institut, Denmark.
    Honfi, Daniel (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Ioannou, Ioanna (Contributor)
    University College London, UK.
    Kinscher, J (Contributor)
    INERIS, Spain.
    Lange, David (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Petersen, Laura (Contributor)
    EMSC.
    Reilly, Paul (Contributor)
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    RØD, Bjarte (Contributor)
    Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Salmon, Romuald (Contributor)
    INERIS, Spain.
    Stevensen, Rebecca (Contributor)
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Theocharidou, Marianthi (Contributor)
    JRC, Italy.
    Utkin, Andrei (Contributor)
    INOV.
    IMPROVER Deliverable 1.1 International Survey2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the concept of resilience started to dominate strategic, operational as well as political domains of modern societies. Living in highly interconnected environment, where layers of infrastructures, people and economic interests interact creating both opportunities and vulnerabilities, different countries around the world turned towards resilience practices to reduce vulnerability of their critical infrastructures and societies. However, how can one implement resilience concepts without a comprehensive understanding of the concept itself? Focusing on the concept and practice of critical infrastructure resilience, this report provides a comprehensive overview of the existing scientific literature regarding the concept of resilience in general. It discusses the development of the concept of resilience and its application in societal, economic, ecological, organisational and critical infrastructure domains. The report provides an extensive discussion on the definition of resilience concepts, as well as information on scientific endeavours to implement and measure concepts of resilience.

     

    The report also contains detailed information on the definitions and implementation of the concepts of resilience in different continents, namely Europe, Africa, Asia, Oceania, North America and South America. Focusing on the concept of critical infrastructure resilience, it provides an overview of the existing official concepts of resilience, implementation tools, and general practices aimed at increasing organisational, societal, economic and technical resilience in different countries.

     

    To collect all the information, the IMPROVER consortium performed an extensive literature review on the use of resilience concepts. We also held a workshop with the associate partners, and conducted a set of personal interviews with critical infrastructure operators and resilience experts around the Europe. While conducting a number of case studies in different continents, we analysed existing region and state-level documents, and reports.

  • 28. Petra, Steen
    et al.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Erik, Dölerud
    Modvion, Sweden.
    Otto, Lundman
    Modvion, Sweden.
    Structural design methods for tall timber towers with large wind turbine2019In: International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics – from Material Properties to Timber Structures. ECCOMAS Thematic Conference, June 17-19, 2019, Växjö, Sweden, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Plos, Mario
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shu, Jiangpeng
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    A multi-level structural assessment strategy for analysis of RC bridge deck slabs2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 1559-1566Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-level structural assessment strategy for evaluation of response and load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete bridges deck slabs are presented [1]. The strategy is based on the principle of successively improved analysis methods in structural assessment. It provides a structured approach to the use of simplified as well as advanced non-linear finite element analysis methods. The proposed methods were used for analysis of previously tested slabs subjected to bending and shear type of failures. As expected, the advanced methods gave an improved understanding of the structural response and were capable of demonstrating higher, yet conservative, predictions of the load-carrying capacity. The proposed strategy clearly provides the engineering community a framework for using successively improved structural analysis methods for enhanced assessment in a straightforward manner.

  • 30.
    Plos, Mario
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shu, Jiangpeng
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A multi-level structural assessment strategy for reinforced concrete bridge deck slabs2017In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 223-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a multi-level assessment strategy for reinforced concrete bridge deck slabs. The strategy is based on the principle of successively improved evaluation in structural assessment. It provides a structured approach to the use of simplified as well as advanced non-linear analysis methods. Such advanced methods have proven to possess great possibilities of achieving better understanding of the structural response and of revealing higher load-carrying capacity of existing structures. The proposed methods were used for the analysis of previously tested two-way slabs subjected to bending failure and a cantilever slab subjected to a shear type of failure, in both cases loaded with concentrated loads. As expected, the results show that more advanced methods yield an improved understanding of the structural response and are capable of demonstrating higher, yet conservative, predictions of the load-carrying capacity. Nevertheless, the proposed strategy clearly provides the engineering community a framework for using successively improved structural analysis methods for enhanced assessment in a straightforward manner.

