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  • 1. Alberg, Ingmarie
    et al.
    Berntsson, Britt
    Andersson, Kjell
    Dannestam, Åse
    Persson Boonkaew, Frida
    (Larsson) Gulliksson, Daniel
    Fält, Jenny
    Good, Johanna
    Tiden, Sophie
    Nordin, Mats
    Claesson, Per
    Åhström, Mikael
    Edwards, Ylva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Lyne, Åsa Laurell
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Kvalitetssäkrade systemlösningar för gröna anläggningar/tak på betongbjälklag med nolltolerans mot läckage: Rapport- Arbetsprocessen2017Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Fire Safety of Façades2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Façade fires do not occur often (in comparison to other major structure fires) but in recent years there have been a number of spectacular façade fires in high rise building such as the recent fire in Grenfell Tower, London.Under-ventilated compartment fires may cause flames to spill out of window openings impinging the façade, thus devastating façade fires may start on one floor leap-frogging to adjacent floors. It is therefore necessary to limit or delay fire spread to higher floors. Requirements built on large scale fire testing may decrease the risk of these types of fires provided that the building is constructed according to the specifications provided by the manufacturer. Different countries have different regulations and tests for façades. New materials and façade systems are continuously introduced which might call for an update of these tests and regulations.This report summarizes experimental and modelling efforts in characterizing the fire safety of façades using the Swedish SP Fire 105 and the British BS 8414 methods. Recent experimental results and modelling is presented exploring the variations in the fire exposure, fire load and the fuel used. The fire source and the heat exposure to the façade are characterized by additional temperatures measured by plate thermometers while some other aspects are only treated in the numerical study such as a change in fuel. It is found that the results from the BS 8414 are largely affected by wind and climate since the experimental test was performed outdoors, moreover fire spread on wooden façades is also briefly discussed.In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the test methods and the results CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) Modelling in FDS was used. The models were based on measured input parameters including uncertainties and an assessment of the impact of said uncertainties. The models could often reproduce the experimentally found temperatures qualitatively and quantitatively. A detailed discussion on the regulations and the tests that lead to the SP Fire 105 test method is also presented. Summaries of the façade testing methods and conditions in other European countries are presented in the appendices.Finally possible ways forward in updating the façade testing and regulations are discussed.

  • 3.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Modeling of fire exposure in facade fire testing2017In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a comparative simulation study on 3 large‐scale facade testing methods, namely,the SP Fire 105, BS 8414‐1, and the ISO 13785‐2 methods, is presented. Generally goodcorrespondence between simulations and experimental data has been found, provided thatthermal properties of the facade material and heat release rates are known; however, thecorrespondence deviates in close proximity of the fire source. Furthermore, a statistical ensemblefor evaluating the effects stemming from uncertainty in input data is used. Here, it wasfound using this statistical ensemble that the variability was smaller in the ISO 13785‐2compared to the BS 8414‐1 method. The heat release rates (HRR) used in the simulations wereadopted from measurements except for the ISO method where the information in the standardwas used to approximate the HRR. A quantitative similarity between the HRR in the ISOmethod and the British method was found.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Aras, Silvia
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Riskreducerande åtgärder för dödsbränder i bostäder2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thisreport summarizes the work conducted within the project ”Analysis of physicaldeterminants and technical measures in support of the zero vision” financed bythe Civil Contingency Authority (MSB) in Sweden. The work aims to find measuresto prevent and reduce the number of fatalities in fires in residentialbuildings in a Sweden, a list of such measures is provided in the end of thereport. The list is based on work conducted in several small sub-projects, ashort summary of these is also provided in the report.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Wikman, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Safe introduction of battery propulsion at sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric propulsion using batteries as energy storage has the potential to significantly reduce emissions from shipping and thus the environmental impact. The battery type that is currently on the top of the agenda to be used for ship propulsion applications is Li-ion batteries. Li-ion batteries pose different safety issues than e.g. other propulsion technologies and other batteries such as lead-acid batteries. It is essential that the safety level on board, including fire safety, is maintained, when introducing electric propulsion with energy storage in batteries. This report discusses the different regulations and guidelines available today for fire safety of batteries on board in relation to current knowledge about Li-ion batteries. Also fire safety measures available on board ships today and their applicability for Li-ion batteries is discussed, as well as the different test methods available and their applicability. A workshop gathering different stakeholders from Sweden, Norway and Finland identified fire safety as the main challenge for the introduction of battery propulsion at sea. The workshop concluded that future work is desired in order to increase knowledge and to develop publicly available strategies, training and designs.

