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  • 1.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Holmvaag, Anders Ole
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sanfeliu Melia, Cristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Erfaringer med mobile vanntåkeanlegg installert i boliger2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiences regarding personal protection water mist systems installed in dwellings. Personal protection water mist systems can produce a water mist that can cool down and limit a fire in a small area in a dwelling. The system is equipped with sensitive detectors which can activate the system in the early stages of the fire and limit the fire spread, and in some cases extinguish the fire. This gives more time for evacuation, which can be especially important for vulnerable people with risk factors, like impaired cognitive and physical functioning. The goal of this study has been to map the experiences in Norway regarding personal protection water mist systems, considering how the municipalities have experienced the work related to the systems and whether the systems have activated and saved lives. This will shed light upon whether mobile water mist systems are appropriate measures for vulnerable people in the society, and the risk factors that determine whether the measure is appropriate or not. This study has used literature studies, questionnaires, and interviews to map the experiences of personal protection water mist systems in Norway. The results showed that personal protection water mist systems installed in Norwegian dwellings have been activated in connection with fire outbreaks, and thus limited or extinguished the fire. This has saved lives on several occasions and reduced the damage potential. There are many people who have risk factors that make it appropriate to install a mobile water mist system in their home, but there are also exceptions. The risk factors that indicate that it is beneficial to install mobile water mist systems in Norwegian dwellings are - Impaired cognitive abilities - Impaired physical abilities - Drug and alcohol problems - Smoking - Living alone The systems are particularly suitable when several of the risk factors are present at the same time. It was also shown that personal protection water mist systems are not suitable for mobile people who spend time in several places in the home and are therefore often outside the system's coverage area. Personal protection water mist systems are not recommended for people who may have the potential to sabotage the system. In questionnaires and interviews, it emerged that there are big differences between how Norwegian municipalities work with assigning, installing, operating, and maintaining personal protection water mist systems. In larger municipalities, there are more people who rely on routines and formal processes for the work, and there is therefore a greater proportion of the larger municipalities who distribute the facilities out to individuals than in the small municipalities where the work is more characterised by informal routines and personal relations. 3 Based on the results from this study, it is our opinion that the following aspects should be covered by future work: • Need for a new and updated cost-benefit analysis for personal protection water mist systems. • Need for a better statistical basis for assessment of the personal protection water mist systems. • Need for a Norwegian test standard for personal protection water mist systems. • Need for clear guidelines for assignment, procurement, installing, operation, and maintenance of personal protection water mist systems.

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  • 2.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Rønning, Birger
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Sikkerhetsbehov for kullgriller i restauranter2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The RISE report 2019:04 «Charcoal and wood burning ovens in restaurants – Fire safety and documentation requirements» [1] investigated regulations and documental demands tied to charcoal and wood burning ovens in restaurants in Norway. A part of the conclusion in this report emphasized the need for, through physical testing, mapping whether existing test standards covers the safety requirements of charcoal ovens in restaurants. NS-EN 13240:2001 «Roomheaters fired with solid fuel. Requirements and test methods» [2] was chosen as a relevant test standard. Three test ovens (a closed test oven, a dummy oven and an open test oven) was produced at RISE Fire Research. Their construction with regard to insulation capabilities, materials and dimensions was based on existing charcoal ovens placed on the Norwegian marked. This was done to achieve an objective depiction of the issue, without the need for a specific brand of ovens. Restaurant oven charcoal was utilized to achieve as real heat development as possible in the test ovens. The test layout is based on NS-EN 12340:2001, with a test rigg constructed of two «safety walls», ceiling and floor attached with thermocouples. Temperatures from the test oven are registered in the safety walls at several positions according to a standardised grid, and in the ceiling and the floor each have one single measurement position measuring warmest point. Thermocouples in the chimney and exhaust duct measured the flue gas temperatures transported to the exhaust system. Four different tests were conducted, where the first one was a standardized safety test including the closed oven model. The second test was the same safety test setup with the dummy oven besides the closed oven. The dummy contained a built-in propane burner to simulate the heat load from a real oven. The purpose was to simulate two ovens placed next to each other. The third test was an overload test on the closed test oven with 150 % fuel load and higher refuelling frequency. The last test was a test of the open test oven. The safety test method described in NS-EN 13240:2001 is suitable to test the level of stable maximal temperature in the surrounding combustible materials, in the same way as for roomheaters, which the method is designed for. The method addresses safety aspects such as surface temperatures and handles on the oven. Tests show that the temperatures developed in the ovens have the potential to breech the temperature criterion given by the test standard, and therefore contribute to the ignition of surrounding combustible materials. Such situations pose a fire risk and safety measures regarding this aspect must be documented by the producer. NS-EN13240:2001 does not cover temperatures for exhaust duct and the production of sparks and their possible spread to combustible materials. These are important safety aspects which must be addressed when documenting the fire safety of restaurant grills. Tests show that sparks are created in the oven, including from restaurant charcoal fuel, and are transported into the exhaust duct, and out through the opening of the grill door. Together with high flue gas temperatures in the exhaust duct and deposits of soot and cooking oil this pose a fire risk. Documentation must therefore be presented, showing that the oven is equipped with measures (for instance spark screen) which guards the exhaust duct from sparks to a satisfactory degree. Operators of the oven must receive adequate training and must operate the closed oven with caution, as to avoid incidents with sparks being released though the door. The placement of ovens next to each other does not seem to increase the heat load on surrounding walls but may lead to increased temperatures in between the ovens. The consequences of temperature increases must be documented. Tests show that overloading with fuel and intensifying the refuelling intervals can lead to increased temperatures in the oven, which can affect materials and welding seams. Overloading can also affect the temperatures towards surrounding walls and exhaust ducts and therefore may affect fire safety negatively. NS-EN 13240:2001 requires the producer to documents how the oven is constructed and of what materials, and that the welding seams are dimensioned for the materials used. It is recommended that the producer documents the safety level of the oven materials with an overload test. It must also be documented that the exhaust ducts in which the flue gas are transported are constructed to handle the potential temperatures that can arise, including erroneous use.

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  • 3.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU, Norway.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    LEARNING FROM FIRE INCIDENTS : Analysis of a devastating fire in a building with municipal housing in Norway2022In: Proceedings of the 32nd European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2022), 2022, p. 1156-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an analysis of a fire in a municipal apartment building used as housing for people with challenges connected to drug addiction. The fire took place in Norway 7th of August 2021. The incident happened during the night and the fire was spreading quickly and intensely via the external wooden balconies. The combination of risk factors both connected to the fire development and the characteristics of the occupants raises the potential for fire fatalities. This analysis seeks to understand why the fire spread with such a speed, and how everyone in the building survived without injuries. The analysis identified both technical and human factors that may help to answer these questions. The findings suggest that there were deficiencies connected to the technical fire safety design that if improved could have reduced the fire damage. Factors promoting the fire spread and fire intensity include the choice of wood material used in the construction of the balconies, no sprinkler system installed on the balconies and a large fire load on the balconies caused by the occupants’ tendency to accumulate possessions on the balconies. Factors contributing to the outcome of no injuries or fatalities included occupants being awake during these late hours, and the strong social network between them. Such a network should be seen as a positive factor regarding robustness against fire and should be encouraged.

  • 4.
    Abdul Hamid, Akram
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    von Platten, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dennis
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bagge, Hans
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Determining the Impact of High Residential Density on Indoor Environment, Energy Use, and Moisture Loads in Swedish Apartments-and Measures for Mitigation2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 10, article id 5446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been an increase in apartments with a large number of inhabitants, i.e., high residential density. This is partly due to a housing shortage in general but also increased migration, particularly in suburbs of major cities. This paper specifies issues that might be caused by high residential density by investigating the technical parameters influenced in Swedish apartments that are likely to have high residential density. Interviews with 11 employees at housing companies were conducted to identify issues that might be caused by high residential density. Furthermore, simulations were conducted based on extreme conditions described in the interviews to determine the impact on the energy use, indoor environmental quality, and moisture loads. In addition, the impact of measures to mitigate the identified issues was determined. Measures such as demand-controlled ventilation, increase of a constant ventilation rate, and moisture buffering are shown to reduce the risk for thermal discomfort, mold growth, and diminished indoor air quality; while still achieving a lower energy use than in a normally occupied apartment. The results of this study can be used by authorities to formulate incentives and/or recommendations for housing owners to implement measures to ensure good indoor environmental quality for all, irrespective of residential density conditions.

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  • 5.
    Abrahamsen, Rune
    et al.
    Moelven Limtre, Norway.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Tulebekova, Saule
    NTNU, Norway.
    DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF TALL TIMBER BUILDINGS UNDER SERVICE LOAD – RESULTS FROM THE DYNATTB RESEARCH PROGRAM2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind-induced dynamic excitation is a governing design action determining size and shape of modern Tall Timber Buildings (TTBs). The wind actions generate dynamic loading, causing discomfort or annoyance for occupants due to the perceived horizontal sway, i.e. vibration serviceability problem. Although some TTBs have been instrumented and measured to estimate their key dynamic properties (eigenfrequencies, mode shapes and damping), no systematic evaluation of dynamic performance pertinent to wind loading had been performed for the new and evolving construction technologies used in TTBs. The DynaTTB project, funded by the ForestValue research program, mixed on site measurements on existing buildings excited by mass inertia shakers (forced vibration) and/or the wind loads (ambient vibration), for identification of the structural system, with laboratory identification of building elements mechanical features, coupled with numerical modelling of timber structures. The goal is to identify and quantify the causes of vibration energy dissipation in modern TTBs and provide key elements to finite element models. This paper presents an overview of the results of the project and the proposed Guidelines for design of TTBs in relation to their dynamic properties.