  • 31.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Jacobsson, Peter
    Martinsons Group, Sweden.
    Johansson, Erik
    Moelven Töreboda AB, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Olof
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Warg, Christine
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Improved edge design for stress-laminated decks made of spruce2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress-laminated bridge decks in Sweden are usually made of glulam beams of spruce and it is therefore crucial to avoid moisture as the wood has no impregnation that can protect it from decay. Typically the protection of the deck consists of a waterproof bitumen sheet under the asphalt layers on the top surface and of claddings along the edges. The aim of this work was to study the risk of damages and how to ensure the function of the deck plates. The adhesion of bitumen sheets and the effect of different primers was studied. The design at the edges was studied and an improved solution with a steel angle along the deck edge was developed and tested. The improved design should be robust and easy to install to always assure a correct performance. The new design has been developed within the European research project DuraTB - Durable Timber Bridges and is now included in general recommendations for timber bridges in Sweden.

  • 32.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Malo, Kjell Arne
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Thelandersson, Sven
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fortino, Stefania
    VTT, Finland.
    Salokangas, Lauri
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Wacker, James
    USDA, USA.
    Durable Timber Bridges - Final Report and Guidelines2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the final report from the project DuraTB - Durable Timber Bridges. The goal of the project was to contribute to the development of sustainable timber bridges by making guidelines for moisture design and developing new and improved bridge concepts and details in terms of durability and maintenance aspects.

    In this report the analyzes, surveys, results and guidelines are described. More detailed descriptions are referred to the many publications that the project has delivered.

    The research leading to these results has received funding from the WoddWisdom-Net Research Programme which is a transnational R&D programme jointly funded by national funding organisations within the framework of the ERA-NET WoodWisdom-Net 2.

  • 33.
    Ramberg, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    LIGHTer for Swedish competitiveness2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Rød, Bjarte
    University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway.
    Pursiainen, Christer
    University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway.
    Mira da Silva, Miguel
    INOV.
    Lange, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Petersen, Laura
    EMSC.
    Melkunaite, Laura
    DBI.
    Bouffier, Christian
    INERIS.
    IMPROVER D2.3 Evaluation of resilience concepts applied to criticalinfrastructure using existing methodologies2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current Deliverable of the IMPROVER H2020 project is the third and last in the project’s Work Package 2. While it draws heavily on previous work and deliverables, it shows the direction for the following workpackages, helping in their task to develop an approach for critical infrastructure (CI) resilience assessment which is applicable across Europe and to different infrastructure sectors as well as being compatible with the EU Risk Assessment guidelines.

     

    The current report combines the work done most notably in Task 2.4 and Task 2.5 as defined in the project’s work plan. These tasks aim to evaluate the contribution of individual resilience concepts to the resilience of critical infrastructure and to compare a number of existing methodologies for implementation of resilience concepts to critical infrastructure.

     

    In short, a set of existing, relevant, resilience analysis or assessment approaches were identified that. Based on well-defined criteria, three of the approaches were selected for more detailed comparison. In Chapter 1, these three approaches are concisely presented and reviewed. In Chapter 2, a set of several individual indicators that are widely used in resilience analysis are selected to be used as ‘test’ indicators to discuss their use vis-à-vis the selected three approaches. Chapter 3 presents four fictional scenarios, based on the projects living labs and representing different sectors of critical infrastructure in different countries. In Chapter 4, the use of the selected set of indicators is illustrated both vis-à-vis the three selected approaches and the four scenarios. Chapter 5 goes deeper in this discussion, and demonstrates how each of the approaches could be used against the four scenarios. Finally, in Chapter 6 the three critical infrastructure resilience analysis or assessment approaches are evaluated and their relative performance compared, identifying their pros and cons based on the author’s experiences from using the methodologies for the illustrations and demonstration. A more detailed, qualitative, comparison of the functioning of the three methodologies against the chosen criteria is also given.

     

    The feedback from illustrations and demonstrations of the three selected methodologies shows that all approaches have pros and cons. Moreover, there seems not to be any strict objective way to evaluate the approaches, but much depends on what one wants to do with a resilience analysis or assessment approach, and how much one is ready put effort and time to it, and who is doing it.

     

    These notions lead to the conclusion that, first, in the subsequent phases the IMPROVER project should aim at combining – in so far it is possible and commensurable – the identified/perceived pros while avoiding the identified/perceived cons. Second, the IMPROVER project should aim at developing a CI resilience assessment approach which can utilise the strengths of the analysis methods shown taking into account the idiosyncrasies of different type of CI and its operators. Such an assessment approach should take the form of a framework that combines a resilience analysis and a resilience evaluation methodology and is compatible with the EU Risk Assessment Guidelines.