  • 6.
    Anderzén, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Insamling av matavfall i flerbostadshus – goda exempel från kommuner och allmännyttiga bostadsföretag2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Insamlingen av matavfall ökar. Över 200 kommuner har infört matavfallsinsamling och många ytterligare är på gång. Plockanalyser har visat att matavfall insamlat i flerbostadshus har sämre kvalitet än matavfall insamlat från villor. Andelen matavfall som sorteras ut är också generellt lägre. En ständigt återkommande frågeställning är därför hur insamling i flerbostadshus kan förbättras, både sett till mängd och kvalitet, men även utvecklingspotential för samarbetet mellan fastighetsägare och avfallsansvariga på kommun. Vilken eller vilka arbetsmetoder är bäst sett ur både avfallsansvariga enheten på kommunen/kommunala bolaget såväl som fastighetsägarens perspektiv?

    I flerbostadshus tillämpas olika insamlingssystem. Dessa är beroende av vilket grundsystem som finns i kommunen. Samlas matavfallet in i ett separat flöde eller samlas det in tillsammans med restavfallet i olikfärgade plastpåsar som sedan sorteras ut optiskt i en sorteringsanläggning?

    I separata system behöver utrymme för en separat fraktion skapas vid hämtstället. Ofta tillämpas en kombination av system utifrån aktuella förutsättningar på hämtstället. Man brukar likna det med en palett av alternativ för att kunna möta fastighetsägarnas behov. Vanligt förekommande är separata kärl i ett rum eller hus för sortering. Då det ofta handlar om större mängder matavfall har även mekaniska system såsom bottentömmande behållare och sopsug blivit allt vanligare för källsortering av matavfall i flerbostadshus, särskilt i storstadsregionerna.

    Vid optisk sortering behöver inte separata insamlingssystem skapas i insamlingsledet utan istället ligger fokus på att skapa förutsättningar för att hela, rena och väl knutna plastpåsar kommer till sorteringsanläggningen. Det är också viktigt att påsar som är avsedda för matavfall inte används till annat då de då sorteras ut som matavfall. Förekomst av löst avfall försämrar sorteringen och ska också undvikas.

    I både separata system och system med olikfärgade påsar för optisk sortering är påsen för sortering av matavfall i hemmet central för att systemet ska fungera. Därför är det viktigt att skapa förutsättningar för hushållen att alltid ha tillgång till rätt påse och utrustning för sin sortering. 

    Ytterligare ett system som börjar bli vanligare i flerbostadshus är köksavfallskvarnar. Här finns det exempel både på kvarnar som är kopplade direkt till ledningsnätet och kvarnar kopplade till en tank/slamavskiljare som töms med sugbil för transport till behandlingsanläggning. Principen för den som källsorterar sitt matavfall är dock densamma och sorteringen görs uteslutande i hushållets kök.

    Ett generellt problem i flerbostadshus och en kommunikativ utmaning är att man ofta är väldigt anonym i systemet. Det är svårt att hålla en direktkommunikation med individen på samma sätt som med en villaägare. Dessutom kan omsättningen av boende vara stor och det kan vara svårt att fånga upp nya källsorterande hushåll i systemet.

    Kvalitén på det matavfall som samlas in från flerbostadshus kontrolleras, men det är svårare att identifiera vem/vilka som bidrar till bristerna. Fastighetsägarna behöver därför vända sig till samtliga boende i fastigheten även fast majoriteten sköter sig. Det handlar då ofta om att generellt skapa bättre förutsättningar för källsortering, skyltning och kommunikation.

    Lyckad matavfallsinsamling för hyresgäster hos det allmännyttiga bostadsföretaget och privata fastighetsägare samt boende i bostadsrättsföreningar bygger ofta på gemensam satsning och god dialog mellan fastighetsägare och avfallsansvariga på kommunen.