  • 6.
    Alam, Naveed
    et al.
    Ulster University, UK.
    Nadjai, Ali
    Ulster University, UK.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Vassart, Oliver
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Dai, Xi
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Large scale travelling fire tests with open ventilation conditions and their effect on the surrounding steel structure– The second fire test2022In: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 188, article id 107032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the frame of the European RFCS (Research Fund for Coal and Steel) TRAFIR (Characterization of TRAvelling FIRes in large compartments) project, three natural fire tests in a large compartment were conducted at Ulster University. The aim of this investigation was to understand the conditions in which the travelling fires develop and to study the impact of such fires on the surrounding steel structure. This paper provides details of the second fire test where the size of the openings was reduced to induce different ventilation conditions in comparison to the first fire test. During the test, behaviour of the travelling fire was observed and the gas temperatures at different levels and locations were recorded. The influence of travelling fires on the surrounding structure is studied in terms of the temperatures recorded in the selected steel columns and beams. The influence of change in the ventilation conditions is presented and highlighted through the comparison of results of the second fire test with those recorded earlier during the first fire test. It was found that the travelling fires produce non-uniform temperatures in the compartment irrespective of the ventilation conditions although the magnitude of this non-uniformity is related with the opening sizes. This non-uniformity exists along the length as well as along the height of the test compartment. It was found that for reduced opening sizes, more heat is retained within the compartment which induces higher temperatures in the surrounding steel structure. The transient heating of the surrounding structure caused by travelling fires should be considered while performing the structural fire design of large compartments. The results obtained during the test are state-of-the-art and will help in understating the behaviour of travelling fires and their influence on the surrounding structure which will help to devise fire design methods for future use.

  • 7. Alberg, Ingmarie
    et al.
    Berntsson, Britt
    Andersson, Kjell
    Dannestam, Åse
    Persson Boonkaew, Frida
    (Larsson) Gulliksson, Daniel
    Fält, Jenny
    Good, Johanna
    Tiden, Sophie
    Nordin, Mats
    Claesson, Per
    Åhström, Mikael
    Edwards, Ylva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Lyne, Åsa Laurell
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Kvalitetssäkrade systemlösningar för gröna anläggningar/tak på betongbjälklag med nolltolerans mot läckage: Rapport- Arbetsprocessen2017Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Amani, Mozhdeh
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Al-Emrani, Mohammad
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Shear behavior of stainless steel girders with corrugated webs2023In: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 210, article id 108086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the shear strength of corrugated web girders made of EN 1.4162/LDX 2101 stainless steel is investigated. Four full-scale trapezoidal corrugated web girders were tested under shear. Before conducting the tests, DIC was used to measure the real geometric imperfections in the web panels. Complementary finite element analysis studies were conducted to assess the sensitivity of the shear strength to initial imperfections. The experimental results indicated that all the tested girders with a local slenderness ratio of λ = 0.7 attained the shear yield strength, which was then followed by strain hardening in the material at a level that was 8–18% higher than the yield strength. This implies that the Eurocode's limit of λ = 0.25 to attain the plastic shear strength in corrugated webs can be quite conservative for stainless steel. According to the findings of the imperfection sensitivity studies, an initial geometric imperfection based on the first eigen buckling mode and with a maximum amplitude of amax/200, where amax is the maximum corrugation fold length, yielded ultimate strength within 3% of the test results. When the amplitude was increased to hw/200, where hw is the web height, the ultimate strength was estimated to be 25% lower on average than in the experiments. In three of the studied girders, initial imperfections with other forms than the first buckling mode were found to be more critical. Further, it was found that regardless of mode number, mode shapes that are more extended over the web panel result in a higher degradation of the ultimate shear strength. © 2023 The Authors

  • 9.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Fire Safety of Façades2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Façade fires do not occur often (in comparison to other major structure fires) but in recent years there have been a number of spectacular façade fires in high rise building such as the recent fire in Grenfell Tower, London.Under-ventilated compartment fires may cause flames to spill out of window openings impinging the façade, thus devastating façade fires may start on one floor leap-frogging to adjacent floors. It is therefore necessary to limit or delay fire spread to higher floors. Requirements built on large scale fire testing may decrease the risk of these types of fires provided that the building is constructed according to the specifications provided by the manufacturer. Different countries have different regulations and tests for façades. New materials and façade systems are continuously introduced which might call for an update of these tests and regulations.This report summarizes experimental and modelling efforts in characterizing the fire safety of façades using the Swedish SP Fire 105 and the British BS 8414 methods. Recent experimental results and modelling is presented exploring the variations in the fire exposure, fire load and the fuel used. The fire source and the heat exposure to the façade are characterized by additional temperatures measured by plate thermometers while some other aspects are only treated in the numerical study such as a change in fuel. It is found that the results from the BS 8414 are largely affected by wind and climate since the experimental test was performed outdoors, moreover fire spread on wooden façades is also briefly discussed.In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the test methods and the results CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) Modelling in FDS was used. The models were based on measured input parameters including uncertainties and an assessment of the impact of said uncertainties. The models could often reproduce the experimentally found temperatures qualitatively and quantitatively. A detailed discussion on the regulations and the tests that lead to the SP Fire 105 test method is also presented. Summaries of the façade testing methods and conditions in other European countries are presented in the appendices.Finally possible ways forward in updating the façade testing and regulations are discussed.

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  • 10.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Modelling of fire exposure in facade fire testing2017In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 475-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a comparative simulation study on 3 large‐scale facade testing methods, namely,the SP Fire 105, BS 8414‐1, and the ISO 13785‐2 methods, is presented. Generally goodcorrespondence between simulations and experimental data has been found, provided thatthermal properties of the facade material and heat release rates are known; however, thecorrespondence deviates in close proximity of the fire source. Furthermore, a statistical ensemblefor evaluating the effects stemming from uncertainty in input data is used. Here, it wasfound using this statistical ensemble that the variability was smaller in the ISO 13785‐2compared to the BS 8414‐1 method. The heat release rates (HRR) used in the simulations wereadopted from measurements except for the ISO method where the information in the standardwas used to approximate the HRR. A quantitative similarity between the HRR in the ISOmethod and the British method was found.

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  • 11.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lufttäta klimatskal under verkligaförhållanden2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Beständigheten hos klimatskalets lufttäthetsystem är helt avgörande för om näranollenergihus, passivhus och plushus kommer att fungera som det var tänkt över tid. Eftersom produkterna som säkerställer lufttätheten oftast befinner sig inuti konstruktionen kan det därför innebära stora ingrepp i byggnader om de behöver bytas ut i förtid. Att i laboratorium i förväg kunna utvärdera beständigheten hos det lufttätande systemet är viktigt och för detta behövs en provningsmetod.

    Det överordnade syftet med hela projektet är att utveckla en metod där hela system för lufttäthet kan undersökas. Detta så att god lufttäthet och låg energianvändning kan erhållas under lång tid hos framtidens lufttäthetssystem. Denna etapp av projektet har innehållit utveckling och provkörning av en ny provningsmetod. Provningsmetodiken har dokumenterats i SP-metod 5264, utgåva 2, bilaga 2 till denna rapport. Provningsmetoden har fungerat ypperligt vid pilotprovningarna. Man ser en förändring av lufttätheten vid mätningar före respektive efter värmebehandlingen. Provningsmetoden är mycket noggrann och känslig på så sätt att förändring i lufttätheten kan registreras.

    Provningsmetoden är ett mycket bra verktyg för producenter av lufttäthetssystem vid produktutveckling. Metoden är också lämplig för användning vid utvärdering av lufttäthetssystem för olika godkännandesystem och certifiering. Samtliga provade lufttäthetssystem var mycket lufttäta före värmebehandlingen. Alla systemen visar på resultat under 0,1 l/(s∙m²). Efter värmebehandlingen visar alla undersökta lufttäthetssystem dock en ökande luftgenomsläpplighet, i varierande grad.

    I projektet har även montage av lufttäthetssystem gjorts i miljöer som valts för att efterlikna realistiska byggarbetsplatsförhållanden. Alla de undersökta lufttäthetssystemen visar på förändringar i lufttätheten då montaget har skett i kall och fuktig miljö och vid montage i dammig miljö. Variationen mellan de olika systemen har dock varit ganska stor.

    Det är vår uppfattning om alla lufttäthetsystem i framtiden undersöks med hjälp av denna provningsmetod så kommer man att få en stark förbättring av lufttätheten och därmed lägre energianvändning.

    .