  • 35.
    Sederholm, Bror
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB, Corrosion protection of building structures.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB, Corrosion protection of building structures.
    Boubitsas, Dimitrios
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Luping, Tang
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ny provningsmetodik för bestämning av bindemedlets korrosionsskyddande förmåga i betong2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport omfattar slutrapporteringen av forskningsprojektet - Ny provningsmetodik för bedömning av bindemedlets korrosionsskyddande förmåga i betong – Underlag till LCA och livslängdsbedömning. I rapporten redovisas resultat från elektrokemiska undersökningar utförda på laboratorium och korrosionsprovningar i fält. Undersökningarna har genomförts av Swerea KIMAB, RISE CBI Betonginstitutet (väst och öst) samt Chalmers. Projektets mål har varit att genom en nationell samling av expertis ta fram en ny provningsmetodik som på ett enkelt och tillämpbart sätt ska utvärdera olika bindemedels korrosionsskyddande förmåga i betong. I denna undersökning har framför allt tiden till initiering av korrosion (gropfrätning) från det att kloriderna har nått stålytan och tills gropfrätning har initieras på stålytan undersökts. Tre olika accelererade elektrokemiska mätmetoder har använts och jämförts:

     Potentiostatisk mätmetod

     Potentiodynamisk mätmetod

     Galvanostatisk mätmetod

    Den framtagna provningsmetodiken med framställning av provkroppar har visat sig fungera väl. För att minska spridningen är det emellertid viktigt att använda en homogen och rengjord stålyta utan glödskal. Glödskalet avlägsnas lämpligast genom slipning eftersom betning kan bygga upp ett passivskikt på stålytan. För att undvika att betongrester fastnar på stålytan ska släta provstänger användas.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att resultaten från laboratorie- och fältmätningarna samt analyser av bindemedlens korrosionskänslighet genom TG- och XRD-analyser visade att denna kombination av mätningar ger ett bra verktyg att bedöma den korrosionsskyddande förmågan hos olika bindemedel. En sammanställning av rangordningen för bindemedlens korrosionsskyddande förmåga redovisas i tabellen nedan.

    Den korrosionsskyddande förmågan hos de undersökta bindemedlen rangordnas från en sammanvägning av de olika provningsmetoderna:

     bra < 1,5 och

     1,5 ≥mindre bra ≤2,5 och

     dåligt > 2,5.

    Som rangordningen visar i tabellen så har bindemedel med slagg och portlandcement med hög C 3A en bra korrosionsskyddande förmåga. Detta beror till största delen på kapaciteten att bilda Friedels salt från monosulfat under härdningsprocessen. Bindemedel som har en låg korrosionsskyddande förmåga har ett lågt C3A-innehåll och en inblandning av flygaska och/eller silika. Det medför dessutom en utspädningseffekt på förmågan att bilda Friedels salt.

  • 36.
    Shu, Jiangpeng
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Plos, Mario
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nilenius, Filip
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Morgan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; ÅF Infrastructure AB, Sweden.
    Prediction of punching behaviour of RC slabs using continuum nonlinear FE analysis2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 1629-1636Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Failure of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs in punching has been a challenging problem for nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis. To improve the analysis approach, this study was conducted by developing a nonlinear FE analysis method for slabs subjected to punching failure, using three-dimensional continuum elements. The influence of several modelling choices were investigated by comparing such results as load carrying capacity, load-deflection response and crack pattern from the FE analyses with available experimental data. The proposed method show the possibility of accurately predicting the load-carrying capacity and realistically describing the behaviour of slabs.

  • 37.
    Shu, Jiangpeng
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Plos, Mario
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Morgan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Reinertsen Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Numerical prediction of punching behavior of RC slabs using 3D non-linear FE analysis2016In: Maintenance, Monitoring, Safety, Risk and Resilience of Bridges and Bridge Networks - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management, IABMAS 2016, 2016, p. 1607-1611Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted by carrying out nonlinear FE analysis of RC slabs subjected to punching failure, using three-dimensional (3D) continuum elements. The influence of several modelling choices for concrete material were investigated by comparing results such as load-carrying capacity, load-deflection response and crack pattern from the FE analyses with available experimental data. The analyses of the tested slabs show possibility to accurately predict the load-carrying capacity and realistically simulate the behavior of slabs using the proposed method.