  • 7.
    Anderzén, Christina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hellström, Hanna
    Göteborgsregionens kommunalförbund.
    Blom, Angelika
    NSR.
    Matavfallets väg från bord till jord – en översiktlig kartläggning av olika insamlingssystem för källsorterat matavfall från hushåll2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid förbehandling av matavfall uppstår ofta en balansgång mellan att ta bort föroreningar och att minimera förluster av insamlat matavfall. Fler separeringssteg innebär större förluster. Mer kunskap behövs dock kring vilka faktiska förluster av matavfall som görs vid olika typer av förbehandling samt koppling till olika insamlingssystem. Ett väl sorterat matavfall med så lite ovidkommande material som möjligt underlättar fortsatt behandling och möjligheter till avsättning av biogödsel samtidigt som det skapar förutsättningar för mindre förluster. 

    Syftet med insamling av källsorterat matavfall är i första hand att återvinna växtnäring, vilket även kommer att säkerställa produktionen av biogas. I denna rapport följer vi påsen med matavfall från hushållet hela vägen till åkermarken. Projektet har gjort en ansats att försöka beskriva vad som händer längs vägen och utifrån detta bedöma hur det påverkar kvalitén samt vilka förluster som görs i olika steg. Resonemang förs även avseende skillnader mellan de i Sverige vanligaste insamlingssystemen för källsorterat matavfall; fyrfackskärl, separata kärl och olikfärgade påsar för optisk sortering.

    Målet är att kommunerna efter genomläsning ska få en bättre förståelse för hela kedjan ”från bord till jord”. Därmed också att utformningen av egna mål och val av insamlingssystem, i större utsträckning än idag, baseras på en helhetssyn avseende biologisk återvinning där även kvalitetssäkring och förutsättningar för återföring av växtnäring vägs in. Förhoppningen är även att kommuner som redan är igång med insamling av matavfall, ska finna stöd i arbetet med att säkra kvaliteten och mängder då ”från bord till jord” ger en överblick över de olika stegen. 

    Det är så klart önskvärt att så stor andel matavfall som möjligt samlas in och att det är rätt sorterat. Rapporten konstaterar att andra faktorer än typ av insamlingssystem, bl.a. hur man arbetar med information, är viktiga för vilket insamlingsresultat som uppnås. Därmed föreslås att informationsmodeller beaktas vid jämförande studier avseende utsorteringsgrad, mängd och kvalitet. Även resultat vid källsortering av matavfall i större mekaniska system såsom sopsug och underjordsbehållare anpassade för flerbostadshus/tätbebyggda områden bör utvärderas. Detta eftersom dessa system blir allt vanligare särskilt i storstadsregionerna. Förlust av biogaspotential då matavfall mellanlagras har inte utretts vidare i denna rapport och bör också studeras närmare. Vilken påverkan har exempelvis hämtningsintervall och transportsträcka mellan insamling och behandling?

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att det behövs mer kunskap och konkreta siffror längs hela kedjan för biologisk återvinning - från insamling till återföring av växtnäring – för att kunna sätta resultat och kostnader i ett systemperspektiv.

  • 8.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lufttäta klimatskal under verkligaförhållanden2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Beständigheten hos klimatskalets lufttäthetsystem är helt avgörande för om näranollenergihus, passivhus och plushus kommer att fungera som det var tänkt över tid. Eftersom produkterna som säkerställer lufttätheten oftast befinner sig inuti konstruktionen kan det därför innebära stora ingrepp i byggnader om de behöver bytas ut i förtid. Att i laboratorium i förväg kunna utvärdera beständigheten hos det lufttätande systemet är viktigt och för detta behövs en provningsmetod.

    Det överordnade syftet med hela projektet är att utveckla en metod där hela system för lufttäthet kan undersökas. Detta så att god lufttäthet och låg energianvändning kan erhållas under lång tid hos framtidens lufttäthetssystem. Denna etapp av projektet har innehållit utveckling och provkörning av en ny provningsmetod. Provningsmetodiken har dokumenterats i SP-metod 5264, utgåva 2, bilaga 2 till denna rapport. Provningsmetoden har fungerat ypperligt vid pilotprovningarna. Man ser en förändring av lufttätheten vid mätningar före respektive efter värmebehandlingen. Provningsmetoden är mycket noggrann och känslig på så sätt att förändring i lufttätheten kan registreras.