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  • 12.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Berntsson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Nordling, Bengt
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Demker, Ingvar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Sjöqvist, Mia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Funktionsprovning av tätskiktsystem för våtutrymmen 20222022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional testing of waterproofing systems for use behind ceramic tiling based on flexible sheets 2022 This research project is a repetition of previously completed projects. These projects span a long period of time, 12 years. The projects were completed during the period 2010 to 2022. Functional testing The result is better than before. 2022 2019 (1) 2016 (2) 2014 (3) 2010 (4) Result Result Result Result Result Result No leakage 9 (47 %) 6 (32 %) 8 (40 %) 3 (15 %) 0 (0 %) Leakage 10 (53 %) 13 (68 %) 12 (60 %) 17 (85 %) 5 (100 %) In this investigation, most of the leaks are located to penetrations of large and small sewer pipes. In this investigation, we have on several occasions seen that the pipe sleeves have had substandard quality. This has manifested itself in the fact that the polymeric material which is to seal around the pipe during the test has lost its sealing ability. It is probable that the material has developed a residual deformation (settling) which means that the material has lost its ability to seal around the pipe. We have also noticed that pipe cuffs have delaminated, the layers in the cuff during the test have been divided into their components. Leakage has also occurred at inner corners, outer corners and at chafing. Only a few, two, leaks at connections to floor drains have been noted. Better yet, none of the examined waterproofing systems showed leaks that were so extensive that one can speak of a total damage. Water vapour resistance and mass per unit area The vast majority of investigated waterproofing foils have a water vapour resistance of between 2.5 and 4.5 million s m, which is a high or very high value. Results for five waterproofing foils fall below 2.5 million s / m. Based on the determinations of water vapor resistance and basis weight, it can be concluded that probably six of the waterproofing suppliers have developed new or changed foils since the last survey. The trend of wanting to make thinner foils seems to have been broken. Most of the waterproofing foils have a higher vapor passage resistance now than in the previous survey. It is also noteworthy that the PVC sealing layer has a low water vapor passage resistance. The waterproofing foil has basically the same basis weight now compared to the previous survey. Indication of long-term properties To obtain an indication of the amount of added antioxidants that improve the long-term properties of the materials, DSC analyses of the waterproofing foils have been performed. Compared with the previous study, the induction temperatures are at about the same level as before, only small differences occur. The average induction temperature for all polyethylene films is 216 ° C and, in summary, the materials appear to be stabilized at the same level as the previous study. In the same way as in the survey, 2016, most materials seem to be more stabilized for long-term use compared with the previous study, 2014. However, for all analysed materials, to make a reliable service life prediction of the material, a more comprehensive aging study is recommended

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  • 13.
    Antypa, D.
    et al.
    IRES, Belgium.
    Petrakli, F.
    IRES, Belgium.
    Gkika, A.
    IRES, Belgium.
    Voigt, P.
    Leipzig University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Kahnt, A.
    Leipzig University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Böhm, R.
    Leipzig University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Suchorzewski, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Araújo, A.
    INETI, Portugal; LAETA, Portugal.
    Sousa, S.
    INETI, Portugal; LAETA, Portugal.
    Koumoulos, E. P.
    IRES, Belgium.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Advanced Building Components towards NZEBs2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 23, article id 16218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector accounts for 40% of the total energy consumed in Europe at annual basis, together with the relevant Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. In order to mitigate these impacts, the concept and establishment of the Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) is under continuous and intensive research. In fact, as the energy used for buildings’ operation becomes more efficient, impacts resulting from the buildings’ embodied energy become of more importance. Therefore, the selection of building materials and components is of high significance, as these affect the energy performance and potential environmental impacts of the building envelopes. The objective of this study is to perform a preliminary Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) on advanced multifunctional building components, aiming to achieve lower embodied emissions in NZEBs. The advanced components analyzed are composite panels for facade elements of building envelopes, providing thermal efficiency. The design of sustainable building envelope systems is expected to upgrade the overall environmental performance of buildings, including the NZEBs. The findings of this study constitute unambiguous evidence on the need for further research on this topic, as substantial lack of data concerning embodied impacts is presented in literature, adding to the growing discussion on NZEBs at a whole life cycle perspective across Europe. This research has shown that the electricity required from the manufacturing phase of the examined building components is the main contributor to climate change impact and the other environmental categories assessed. Sensitivity analysis that has been performed indicated that the climate change impact is highly depended on the electricity grid energy mix across Europe. Taking into account the current green energy transition by the increase of the renewable energy sources in electricity production, as well as the future upgrade of the manufacturing processes, it is expected that this climate change impact will be mitigated. Finally, the comparison between the CLC thermal insulator and other foam concretes in literature showed that the materials of the building components examined do not present any diversions in terms of environmental impact. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 14.
    Arun Chaudhari, Ojas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Alkhaffaf, L
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Khalil, H
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fontana, P
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Effect of Phase Transition Temperatures of the Phase Change Material on Hydration and Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste2021In: Proc of INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON“CEMENT - BASED MATERIALS TAILORED FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE, 2021, p. 85-93Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in cementitious materials have become of vital importance due to their ability to absorb and release the heat and promote thermal comfort in building applications, which is a requirement for saving energy and sustainable infrastructure. The presented study aimed at investigating the PCMs of different phase transition temperatures in cementitious system and their influence on hydration and mechanical properties of the system. In this study, three PCMs with different phase transition temperatures (24 °C, 29 °C and 58 °C) were incorporated into cement paste at various dosages. The mechanical and rheological properties of the cement pastes were evaluated using compressive strength, density, and slump flow measurement methods. In addition, isothermal calorimetry and semi-adiabatic calorimetry measurements were used to elucidate hydration attributes of the cement paste. The results reveal that both the phase transition temperature of PCM and its amount have a crucial effect on the properties of the cement-based material. Especially, the high phase transition temperature (58 °C) PCM has enhanced the heat of hydration and stabilized the temperature during the cement hydration, that resulted in higher compressive strength of the cementitious system. Whereas ambient phase transition temperature (24 °C and 29 °C) PCMs have negatively influenced the rate of strength development of the cementitious system. The slow rate of strength development was found to be attributed to reduction in heat of hydration, which was confirmed through the calorimetry studies.

  • 15.
    Bahrami, Soheila
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Zeinali, Davood
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    The sustainability challenge of product information quality in the design and construction of facades: lessons from the Grenfell Tower fire2023In: Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, ISSN 2046-6099, E-ISSN 2046-6102, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 488-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper explores the quality and flow of facade product information and the capabilities for avoiding the risk of facade fires early in the design process. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative case study using the process tracing method is conducted in two stages. First, a thematic analysis of reports and literature identified two categories for the problems that caused fast fire spread across the Grenfell Tower facade. This enabled classifying the identified problems into four stages of a facade life cycle: product design and manufacturing, procurement, facade design and construction. Second, the capabilities for avoiding the problems were explored by conducting in-depth interviews with 18 experts in nine countries, analyzing design processes and designers' expertise and examining the usability of three digital interfaces in providing required information for designing fire-safe facades. Findings: The results show fundamental flaws in the quality of facade product information and usability of digital interfaces concerning fire safety. These flaws, fragmented design processes and overreliance on other specialists increase the risk of design defects that cause fast fire spread across facades. Practical implications: The findings have implications for standardization of building product information, digitalization in industrialized construction and facade design management. Originality/value: This research adds to the body of knowledge on sustainability in the built environment. It is the first study to highlight the fundamental problem of facade product information, which requires urgent attention in the rapid transition toward digital and industrialized construction. © 2022, Soheila Bahrami and Davood Zeinali.

  • 16.
    Bellopede, Rossana
    et al.
    Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy.
    Castelletto, Eleonora
    Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Marini, Paola
    Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy.
    Assessment of the European Standard for the determination of resistance of marble to thermal and moisture cycles: recommendations for improvements2016In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 75, no 11, article id 946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bowing phenomenon is so relevant that two projects, EU funded, from 1999 studied it and a European Standard to assess the resistance to thermal and moisture cycles (influencing bowing) has been recently adopted. In particular, according EN 16306: 2013, measurements of bowing and flexural strength should be performed before and at the end of the ageing cycles. Additional non-destructive tests are recommended, but are not compulsory for the standard. Moreover, Annex A of EN 16306 contains guidance on the limit values for the selection of marble types suitable for outdoor uses, especially façade applications. Eleven varieties of marble have been tested by means of this laboratory ageing test. Non-destructive tests such as the measurements of ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), adjacent grains analysis, open porosity, and water absorption have been executed together with the conventional flexural strength test. The results obtained from image analysis on thin sections indicate that the AGA index may not always be correlated with the other tests: amount of bowing, loss of flexural strength, or loss of UPV. Some consideration of the decrease in mechanical resistance and the bowing in relation to the variety of marble tested and the limit values indicated in Annex A of EN 16306 can be noted. It is known that bowing and rapid strength loss occur in some varieties of marble when used as exterior cladding and other exterior applications. Additional conclusions have been drawn: bowing and flexural strength correlate well and can be used to assess the suitability of the marble to be employed in outdoors.