  • 38.
    Stripple, Håkan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ellison, Tommy
    BESAB, Sweden.
    Ewertson, Cathrine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Produkt & Kontroll.
    Lund, Peter
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Melander, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Evaluation of two different drainage systems for rock tunnels2016In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 58, p. 40-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water penetration and dripping in tunnels is almost always a significant problem which is usually solved with the help of a tunnel waterproofing drainage system mounted where drips and leaks are detected. Today's drainage systems are made of foamed polyethene (PE) mats which are covered with shotcrete. These are relatively expensive, complex to install, sensitive to mechanical impact, and often have a much shorter expected lifetime than the tunnel. In this study, a new type of drainage, Rockdrain, was studied and compared with the present drainage system. The systems were evaluated with respect to technical, environmental, and economic aspects. A field test was performed with the Rockdrain system and compared with installation of a traditional system. Laboratory tests were performed on especially the different shotcrete layers used in the Rockdrain system. The environmental evaluation was performed by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and the economic evaluation was performed by Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis. The results indicate that the Rockdrain system has a good drainage function, is significantly cheaper than the current system, has a longer expected lifetime, is easier to install, and is less sensitive to mechanical impact.

  • 39.
    Tahershamsi, M.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fernandez, I.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, K.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Investigating correlations between crack width, corrosion level and anchorage capacity2017In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 1294-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In assessing existing structures, inspection results need to be linked to the effects on load-carrying capacity; to provide such information, this study has investigated the correlation between splitting crack width, corrosion level and anchorage capacity. The study was based on 13 reinforced concrete beams that had been exposed to natural corrosion for 32 years, 11 beams with splitting cracks and 2 without. The crack pattern and widths were documented before undergoing structural testing of anchorage capacity. Thereafter, the reinforcement bars were extracted and their corrosion levels measured using two methods, gravimetric weight loss and 3D scanning. The corrosion level from the weight loss method was approximately twice as large; possible reasons are horizontal or subsurface corrosion pits, and the cleaning method. Further, for the same corrosion level, the specimens in this study had much larger crack widths and slightly lower bond capacity than the artificially corroded tests in the literature; a possible reason is that these specimens had been subjected to combined corrosion and freezing. However, the corrosion level and reduction in bond capacity related to crack width were both lower in the present than in previous studies in the literature. Thus, by formulating a damage indicator from the damage visible in the form of crack widths from artificial test data, the structural capacity is estimated to be on the safe side.

  • 40.
    Theocharidou, Marianthi
    et al.
    JRC, Italy.
    Melkunaite, Laura
    dbi dansk brand- og sikringsteknisk institut, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Winberg, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Strukturer och Komponenter.
    Lange, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Guay, Fanny
    dbi dansk brand- og sikringsteknisk institut, Denmark.
    Giannopoulos, Georgios (Contributor)
    JRC, Italy.
    Petersen, Laura (Contributor)
    EMSC, Spain.
    IMPROVER D1.2 First draft of a lexicon of definitions related to Critical Infrastructure Resilience2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPROVER is a Horizon 2020 project focusing on how to improve European critical infrastructure resilience to crises and disasters through the implementation of resilience concepts to real life examples of pan-European significance, including cross-border examples.

    The project will develop methodologies for the implementation of societal, organisational and technological resilience concepts to critical infrastructure. To this end, it requires several resilience-related concepts to be identified and defined.

    This is the first version of the IMPROVER Lexicon of Definitions. It is the result of the first phase of the international survey conducted by the project and it gathers several resilience concepts and their definitions, as well as other key related terms. We envisage that this will be a dynamic document; that is to say that it will be updated and expanded throughout the duration of the project.

    At this stage, the document identifies and lists several identified definitions for each relevant to critical infrastructure concept, followed by a discussion. This helps the reader to identify similarities, common elements and differences among the listed definitions and work towards selecting a suitable definition for his/her work. For the IMPROVER project, we foresee that in upcoming versions of the document, we will be able to suggest and agree one definition for each term, which will be used by the project partners for the duration of the project and will reflect the assumptions of the proposed IMPROVER methodology.

  • 41.
    Theocharidou, Marianthi
    et al.
    Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Melkunaite, Laura
    Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Winberg, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Strukturer och Komponenter.
    Lange, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Guay, Fanny
    Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology, Denmark.
    Lin, Lexin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Giannopoulos, Georgios (Contributor)
    Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Petersen, Laura
    European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    IMPROVER D1.3 Final lexicon of definitions related to Critical Infreastructure Resilience2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPROVER is a Horizon 2020 project focusing on how to improve European critical infrastructure resilience to crises and disasters through the implementation of resilience concepts to real life examples of pan-European significance, including cross-border examples.