    Provningsmetoden är ett mycket bra verktyg för producenter av lufttäthetssystem vid produktutveckling. Metoden är också lämplig för användning vid utvärdering av lufttäthetssystem för olika godkännandesystem och certifiering. Samtliga provade lufttäthetssystem var mycket lufttäta före värmebehandlingen. Alla systemen visar på resultat under 0,1 l/(s∙m²). Efter värmebehandlingen visar alla undersökta lufttäthetssystem dock en ökande luftgenomsläpplighet, i varierande grad.

    I projektet har även montage av lufttäthetssystem gjorts i miljöer som valts för att efterlikna realistiska byggarbetsplatsförhållanden. Alla de undersökta lufttäthetssystemen visar på förändringar i lufttätheten då montaget har skett i kall och fuktig miljö och vid montage i dammig miljö. Variationen mellan de olika systemen har dock varit ganska stor.

    Det är vår uppfattning om alla lufttäthetsystem i framtiden undersöks med hjälp av denna provningsmetod så kommer man att få en stark förbättring av lufttätheten och därmed lägre energianvändning.

    .

  • 9.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Implementation of the Bürger-Diehl settler model on the benchmark simulation platform2015Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Lunds universitet.
    Åmand, Linda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Batstone, Damien J.
    Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland.
    Jensen, Paul D.
    Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Department of Biomedical Engineering (BME), Division of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA), Lund University.
    Modelling anaerobic co-digestion in Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2:parameter estimation, substrate characterisation and plant-wide integration2016In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 98, p. 138-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion is an emerging practice at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to improve the energy balance and integrate waste management. Modelling of co-digestion in a plant-wide WWTP model is a powerful tool to assess the impact of co-substrate selection and dose strategy on digester performance and plant-wide effects. A feasible procedure to characterise and fractionate co-substrates COD for the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) was developed. This procedure is also applicable for the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). Long chain fatty acid inhibition was included in the ADM1 model to allow for realistic modelling of lipid rich co-substrates. Sensitivity analysis revealed that, apart from the biodegradable fraction of COD, protein and lipid fractions are the most important fractions for methane production and digester stability, with at least two major failure modes identi fied through principal component analysis (PCA). The model and procedure were tested on bio-methane potential (BMP) tests on three substrates, each rich on carbohydrates, proteins or lipids with good predictive capability in all three cases. This model was then applied to a plant-wide simulation study which confirmed the positive effects of co-digestion on methane production and total operational cost. Simulations also revealed the importance of limiting the protein load to the anaerobic digester to avoid ammonia inhibition in the digester and overloading of the nitrogen removal processes in the water train. In contrast, the digester can treat relatively high loads of lipid rich substrates without prolonged disturbances.

  • 11.
    Arnell, Magnus
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Performance assessment of wastewater treatment plants: multi-objective analysis using plant-wide models2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the knowledge about anthropogenic impacts of climate change has grown, the awareness of the contributions from treatment of wastewater has widened the scope for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Not only shall ever stricter effluent constraints be met, but also energy efficiency be increased, greenhouse gases mitigated and resources recovered. All under a constant pressure on costs. The main objective of this research has been to develop a plant-wide modelling tool to evaluate the performance of operational strategies for multiple objectives at the plant and for off-site environmental impact.