  • 17.
    Berggren, Göran
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Scharf, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pilotmontage av nytt fasadelementsystem i trä - Fasaden i staden Snabb Snygg Smart2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about the evaluation of the pilot installation of a new wooden façade element system that was mounted on two four-story timber buildings. Technical solutions were evaluated, mounting time, moisture and deformations were measured, and interviews were conducted with builders on-site. The mounting started in April 2020 and was followed-up with measurements and interviews during 2020. The two buildings were built by Lindbäcks Bygg AB on Porsön in Luleå, Sweden and the developer was Lindbäcks Fastigheter AB. The façade elements were prefabricated by Lindbäcks Bygg AB in the factory at Öjebyn in Piteå Sweden. The mounting work went well, and the builders were positive about the facade system. When the builders had learned how to carry out the work, it took three minutes per façade element, which is equivalent to 0.9 m2/min. This is faster than the traditional installation of a facade on a construction site. The assembly around the windows took about 10 minutes, which is about the same time as in traditional assembly. During 8 months of measurements the average moisture content (MC) behind the façade elements was about 20% during winter (low T, high RH) and about 11% during summer. That is within expected values due to the annual variation in climate. The deformation was measured with laser scanning and gave a deviation of ±1 cm from a perfect plane, indicating a better dimensional stability than traditionally mounted wooden facades. From a working environment perspective, the assembly work was quieter as no nail guns were needed and the builders did not need to handle individual panel boards. Significantly less nails and screws were needed compared to traditional assembly. Experience from the assembly show the possibility for improvements. The construction platform was not optimal for loading elements during assembly. When the builders had gained some experience of the system, the limitation was to get the elements up quickly enough. A fast and efficient assembly requires a detailed planning in the design phase, and the elements should be numbered in a logical way and sufficient packaging needs to be secured. The promising results show the potential for a future way to manufacture and mount wooden facades. “The facade of the city Swift Stylish Smart” is a project within the strategic program Bioinnovation founded by Vinnova (Sweden’s innovation agency), Energimyndigheten (Swedish Energy Agency), Formas (A Swedish Research Council for Sustainable Development), and the industry partners.

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  • 18.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Crocetti, Roberto
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, August
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ben Osmane, Zakaria
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ziethén, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF A CONNECTION FOR CLT STRUCTURES2023In: Proceedings of the 2023 World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), Oslo, Norway, 2023, p. 1154-1159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although building systems made of cross-laminated timber (CLT) have become common in Sweden in the past 20 years and they have developed rapidly during the same period, steps remain to be taken to simplify the assembly of such systems, especially at construction sites. Current construction methods, however, remain labour-intensive and thus show room for improvement.

    This paper describes a novel connection for the assembly of building elements made of CLT. Simple and inexpensive, the connection is fairly insensitive to manufacturing tolerances and enables rapid, more efficient construction than the connections for CLT structures currently used. Test results show the excellent strength and stiffness of the connection, which also allows the replacement of numerous fasteners, including nails and screws, with only a single steel rod. 

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  • 19.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Honfi, Daniel
    Ramboll, Denmark.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Ziethén, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Crocetti, Roberto
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS –INSPIRATION FROM FURNITURE INDUSTRY2021In: World Conference onTimber Engineering (WCTE) 2021, Santiago, Chile, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented project aims to develop prototypes for building connections inspired by the furniture and interior industry and explore them with representatives from the timber construction industry. The long-term vision is that actors from furniture and building industry together develop a smart system for assembly of building elements, which provide higher precision, faster and more efficient assembly than what is available today. The prototype connectiondeveloped in this project shows that the idea is ripe for full-scale investigation. Laboratory tests showed promising results due to the high failure loads obtained with very high stiffness.

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  • 20.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    An experimental evaluation of the equivalence ratios in tests apparatus used for fire effluent toxicity studies2021In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 1085-1095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental evaluation was conducted on the bench-scale test methods most commonly applied for generating data for fire toxicity assessments. The test methods evaluated were ISO/TS 19700, ISO 5660-1 with the controlled atmosphere box, and ISO 5659-2. Toxic gases were quantitatively analyzed using Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy. Tests were made with 11 different insulation materials and polymethylmethacrylate as a reference material. The evaluation made was on the combustion conditions in the test apparatus, not generally on the precise yields measured. The evaluation focused on the ventilation conditions created in flaming combustion tests. It was seen that ISO/TS 19700 currently offers the best means among the three test methods evaluated for conducting tests at pre-determined and controlled equivalence ratios. The controlled-atmosphere cone calorimeter does not give a prolonged steady flaming combustion period for most materials and the influence of vitiation was difficult to predict and limiting in achieving higher equivalence ratios, with the test settings applied. ISO 5659-2 generally accumulates a mixture of gases from periods of both flaming and nonflaming combustion in a test, and the yields measured do not, in those cases, represent any specific combustion stage. For materials not showing flaming combustion, for example, mineral fiber products, the influence on the test conditions regarding oxygen consumption and heat generation from the material itself is limited compared to burning materials. However, there were specific properties and limitations of the different test methods observed that are important to consider. 

  • 21.
    Bloom, Erica
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Theorin, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sanering av mikrobiella skador på trä i byggnader - en sammanställning av nuläget i branschen, lagar, metoder och användningsområden2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trä i byggnader som exponeras för fukt eller fritt vatten blir med tiden utsatt för mikrobiell påväxt. När detta ska åtgärdas kallas det sanering vilket innebär att trä rengörs från påväxten, om inte materialet byts ner helt. Oavsett nyproduktion eller befintliga byggnader så säger lagen genom Miljöbalken och Plan- och bygglagen att påväxt som kan orsaka skada eller olägenhet för människors hälsa ska tas bort. Kemikalielagstiftningen betonar att skador som uppkommer så att kemiska produkter och bekämpningsmedel behöver användas ska undvikas om kunskap och tekniker för detta finns. När bekämpningsmedel väl används är det enbart den avsedda användningen enligt instruktionerna som tillåts. Detta gäller allt trä i byggnader där godkännande krävs. Vetenskapliga studier och myndigheter avråder från användning av kemiska medel för att sanera påväxt på trä. Anledningen är att de verkar ha begränsad effekt och att användningen innebär en risk för att det ökar mängden föroreningar i luften inomhus. Dessutom finns en risk att metoderna eventuellt bara dödar den mikrobiella påväxten, utan att den tas bort, och att även död/inaktiv påväxt kan innebära hälsorisker Aktörer inom bygg och företag som sanerar fuktskador efterlyser ett övergripande regelverk och riktlinjer för hantering av fuktskadat trä i byggnader. Sanering av mikrobiella organismer på trä utförs i stor omfattning vid nyproduktion av byggnader om de utsatts för nederbörd eller om skydd mot fukt och vattenskador varit bristfälligt. Fuktsäkerheten behöver prioriteras i större utsträckning i många fall. Redan vid planering av budget och projektering behövs relevanta strategier för att hantera fuktsäkerheten. Áv intervjuerna framgår att slipning av träytor är den vanligast använda saneringsmetoden, följt av isblästring och användning av kemiska medel för att rengöra och bleka virkesytan. Byggnader som utsätts för fritt vatten eller höga fukthalter kan efter längre tid få rötskador och insektskador. Röt- och insektskador åtgärdas genom att skadat material byts ut och/eller genom att behandling utförs med godkända bekämpningsmedel.

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  • 22.
    Boubitsas, Dimitrios
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg. Lund University, Sweden.
    Chloride transport and chloride threshold values: studies on concretes and mortars with Portland cement and limestone blended cement2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used building materials and if it is properly designed and produced, it is an extremely durable material with a service life up to 100 years. However, under certain environmental conditions the service life of reinforced concrete structures is more limited. Deterioration ofconcrete structure is in most cases caused by the penetration of aggressive media from the surrounding environment. Chloride initiated reinforcement corrosion is one of the major causes of deterioration of Concrete structures. One conflicting issue is how replacing Portland cement with mineral additions influences chlorideinitiated reinforcement corrosion. This issue is of immediate interest, as there is a steady growth in the use of cement blended with mineral additions, such as blast-furnace slag, fly ash and limestone filler. This is done by the cement and concrete industry to reduce the CO2 emissions linked to Portland cement manufacturing, bylimiting the use of clinker in the cement.The main objective of this work has been to further clarify the role of limestone filler as partial substitute to Portland cement on the two main decisive parameters for chloride induced reinforcement corrosion: chloride ingress rate and chloride threshold values. In the first part of this work the chloride ingress was studied both with accelerated laboratory methods and also after field exposure. The initial focus for the second part of the study was to determine the chloride threshold values for the binders investigated in the first part, so a comprehensive view of the effect of limestone addition on chloride initiated corrosion could be presented.However, during the work the need for the development of a practice-related method for determining the chloride threshold values was identified and the focus of the research was redirected to meet that need.The efficiency of limestone filler concerning chloride ingress showed to be dependent on replacement ratio, time (age) and on the test method. It was not possible to draw any rigid conclusion of the limestone filler’s efficiency regarding chloride ingress. But part of the inconsistency in the results was identified to be that limestone filler has two opposite effects on chloride ingress, on one hand contribute to a refinement of microstructure and on the other hand diminishing the chloride binding.The steel surface condition was shown to have a strong effect on the corrosion initiation, and can likely be one of the most decisive parameters attributing to the variability in the reported chloride threshold values obtained in laboratory experiments. The chloride threshold value for the sulphate resistant Portland cement fromthe laboratory experiments was estimated to be about 1% by weight of binder. For the concrete with limestone blended cement (CEM II/A-LL 42.5R) tested in this work the chloride threshold value was at the same level as for the sulphate resistant Portland cement. From the field study but with a somewhat different definition ofchloride threshold value, a chloride threshold value of about 1% by weight of binder was also estimated for ordinary Portland cement and sulphate resistance Portland with 5% silica fume exposed to marine environment.