     

    The project will develop methodologies for the implementation of societal, organisational and technological resilience concepts to critical infrastructure. To this end, it requires several resilience-related concepts to be identified and defined.

     

    This is the final version of the IMPROVER Lexicon of Definitions. It is the result of the international survey conducted by the project and it gathers several resilience concepts and their definitions, as well as other key related terms from all the current, completed deliverables in the project.

     

    In this final version of the document, we offer a list of terms and their definitions which will reflect the assumptions of the proposed IMPROVER methodology and will be used by the project partners for the duration of the project. This lexicon will also serve as a recommendation for terminology towards the project partners, the associated partners, the collaborating projects and the CIP community in general.

  • 42.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Kjell, G.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Cupina, Ena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Chalmers Univeristy of technology, Sweden.
    Kraft, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Deck, C.
    University of Strasbourg, France.
    Willinger, R.
    University of Strasbourg, France.
    New functional pavements for pedestrians and cyclists2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 105, p. 52-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When many fields of pedestrian and cyclist safety have been extensively studied, the surfacing has long been left unquestioned, despite being developed for another mode of transport and being one of the main causes for falls and fall injuries. In this project new surfacing materials for pedestrian and cyclist safety have been produced. Focusing on augmenting previously largely disregarded parameters as impact absorption, comfort and visibility at the same time as avoiding deteriorating of crucial parameters as friction and wear resistance. Rubber content, binder type, and pigment addition have been varied and evaluated. The results demonstrate that by increasing rubber content of the mixtures the head injury criterion (HIC) value and injury risk can be decreased while maintaining frictional properties according to existing criteria. Assembly of test-lanes demonstrate that some developed materials experience lower flow and component separation than standard materials due to rubber addition, calling for further optimisation of construction procedure linked to content development. Initial trials on the test-lanes indicate that a polyurethane (PU) based material has high cycling comfort, visibility and can be modified with phosphorescence properties. For standard asphalt, impact absorption might be inflicted by modification of bitumen alone but is mostly augmented by rubber addition. The results also indicate that rubber content can decrease ice formation on the materials.

  • 43.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Vega, Alberto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Livslängd för fjärrvärmerör: Fas 1 - Nedbrytningsmekanismer2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens standard för prefabricerade fjärrvärmerör SS-EN253 innehåller olika testmetoder och krav där ett av de viktigaste är kravet på livslängd på minst 30 år vid en kontinuerlig driftstemperatur på 120 °C. Bestämningen av tekniska livslängden är baserad på mätningar av förändringar i skjuvhållfastheten efter accelererad termisk åldring. Den beräknade livslängden för ett fjärrvärmerör är baserad på extrapolering med hjälp av Arrhenius ekvation. Det finns en stor enighet kring uppfattningen att Arrhenius modellen inte ger en god överensstämmelse med de observerade åldringsdata och att det följaktligen saknas tillförlitliga metoder för livslängdsbestämning av fjärrvärmerör. Trots många forskningsrapporter finns det fortfarande skilda teorier om hur snabbt PUR-isoleringar bryts ner och vilka nedbrytningsmekanismer som dominerar. Syftet med det här projektet är att kartlägga de komplicerade sambanden och förstå vilka nedbrytningsprocesser som dominerar under olika betingelser och utifrån denna kunskap utveckla tillförlitliga metoder för livslängdsprediktering.

    Allt testmaterial utgjordes i denna studie av polyuretan (PUR) cellplastisolering som togs ut från nytillverkade fjärrvärmerör. Accelererad åldring genomfördes i luft och i kväveatmosfär vid 150 °C för upp till 8 veckor. Det visade sig att exponering i kväveatmosfär inte orsakar någon mätbar förändring av egenskaper. En motsvarande åldring i luft orsakar däremot stora förändringar i både dimensioner, viktförlust och färg. IR (infraröd) analys kunde också bekräfta att materialet bryts ner genom termo-oxidativa processer. Termo-oxidativ nedbrytning syns också i analyser av cellgassammansättningen. Materialet efter åldring i luft innehåller betydligt mindre halt cyklopentan samtidigt som fyra nya flyktiga ämnen kunde detekteras. Trots alla indikationer på materialets termo-oxidativa nedbrytning har böjhållfastheten inte förändrats hos materialet. Detta måste utredas vidare för att kunna förklara mekanismer bakom resultatet.