  • 23.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Engineering methods for structural fire design of wood buildings – structural integrity during a full natural fire2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural collapse as a result of fire is rare, but it can, especially in case of high rise buildings, lead to high property loss. For buildings with a risk of high financial damages, such as tall buildings, there may be a need to show that the building can withstand a complete natural fire without structural collapse, by e.g. using simulation and calculation methods. Such methods and guidance on how to use these are available for structures made of concrete and steel. Hereby, the structure is assessed against design fire exposures which are expected in a potential fire of the specific building or building design. However, such methods and guidance on how to use them is lacking for tall timber buildings. The risk of collapse is dependent on the fire exposure and properties of the structure. When timber is the structural material, the structure can have an influence on the fire exposure as timber can contribute to the fire as fuel. Therefore, successful structural design methods should include the contribution of timber to the fuel of the fire.

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  • 24.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings – Phase 2: Task 4 – Engineering Methods2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent architectural trends include the design and construction of tall buildings with visible structural members comprised of mass timber. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is such a mass timber material and is increasingly used for tall buildings because of a combination of advantages regarding its structural performance, low environmental impact and more. As timber is a combustible material, CLT can become involved in the fire if it is not protected against the fire. Previous tests have shown that the contribution of the timber possibly leads to sustained fires that do not burn out, because of failure of the base layer of gypsum boards, debonding of CLT lamellas (delamination) or due to an excess of unprotected timber. If it cannot be assumed that the fire brigade or sprinkler activation will suppress a fire, it can be needed to design for burn-out without successful fire suppression. Engineering methods to limit the impact of gypsum failure, delamination and an excess of exposed timber are needed. Additionally, a method for structural design for CLT structures considering natural fires is needed. This report proposes and evaluates pragmatic design methods using parametric design fires. The methods using parametric design fires can only be valid if delamination and failure of the base layer of gypsum boards are avoided. Therefore, an additional method to predict gypsum fall-off is presented. A method to avoid delamination is presented in other work. The parametric fire design methods proposed, resulted in conservative predictions of the damage of exposed CLT and conservative predictions of the occurrence of gypsum board fall-off. Parametric design fires can be used for structural predictions of the timber building exposed to fire using recently developed methods.

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  • 25.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Dagenais, Christian
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings – Phase 2: Task 5 – Experimental Study of Delamination of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) in Fire2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent architectural trends include the design and construction of tall buildings with visible structural members comprised of mass timber. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is such a material and is increasingly used for tall buildings because of a combination of advantages regarding its structural performance, low environmental impact and more. As timber is a combustible material, CLT can become involved in the fire at locations where it is not protected against the fire. In that case, the CLT contributes to the fuel load of the fire and has an influence on the fire dynamics. Recent compartment fire tests have shown that bond line failures within cross-laminated timber caused by fire can result in sustained fires that do not extinguish naturally. Due to weakening of the bond line, glued lamellas of the exposed layer of the CLT can delaminate, which can result in a sudden exposure of cold timber to the high temperatures of a fire. This delamination results, therefore, in an increased combustion of exposed timber, and was previously shown to be the cause of continuous fully developed fires and fires that re-intensify after a period of decay. The study presented in this report aimed to (1) determine whether delamination in compartment fires can be avoided by using robust adhesives and (2) to assess the capability of a small scale test method to identify robust adhesives that do not lead to delamination of CLT in fires. The study involved a replication of fire conditions recorded in a recent compartment fire test performed earlier for this research project on Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings. These fire conditions were replicated in an intermediate scale furnace test with an exposed CLT specimen. The fire temperatures, oxygen concentration, incident radiant heat flux, CLT temperatures, charring rate and times of delamination resulting from the intermediate scale tests were similar to those of the compartment test, if the same CLT product was used in both specimens. It was shown that some CLT specimens made with other adhesives do not delaminate in the same conditions. The capability of a small scale Bunsen burner test to identify non-delaminating and delaminating adhesives was assessed. A comparative study showed that there is a good correspondence between results of the intermediate scale furnace test and the small scale Bunsen burner test.

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  • 26.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Tiso, M
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Parametric fire design – zero-strengthlayers and charring rates2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of fire safety engineering performance based design methods are increasingly used to demonstrate that building designs are safe. However, performance based design is not commonly used for the design of timber structures, as there are not many relevant assessment methods available (Östman et al. 2010). For assessment whether the design of a building meets certain criteria, a design fire scenario is needed. Design fires often describe the temperature throughout a fire and are often based on dimensions, ventilation conditions and the fuel load of the compartment. Parametric fires are such design fires, used for structural calculations corresponding to post-flashover fires in compartments, based on the compartment’s dimensions, ventilation openings, lining materials, and the fuel load. Eurocode 1 (EN1991-1- 2:2004) includes parametric fires. Annex A of Eurocode 5 (EN1995-1-2:2004) offers calculation methods to determine charring rates of timber under parametric fire exposure, which depend mostly on the compartment’s ventilation opening sizes. However, Annex A is not accepted for use in all European countries, as the provided charring rates are questioned. Additionally, there are some parameters missing for calculations of structures exposed to parametric fires, namely: (1) notional charring rates, which take into account an increased char depth at the corners of small crosssections and (2) zero-strength-layers, which take into account a strength reduction of uncharred but damaged wood in the structural member. This paper presents an experimental study performed to determine one-dimensional, notional charring rates and zero-strength-layers corresponding to a range of parametric fire curves.

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  • 27.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Klippel, Michael
    Frangi, Andrea
    Glueline Integrity in Fire2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass timber is an increasingly popular material for large and tall buildings. Such buildings typically have higher consequence classes than buildings of traditional timber construction and have higher fire resistance requirements. Architectural demands pushing towards having large surface areas of visible and exposed wood lead to additional fire safety challenges. Previous research has shown that some mass timber products can exhibit glue line integrity failure when exposed to fire, while other mass timber products are not prone to this phenomenon. In practice, it is important to know whether glue line integrity failure occurs, to be able to suitably perform fire resistance calculations (for example using the upcoming version of Eurocode 5) and to be able to predict the fire exposure and duration of fires in real buildings (needed for a performance-based approach). The research presented in this report studies the suitability of a furnace test for determining whether products exhibit glue line integrity failure or not. The study includes the determination of a conservative test duration, by comparisons with conditions of a statistically severe compartment fire. Furthermore, a round robin study with twelve fire tests in furnaces of different labs at different scales, fired with different fuel types has been performed. For all tests, the specimens were made of a mass timber material that does not exhibit glue line integrity failure. The average mass loss rate per unit of exposed area and the average charring rate were determined and assessment criteria were evaluated. Comparisons of the round robin study results have been made, against those of a specific CLT product that has been shown to maintain glue line integrity in numerous furnace and compartment fire tests and a recommendation of a pass/fail criterion is given for a future classification standard.

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  • 28.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Ziethen, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Allbrektsson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    High-Fire-Resistance Glulam Connections for Tall Timber Buildings2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tall timber buildings generally require fire resistance ratings of 90 minutes, 120 minutes or more. The vast majority of fire tested structural timber connections, however, did not reach a fire resistance that was relevant for these buildings. Commonly timber connections between glued laminated timber members comprise of exposed steel fasteners, such as bolts, screws, nails and dowels. However, it has previously been concluded that connections with exposed steel fasteners, generally do not achieve fire resistance ratings of 30 minutes and are, therefore, inadequate to be implemented in tall timber buildings without fire encapsulation. The research project presented in this report consists of four connection fire tests that are designed to achieve structural fire resistance ratings of 90 minutes, using different design strategies. This goal was achieved for all tested column-beam connections. A single test of a moment resisting connection did not lead to a fire resistance rating of 90 minutes, due to timber failure at the smallest cross-section after 86 minutes. The low temperature of the steel fasteners and the limited rotation of the connection, however, suggest that the connection would have been capable of achieving a 90 minutes fire resistance rating if larger beam cross-sections would be used.

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  • 29.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Hallberg, Emil
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fire Safety of CLT Buildings with Ex-posed Wooden Surfaces: Summary Report2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Five real scale compartment fire tests, constructed of CLT slabs and glulam beam and column in accordance with current US product standards, were performed. The compartments had surface areas of exposed mass timber equal to up to two times the area of the floor plan. The 4 hours long tests showed that compartments with such quantities of exposed wood can exhibit continuous decay to hot-spots and embers after flashover. The tests indicate that the presence of two exposed wall surfaces in one corner should be avoided to ensure this.

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  • 30.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Post-Fire Rehabilitation of CLT2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered mass timber materials such as CLT have been increasingly implemented as a structural material for tall or larger buildings in recent years. Most studies have been conducted on the structural performance of timber exposed to fire, but the number of studies focusing on post-fire rehabilitation of mass timber have been limited. As increasingly large timber buildings are being realized, for insurance purposes it becomes increasingly important to ensure that a building can be repaired after a fire. This report presents a case study of the repair of a section of a CLT ceiling after a significant fire. The specimen is obtained from a recent compartment fire test and is positioned and oriented in a way that is representative for on site rehabilitation. The repair was done in six steps: 1. Mapping the thickness of the charred or damaged layer 2. Design and planning 3. Removal of the char layer 4. Planing of the surface including corners 5. Gluing procedure of replacing lamella 6. Finish the surface to meet architectural requirement A new method for determining the grade of damage, the method for planing the specimen, the adhesive type, the glue pressing methods were designed for the rehabilitation exercise. In addition, the layup of the CLT is changed to prioritise flexural stiffness and bending capacity over shear capacity, as they generally govern the structural capacity of CLT floors. After the six-step repair was done, the specimen was cut in half to perform two similar structural bending tests. The results indicate that the flexural stiffness which is generally governing the load bearing capacity of floors, is fully restored by the rehabilitation work. The results also indicate that bending capacity, which can be governing for relatively short floor spans, is restored and possibly increased by the rehabilitation work. The shear capacity which is only critical for short floor spans in combination with very high loads is, however, reduced, as the experimental shear capacity is 18% lower than the characteristic shear capacity.