    Förutom beständighetsstudier av PUR materialet genomfördes långtidsåldring av fjärrvärmerör vid olika temperaturer. Resultaten av skjuvhållfasthet mätningar indikerar att det åtminstone finns tre olika faser i nedbrytningsprocessen. Initialt sjunker hållfastheten troligen på grund av fysikaliska effekter orsakade av de höga temperaturerna. Därefter ökar skjuvhållfastheten troligen beroende på sidoreaktioner och fortsatt tvärbindning. Det tredje steget är en termo-oxidativ nedbrytning som såsmåningom leder till förlust av vidhäftningen. Även värmeledningsförmågan ökar betydligt som ett resultat av nedbrytningsprocesser. Det finns behov av ytterligare forskning för att kunna föreslå en ny modell för livslängdsberäkningar baserade på experimentella resultat.

  • 44.
    Pursiainen, Christer (Editor)
    University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway.
    Rød, Bjarte (Editor)
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Alheib, Marwan (Contributor)
    INERIS, France.
    Baker, Greg (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Bouffier, Christian (Contributor)
    INERIS, France.
    Bram, Staffan (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Cadete, Goncalo (Contributor)
    INOV, Spain.
    Carreira, Elisabete (Contributor)
    INOV, Spain.
    Gattinesi, Peter (Contributor)
    JRC, Greece.
    Guay, Fanny (Contributor)
    DBI.
    Honfi, Daniel (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Strukturer och Komponenter.
    Eriksson, Kerstin (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Lange, David (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Lundin, Emma (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Urban Water Management.
    Malm, Annika (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Urban Water Management.
    Melkunaite, Laura (Contributor)
    DBI.
    Merad, M (Contributor)
    INERIS, Frances.
    Mira da Silva, Miguel (Contributor)
    INOV, Spain.
    Petersen, Laura (Contributor)
    EMSC.
    Rodrigues, John (Contributor)
    INOV, Spain.
    Salmon, Romuald (Contributor)
    INERIS, France.
    Theocharidou, Marianthi (Contributor)
    JRC.
    Willot, Adrien (Contributor)
    INERIS, France.
    IMPROVER D2.2 Report of criteria for evaluating resilience2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, the focus has moved from critical infrastructure protection to that of resilience. But how do we know whether a critical infrastructure is resilient or not, how can it be evaluated, measured and enhanced?

     

    Drawing on, combining and developing the ideas of the existing literature and practices, the current report develops a holistic, easy-to-use and computable methodology to evaluate critical infrastructure resilience, called Critical Infrastructure Resilience Index (CIRI). The methodology is applicable to all types of critical infrastructure, including a possibility to tailor it to the specific needs of different sectors, facilities and hazard scenarios. The proposed methodology is especially suitable for organizational and technological resilience evaluation, but permits including also elements of societal resilience indicators to the evaluations.

     

    The methodology is based on four levels of hierarchically organized indicators. Level 1 consists of the phases well known from the so-called crisis management cycle. Under these phases, we find sets of Level 2 rather generic indicators. Thus under level 1 ‘Prevention’, for instance, we may find a Level 2 indicator such as ‘Resilient design’, further divided into Level 3 more detailed indicators such as ‘Physical robustness’, ‘Cyber robustness’, ‘Redundancy’, ‘Modularity’, and ‘Independency’. The task is to study these indicators on Level 4 in the context of concrete critical infrastructure facilities and hazard scenarios, that is, applying Level 3 indicators into concrete circumstances.

     

    The methodology then permits to transfer quantitative, semi-quantitative and qualitative evaluations of individual sector-specific resilience indicators into uniform metrics, based on process maturity levels. This in turn makes it possible to give a specific critical infrastructure, or its part, a resilience value on the scale 0-5.

     

    While the real resilience value becomes clear only when one engages in the analysis of several indicators, the methodology can be used also as a step-by-step measurement and development tool for resilience, without necessary immediately engaging in time-consuming total resilience analysis.

     

    The user of this methodology is supposed to be the operator of critical infrastructure, or part of it, in the spirit of self-auditing. In case it would be implemented in a wider scale, in cooperation between the operators and authorities, it would give the authorities a holistic picture about the respective society’s critical infrastructure resilience.

     

    In this report, we draw a concise picture of the methodology and illustrate how this methodology could be applied to a specific infrastructure and hazard scenario.

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