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  • 31.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hallberg, Emil
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire Safe implementation of visible mass timber in tall buildings – compartment fire testing2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Five real scale fire tests of compartments constructed of cross-laminated timber (CLT) and glued laminated timber, compliant with product standards specified in current US model building code, were performed. Four of the tested compartments were designed to result in a representative and severe fire scenario in a residential fire compartment, using a probabilistic approach. The other tested compartment had additional openings and a greater opening factor, which was aimed to be representative of buildings designed for business occupancy. The interior of the compartments had surface areas of exposed mass timber that varied from approximately the area of the floor plan to approximately two times the area of the floor plan. The tests included measurements to study the internal compartment exposure, the temperature development at gypsum protected surfaces, the temperature development in the structural timber, oxygen concentrations at locations of interest and exposure to exterior surfaces of the wall and façade above the openings. The fire in the compartment with a greater opening factor had two layers of fire-rated gypsum board protection on the back wall and all other surfaces of CLT and glued laminated timber exposed. Despite having the highest peak combustion rate, this compartment fire had the least severe internal and external fire exposure. The fire decayed relatively quickly after flashover and continued to decay until the test was stopped at 4 hours after ignition. This fire resulted in less structural damage than the fires in compartments with fewer and smaller openings. The compartments with fewer and smaller openings had similar temperatures for approximately the first 10 minutes after flashover. The compartment with only the ceiling (including the glued laminated timber beam) exposed started to decay after 22 minutes of post-flashover fire and continued to decay until the end of the test at 4 hours after ignition. The other three tests had, in addition to the ceiling, significant areas of exposed wall and column surfaces. To accommodate for the extended fire duration that was expected in these configurations an extra layer of gypsum board protection was applied to the protected surfaces. The additional exposed surface areas of walls led to an increase of the fully developed fire duration by 6 - 9 minutes. One of the compartments included corners where two exposed walls intersect. Significantly increased damage was observed in the lower part of these wall corners, and an overall higher radiative exposure in the test with such corners. After more than three hours of decay, surface flaming developed on the walls in that test. The fires in the tests without such corners exhibited continual decay for the full 4-hour test duration. Post-test analysis showed that the structural damage was lower in exposed ceilings than at the bottom of the exposed walls for all tests. After the tests, remaining smoldering and hot spots were reduced using relatively small amounts of water mist. Overnight measurements to study the thermal wave going through the loadbearing structure indicated no post-test reduction of structural capacity.

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  • 32.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Predictive method for fires in CLT and glulam structures – A priori modelling versus real scale compartment fire tests & an improved method2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictive modelling of the fire duration, fire temperatures, heat release rates and the structural capacity during building fires can be used to show compliance with performance-based building code requirements. The predictive models presented in this report focusses on the post flashover fire including the decay phase and extinction of flaming combustion for mass timber structures. A priori predictions of five recent compartment fire tests have been set against experimental results and compared. After the tests, the model has been updated, mostly for increased ease of use and increased accuracy for the decay phase. The model consists of a single-zone model which uses an energy equilibrium approach to obtain gas temperatures and surface temperatures of compartment boundaries. The energy contribution of charring mass timber is included using through-depth temperature calculations of the structure and experimental relationships to determine the combustion rate. The through-depth temperatures of mass timber members also serve to provide information for structural calculations using temperature dependent reduced material properties. However, the structural calculations are out of the scope of the current report. The radiation conditions (and total thermal exposure to walls ceilings and floors) predicted by the updated model were accurately described the of recent full-scale experiments within the variations between and within the tests. The comparisons with experiments showed that the total heat is, however, underestimated in some cases and surface temperatures were underestimated in the decay phase. Local effects caused by a radiative feedback loop between surfaces that show significant char oxidation, which occurred in a part of the test, is not included in the model.

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  • 33.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Mikkola, Esko
    SAFITS - Statistical Analysis of Fires in Timber Structures2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to changes of regulations and product development among other things, the number of multi-storey buildings of timber frame or heavy timber construction has increased consistently in the last two decades. The use of a combustible materials in the structure and the relatively short history with such buildings, has led to insurance related questions regarding risks of property loss. Studies of damages in real fire incidents, where a fair comparison between the fire performance of modern multi-storey timber buildings is made, were lacking. In this study damage data of fire incidents from the USA, Canada, Sweden, New Zealand were found and analyzed. Using different methods the extent of fire damage or the financial damage was compared for fires in multistorey buildings of timber construction types and fires in multistorey buildings of other construction types. For each database a qualitative assessment of the reliability and the fairness of the comparison was made. Also, a comparison, for which only a limited number of fire incidents was available, was made between damages caused in sprinklered fires and damages caused in non-sprinklered fires. In addition to the comparative study also qualitative analysis of 33 high damage fire incidents in multistorey timber buildings was made. The goal of this assessment was to identify the most important details to prevent high damage fires.

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  • 34.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The use of green roofs to improve wooden buildings for a future bioeconomy2022In: E3S Web of Conferences, E-ISSN 2267-1242, Vol. 349, p. 04014-04014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioeconomy helps to move towards a renewable, fossil-free future. The environmental impact is significantly reduced when replacing fossil-based products with bio-based alternatives. In a bioeconomy, all products are made from renewable and biogenic resources. In the building sector examples for biogenic sources are traditionally wooden building structures, while green roofs are becoming more popular. The goal of the present project was to assess the amount of biogenic carbon stored in green roofs and wooden buildings overall. The question is whether green roofs are improving the biogenic carbon usage of buildings and find out how that can be improved. The methods used are based on construction modelling, life cycle assessment and standardised environmental product declaration (EPD). The results indicate that wooden building structures are not enough for a complete biogenic building to move to a renewable, fossil-free future. Furthermore, the green roofs do add more biogenic carbon to the building than conventional roofs, while seen over the whole building these benefits are negligible. The results are presented as renewable and nonrenewable energy as well as biogenic carbon and greenhouse gas emissions. These are compared with conventional roofing based on non-renewable standard roofs in Sweden.

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  • 35.
    Bøe, Andreas Sæter
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Friquin, Kathinka Leikanger
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; SINTEF, Norway.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ertesvåg, Ivar
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fire spread in a large compartment with exposed cross-laminated timber and open ventilation conditions: #FRIC-01 – Exposed ceiling2023In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 140, article id 103869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposing cross-laminated timber (CLT) structures in buildings is increasingly popular in modern buildings. However, large timber surfaces, window facades, and different geometries can change the fire dynamics in a compartment. The effect of those parameters, therefore, needs to be studied. Two large-scale CLT compartment fire experiments (95 m2) have consequently been performed. The experiments were designed to represent a modern office building with an open-plan space and large window openings. In this experiment, #FRIC-01, the ceiling was exposed. The wood crib fire developed slowly and travelled approximately 1.5 m before the ceiling ignited at 32.5 min. Thereafter the fire spread rapidly across the ceiling and wood crib before it shortly after retracted. Three such cycles of rapid spread followed by a retraction occurred within 13 min, whereby the wood crib fire grew larger for each cycle. After the flames extended through the compartment for the fourth time, the fire remained fully developed. After a short period of intense burning, the CLT self-extinguished while the wood crib fire was still burning. The compartment withstood full burnout, and no reignition occurred despite some delamination and using an adhesive that lacks a demonstrated resistance against glue-line integrity failure. © 2023 The Authors

  • 36.
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Pettersson Skog, Anna
    Emilsson, Tobias
    Malmberg, Jonatan
    Jägerhök, Tove
    Edwards, Ylva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Grönatakhandboken: Vägledning2017Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Carolina, Hiller
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Boork, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Enger, Johanna
    Konstfack University of Arts, Crafts and Design, Sweden.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    User-Centric Measures of the Perceived Light Qualities of Lighting Products2023In: Emerging Science Journal, ISSN 2610-9182, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 609-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, lighting planning is predominantly determined by the need to meet physically measurable requirements that are often based on current lighting standards. However, meeting the minimum technical requirements of the standards is no guarantee for a visually appealing light environment. Instead, requirements based on perceived light qualities also need to be included to achieve better user comfort. Taking perception-based qualities into consideration when creating a light environment is, for many, not an easy task. In addition, a common terminology for perceived light qualities is currently lacking, both in industry and in research. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to explore how perceived light qualities of white light sources can be described when employing user-centric measures. The focus was on the qualities of light colour and diffuse and distinct light since these qualities have a great impact on the visual impression of light. The perception was assessed by applying analytical sensory analysis to lighting products, a method found to be promising in previous work. The methodology is based on analytical measurement by the human senses, which is particularly valuable when developing a general terminology. Since sensory analysis is still quite new to the topic of lighting, the applicability of using the methodology to assess lighting in a real context was also investigated. The results of the studies showed that the perception of light qualities can be described using further concepts in addition to those currently used. For light colour, the concepts of reddish, bluish, yellowish, and greenish light colours proved suitable for providing a richer description of the quality. The concepts of diffuse and distinct light satisfactorily captured variations in light contrast produced by shadows, reflections, and sparkles. In addition, the studies revealed that analytical sensory analysis was applicable for assessing the perception of lighting in a real-world context. The latter means that knowledge gained in the laboratory can be translated into real environments. The user-centric measures investigated in this paper have contributed to the terminology related to perceived light qualities. These can complement the physical measures in lighting planning to promote light environments that are not only energy efficient and meet technical requirements, but also cater for increased user comfort. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 38.
    Carolina, Hiller
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Isaksson, Charlotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. University West, Sweden.
    Att utforma teknik med användarna i sikte: intervjuer med tillverkare av energitekniska installationer för småhus2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing technology with users in mind – Interviews with manufacturers of heating and ventilation systems for single-family houses: Implementing technology with good energy performance in our homes is crucial to be able to reduce the energy use and achieve society's energy goals. However, technical measures alone are not enough; how residents interact with and use the technology is also important. The current study revolved around how different users are considered by technology manufacturers in the design of the technology. The objectives of the study were to examine manufacturers' motives and ideas about how heating and ventilation systems are designed and their views on the communication with end users. To explore this, interviews were conducted with manufacturers of heat pumps and ventilation units for single-family houses. The interview study showed that there are several challenges when manufacturers are to consider users' interaction with the technology. It regards designing the products, and especially their interfaces, for different types of users – where the manufacturers hold the view that many users do not have knowledge or understanding of the product. Another challenge is the frequency of interaction with the product, meaning that heating and ventilation systems are technologies that residents usually do not need to interact with very often. This can lead to an unfamiliarity with handling the technology when it is actually required. Also, manufacturers do not have much direct contact with end users, which becomes a particular challenge in shaping the communication and support for users, as well as gaining knowledge about users' real needs. Residents' expectations of high comfort in their homes regarding heating and hot water are anticipated to pose another challenge, especially in supporting households to save energy. The question is then: how are these challenges handled by the manufacturers and how do they design the technology with the users in mind? First and foremost, it was evident during the interviews that a prominent position among the manufactures is that users should not have to interact with the products to any great extent at all. This position has led the manufacturers to design the technology for minimal use and maintenance. But there is somewhat of a duality. While the manufacturers design for a minimal use, they also strive to keep up with recent developments and invest in modern user interfaces, Internet-connected products, and new mobile applications. Several manufacturers have, to varying degrees, involved users and considered their needs in the development of products and interfaces. This has resulted in functions in the interfaces that are adapted to the users. The functions are organised in the interfaces to, together with the use of intuitive icons, create clarity and simplicity for the users. Energy-saving settings, including "eco-mode" and functions to reduce "unnecessary" energy use, have also been developed by several manufacturers. The communication from manufacturers to end users is mostly one-way, but during the interviews there were examples of how manufacturers work in different ways to make information easily accessible to users. For the two-way communication with end users, other professionals, such as dealers and technicians, play an important role in providing households with relevant information and technical support related to the technology. Further developments with more connected products, better control systems, and a higher degree of automation were seen as responses to many of the above-mentioned challenges as well. From the manufacturers' perspectives and views of the users, the study has provided insights that can be useful also in future challenges and opportunities regarding human interaction with, often increasingly advanced, technology. It can involve directing households even more clearly towards energy-saving behaviours or how future services in the “energy-smart home” can be designed based on the needs of end users.

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  • 39.
    Charlier, Marion
    et al.
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Glorieux, Antoine
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Dai, Xu
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Alam, Naveed
    Ulster University,UK.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Vassart, Olivier
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Nadjai, Ali
    Ulster University, UK.
    Travelling fire experiments in steel-framed structure: numerical investigations with CFD and FEM2021In: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, ISSN 2040-2317, E-ISSN 2040-2325, Vol. 12, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a simplified representation of the fire load in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to represent the effect of large-scale travelling fire and to highlight the relevance of such an approach whilst coupling the CFD results with finite element method (FEM) to evaluate related steel temperatures, comparing the numerical outcomes with experimental measurements. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the setup of the CFD simulations (FDS software), its corresponding assumptions and the calibration via two natural fire tests whilst focusing on gas temperatures and on steel temperatures measured on a central column. For the latter, two methods are presented: one based on EN 1993-1-2 and another linking CFD and FEM (SAFIR® software). Findings: This paper suggests that such an approach can allow for an acceptable representation of the travelling fire both in terms of fire spread and steel temperatures. The inevitable limitations inherent to the simplifications made during the CFD simulations are also discussed. Regarding steel temperatures, the two methods lead to quite similar results, but with the ones obtained via CFD–FEM coupling are closer to those measured. Originality/value: This work has revealed that the proposed simplified representation of the fire load appears to be appropriate to evaluate the temperature of steel structural elements within reasonable limits on computational time, making it potentially desirable for practical applications. This paper also presents the first comparisons of FDS–SAFIR® coupling with experimental results, highlighting promising outcomes. 

  • 40.
    Charlier, Marion
    et al.
    ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange, Luxembourg.
    Vassart, Olivier
    ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange, Luxembourg.
    Glorieux, Antoine
    ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange, Luxembourg.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liège University, Belgium.
    Gamba, Antonio
    Liège University, Belgium.
    Dumont, Fabien
    Liège University, Belgium.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. RISE.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Xu, Dai
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Rush, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Nadjai, Ali
    Ulster University, UK.
    Alam, Naveed
    Ulster University, UK.
    TRAFIR: Characterization of TRAvelling FIRes in large compartments2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspection of recent fire events in large compartments reveals them to have a great deal of non-uniformity, they generally burn locally and move across floor plates over a period of time. This phenomenon which generates transient heating of the structure is idealized as “travelling fire”.A first series of tests was launched to define a fire load representative of an office building according to Eurocodes. Additional tests where the fire dynamics were controlled were launched to develop an understanding of the fire exposure to steel structures.Then, a second series of large scale tests were performed in real building dimensions. These tests had no artificial control over the dynamics, which allowed a realistic characterization of the fire. The fire load was identical for all tests, only the openings were modified.CFD numerical models were developed to reproduce the experimental campaign and to launch parametrical analyses. This allowed to provide information concerning the conditions which may lead (or not) to a travelling fire scenario.An analytical model for the characterization of a travelling fire was developed and implemented in a simple calculation tool. It allows to evaluate the fire location, the gas temperatures in the flames, the heat fluxes in the different parts of the compartment and the temperature in a steel member. In addition, the methodology is introduced in the FEM software SAFIR and OpenSees.Ultimately, a design guide was prepared including worked examples which are detailed step-by-step and for which the influence of the inputs on the results is analysed.

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  • 41.
    Crocetti, R.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lappalainen, K.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Backman, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wålinder, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Multiple shear plane connections with timber based gusset plates2021In: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2021, WCTE 2021, World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study conducted on multiple-shear joints consisting of gusset plates made of either LVL or plywood connected to the timber members by means of full-threaded self-tapping screw. Both hardwood and softwood timber based gusset plates with different thickness and face grain orientations were investigated. The results show that this type of connection has an excellent structural performance, with not very dissimilar strength from that of comparable connections which makes use of slotted-in steel plates and dowels. It is believed, therefore, that the proposed solution can be a valid alternative to the more traditional timber connection with slotted-in steel plates and dowels. 

  • 42.
    Döse, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Silfwerbrand, J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jelinek, C.
    Geological Survey of Sweden, Sweden.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Isaksson, M.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Naturally occurring radioactivity in some Swedish concretes and their constituents - Assessment by using I-index and dose-model2016In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 155-156, p. 105-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reference level for effective dose due to gamma radiation from building materials and construction products used for dwellings is set to 1 mSv per year (EC, 1996, 1999), (CE, 2014). Given the specific conditions presented by the EC in report 112 (1999) considering building and construction materials, an I-index of 1 may generate an effective dose of 1 mSv per year. This paper presents a comparison of the activity concentrations of 4 0K, 226Ra and 232Th of aggregates and when these aggregates constitute a part of concrete. The activity concentration assessment tool for building and construction materials, the I-index, introduced by the EC in 1996, is used in the comparison. A comparison of the I-indices values are also made with a recently presented dose model by Hoffman (2014), where density variations of the construction material and thickness of the construction walls within the building are considered. There was a ~16-19% lower activity index in concretes than in the corresponding aggregates. The model by Hoffman further implies that the differences between the I-indices of aggregates and the concretes' final effective doses are even larger. The difference is due, mainly to a dilution effect of the added cement with low levels of natural radioisotopes, but also to a different and slightly higher subtracted background value (terrestrial value) used in the modeled calculation of the revised I-index by Hoffman (2014). Only very minimal contributions to the annual dose could be related to the water and additives used, due to their very low content of radionuclides reported.

  • 43.
    England, Paul
    et al.
    EFT Consulting, Australia.
    Barber, David
    Arup, Australia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Dagenais, Christian
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    De Sanctis, Gianluca
    Basler and Hofmann, Switzerland.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Pau, Dennis
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Wade, Colleen
    Fire Research Group, New Zealand.
    Performance-based design and risk assessment: Chapter 112022In: Fire Safe Use of Wood in Buildings : Global Design Guide / [ed] Andrew Buchanan & Birgit Östman, CRC Press, 2022, p. 369-392Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overview of the application of performance-based approaches to the fire safety design of timber buildings. Performancebased design methods are relevant for the design of tall timber buildings and other timber buildings that vary from accepted prescriptive solutions. Performance-based design approaches are commonly categorised as deterministic or probabilistic methods and should be applied in accordance with the applicable regulations, building codes and standards. This chapter provides references to detailed information that should be consulted when undertaking performance-based designs.

  • 44. Falchi, Laura
    et al.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Fontana, Patrick
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Balliana, Eleonora
    Izzo, Francesca
    Zendri, Elisabetta
    Artificial weathering of water-repellent mortars suitable for restoration applications2014In: Hydrophobe VII / [ed] Mimoso, J.-M., Charola, A.E., 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Fink, Gerhard
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Jockwer, Robert
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Šušteršič, Iztok
    Innorenew CoE, Slovenia.
    Stepinac, Mislav
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Palma, Pedro
    Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Switzerland.
    Bedon, Chiara
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Casagrande, Daniele
    National Research Council of Italy, Italy.
    Franke, Steffen
    Bern University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    D’Arenzo, Giuseppe
    University of Kassel, Germany.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Viau, Christian
    Carleton University, Canada.
    HOLISTIC DESIGN OF TALLER TIMBER BUILDINGS - COST ACTION HELEN (CA20139)2023In: World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2023), 2023, p. 1001-1008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the worldwide construction sector being responsible for one third of carbon dioxide emissions, as well as forty percent of the world’s energy use and waste production, a shift to sustainable and renewable construction techniques is crucial. Engineered timber, a champion of sustainable construction materials, has evolved to a stage that enables the construction of not only family housing but also taller buildings so far commonly built from concrete or steel. Designing taller timber buildings made is more demanding than their concrete and steel counterparts. Whereas different design aspects (architectural, structural, fire safety, acoustics, etc.) of concrete buildings can work almost independently, the design of taller timber buildings should be performed with intensive collaboration among the design teams. It is therefore crucial to address taller multi-storey timber buildings from a collaborative and interdisciplinary perspective, considering static, dynamic, fire, acoustic, human health, and other aspects in parallel and not in isolation. Only through interdisciplinary analysis and interaction can a set of holistic design guidelines be developed that will enable the safe construction of taller timber buildings, as well as respect human wellbeing demands. In this paper, the COST Action CA20139 will be presented and the main aims will be discussed.

  • 46.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Stölen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    EBOB – Solcelleinstallasjoner på bygg: Brannspredning og sikkerhet for brannvesen2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    EBOB - Solar cell installations on buildings. Fire spread and safety for fire services.

    The aim of the project has been to answer the following four research questions: 1. How do wind speed and air gap size affect the fire development in the cavity between the solar cell module and the underlying roof structure, and how do these factors affect the extent of damage to the underlying roof structure? 2. How do solar cell modules affect a fire on a realistic, Norwegian, pitched roof? 3. What work is ongoing in Europe and internationally to developing test methods for fire technical documentation of photovoltaic modules, and how should this be implemented in Norway? 4. How should fire service personnel be secured in their work when the fire includes solar cell installation? In this research question, larger installations beyond residential houses and detached houses are also relevant, including larger buildings, flat roofs and BIPV. To answer research questions 1 and 2, a total of 29 experiments were performed with fire spread in the cavity behind solar cell modules on pitched roof surfaces. The experiments were performed at RISE Fire Research's laboratory in Trondheim in 2021. This main report (RISE report 2022:82) summarizes the entire project, and additional details from the experiments performed are given in a separate technical report (RISE report 2022:83). The main findings from the experiments are that solar cell modules mounted parallel to the roof surface on pitched roofs can affect the fire dynamics of a fire on the roof surface. It was found that both the length of the damaged area on the roof and the temperature rise inwards in the roof (below the chipboard) increased when the distance between the simulated solar cell module and the roof surface decreased. Furthermore, the findings indicate that there is a relation between the size of the gap between the roof surface and the solar cell module, and how large initial fire is needed for the fire to spread. A larger distance between the roof surface and the solar module requires a larger initial fire for the fire to spread. The temperature increase inwards in the roof structure was not large enough in the experiments performed to pose a danger of immediate fire spreading inwards in the structure. Work is ongoing internationally on the development of test methods for fire technical documentation of solar cell modules. This work has so far not resulted in new standards or procedures that can be implemented in Norway. Information has been found from various guidelines and reports on what equipment and expertise the fire service needs to secure their efforts. It is important that the fire service has sufficient knowledge about the working principle of a solar cell installation, so that they understand that parts of the installation can conduct electricity, even if the switch-off switch is activated. The fire service must also be given training in how to handle a fire in a building with a solar cell installation, as well as what protective equipment and tools are needed. The answers from the various fire services to a questionnaire show that solar cell installations rarely are included in the risk and vulnerability analyses (ROS analyses). As a consequence, they do not currently have good enough training and knowledge about handling fires in buildings with solar cell installations. The questionnaire also shows that it seems somewhat unclear to the fire service what responsibility they have in the event of a fire in solar cell installations. This should be clarified, and in cases where solar cell installations pose an increased risk, the fire service must be provided with resources so that they have the right equipment, the right competence, and the right staff to handle such fires.

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  • 47.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Meso Mechanical Study of Cracking Process in Concrete Subjected toTensile Loading2018In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 13-29Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project focused on how the cracking process in concrete is influenced by both the micro and meso structures of concrete. The aim was to increase knowledge pertaining to the effect of critical parameters on the cracking process and how this is related to the material's macroscopic properties. A methodology based on the combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scales was developed. Crack propagation during tensile loading of small-scale specimens in a tensile stage was monitored by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Acoustic Emission (AE). After testing, crack patterns were studied using fluorescence microscopy.

  • 48.
    Flydén, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Sällström, Jan Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    SUSPIPE Pilotprojekt 2 – Bättre anslutningar av strukturväggsrör av plast till betongbrunnar2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a result of the SUSPIPE project. Within SUSPIPE the water and sewage industry's manufacturers, suppliers and customers collaborate. In this sub-project, solutions for connecting concrete manholes to structured wall pipes in plastic have been investigated. The project has also analysed conditions in the field, interviewed customers, contractors and inspectors and tried to understand the origin and cause of the perceived problems with leaking joints. Different types of joints between concrete manholes and plastic pipes have been identified. The new edition of “AMA Anläggning 20” requires seals to be used at the joints, but there is always some lag to implement new editions in procurements. To have consistent requirements for seals, supplementary wording from this report should be introduced in “AMA Anläggning” under PB, PC and PD. In this report, efforts have also been made to formulate requirements for materials and tightness testing, which customers can use in procurements or project instructions to improve the quality of their joints. However, further work will be required to link these to appropriate standards at the system level. The requirements for vulcanized rubber and, also thermoplastic elastomers in applicable standards need to be tightened, but this is a long-term process. A proposal from a previous project is adopted in this report, which is to perform relaxation tests for longer time periods. The report's proposal for requirements for verification of joint seals is based on product standards for concrete manholes and unpressurized plastic pipes, as well as a general standard for unpressurized piping systems. However, there is no standard or similar where these requirements can be set. Optionally, a voluntary labelling could be applied. Plastic pipes are marked in the Nordic countries with Nordic Poly Mark and for some other products, P-marking has been introduced through SP / RISE. Furthermore, the report states six success factors for water tight unpressurised piping systems, which include favourable contractor conditions, that accuracy in pipe laying is applied, that correct joint seals are used, that the supplier's instructions are followed, that on-site inspections are carried out and that leakage tests are carried out. 

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  • 49.
    Gales, John
    et al.
    York University, Canada.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fire research for timber structures2023In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 413-414Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Gernay, Thomas
    et al.
    Johns Hopkins University, USA.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liege University, Belgium.
    Robert, Fabienne
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Lund University, Sweden.
    Felicetti, Roberto
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Bamonte, Patrick
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Brunkhorst, Sven
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Mohaine, Siyimane
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Zehfuß, Jochen
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Experimental investigation of structural failure during the cooling phase of a fire: Concrete columns2022In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 134, article id 103691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structures may collapse during the cooling phase of a fire, yet standard furnace tests only measure the response under heating. There lacks experimental test protocols and design methods to assess resistance until burnout. This paper describes a new experimental approach for burnout resistance evaluation, reports experimental data on loaded reinforced concrete columns in furnace tests with cooling down phases, and presents numerical models of the tests. The test results show that columns designed for a standard fire resistance of 60 min exhibited a fire resistance of 83 min in the furnace but failed during the cooling phase when the burners were shut off after 72 min while the load was maintained. Two other specimens survived exposure to heating of 45 and 55 min, respectively, and their residual capacity was measured. Finite element analyses show agreement with the tests, showing applicability of numerical methods for evaluating burnout resistance of concrete columns. These findings demonstrate experimentally that delayed thermal-mechanical effects can jeopardize structural stability in real fires, and provide a framework to measure these effects. Moving beyond fire resistance to quantify the response until burnout will support designs for safety of occupants and firefighters throughout the fire and promote repairability and resilience. 

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