    The plant-wide model platform Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 (BSM2) has been modified to improve the evaluation of energy efficiency and include greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, the plant-wide process model has been coupled to a life cycle analysis (LCA) model for evaluation of global environmental impact. For energy evaluation, a dynamic aeration system model has been adapted and implemented. The aeration model includes oxygen transfer efficiency, dynamic pressure in the distribution system and non-linear behaviour of blower performance. To allow for modelling of energy recovery via anaerobic co-digestion the digestion model of BSM2 was updated with a flexible co-digestion model allowing for dynamic co-substrate feeds. A feasible procedure for substrate characterisation was proposed. Emissions of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O were considered. The bioprocess model in BSM2 was updated with two-step nitrification, four-step denitrification and nitrifier denitrification to capture N2O production. Fugitive emissions of the three gases were included from digestion, cogeneration and sludge storage. The models were tested in case studies for the three areas of development: aeration, co-digestion and greenhouse gas production. They failed to reject the hypothesis that dynamic process models are required to assess the highly variable operations of wastewater treatment plants. All parts were combined in a case study of the Käppala WWTP in Lidingö, Sweden, for comparison of operational strategies and evaluation of stricter effluent constraints. The averaged model outputs were exported to an LCA model to include off-site production of input goods and impact of discharged residues and wastes. The results reveal trade-offs between water quality, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions and abiotic depletion of elemental and fossil resources.

    The developed tool is generally applicable for WWTPs and the simulation results from this type of combined models create a good basis for decision support.

  • 12.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lunds universitet.
    Astals, Sergi
    Advanced Management Centre, University of Queensland.
    Åmand, Linda
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Batstone, Damien
    Advanced Management Centre, University of Queensland.
    Jensen, Paul
    Advanced Management Centre, University of Queensland.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund university.
    Substrate fractionation for modelling of anaerobic co-digestion with a plant-wide perspective2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Lunds universitet.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Aeration system modelling - case studies from three full-scale wastewater treatment plants2015In: 9th IWA Symposium on Systems Analysis and Integrated Assessment (Watermatex 2015), 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Avdelningen Industriell Elektroteknik och Automation, Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet; Sweden.
    Modellering av avloppsreningsverk för multikriteriebedömning av prestanda och miljöpåverkan2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By using detailed dynamic plant-wide models and combining results from one-year simulations of ’within-the-fence’ WWTPs (both water- and sludge lines) with life-cycle analysis, different operational strategies can be developed and evaluated based on the total environmental impact (including external activities) while maximizing resource recovery and energy efficiency, maintaining good effluent quality and keeping track of the operational costs. The methodology has been applied and tested in an extensive case study of Käppala WWTP.

  • 15.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund university, Sweden.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Sustainability Analysis forWastewater Heat Recovery - Literature Review2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical report describes the literature review conducted on wastewater heat recovery (WWHR). As part of the urban water cycle, domestic hot water consumes the lion share – up to 90 % – of the total energy requirement for water management. Individual energy consumption of 780 to 1 150 kWh/cay/yr has been estimated in Sweden. Energy can be recovered from wastewater, in buildings close to the source or further downstream in the wastewater system. Depending on wastewater flow and temperature heat exchangers or heat pumps (or a combination of both) can be used for extracting heat the energy. Obstacles for utilizing this potential are for example: clogging and fouling of equipment, potentially negative system impacts and economic feasibility. Examples of various WWHR implementations have been found in Sweden, Switzerland and North America. Some installations have been running for a long time and technical function and financial viability has been evaluated and are reviewed in the report. Generally, heat pumps reach a coefficient of performance of 3 to 7, better the higher the wastewater temperature is, i.e. further up-stream.

    WWHR application in a wastewater system can be modelled. The domestic hot water requirement and associated energy use has been modelled previously and concepts can be adapted for modelling the larger system. Equations for calculating performance and output variables from heat recovery equipment have been reviewed and is presented. For the purpose of assessing single WWHR installations in sewers, detailed models have been developed and presented. There are reviewed in the text. Concepts for estimating temperature variations in sewers are essential to assess the impact on wastewater treatment plants. Performance of wastewater treatment plants and their temperature dependence can be modelled with existing process models. Temperature variations along the course of the treatment plant might be important to consider.

    In Sweden, there are currently some regulations related to WWHR. The temperature of hot water systems in buildings are regulated to prevent Legionella outbreaks. Furthermore, the practice of WWHR is limited in extent and requires a permit from the utility as by the contract between the consumer and the utility. Currently, this limits the implementation of WWHR in Sweden.

  • 16.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Lunds universitet.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Department of Biomedical Engineering (BME), Division of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA), Lund University.
    Evaluating EnvironmentalPerformance of Operational Strategies at Wastewater Treatment Plants2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objectiveperformance assessment of operational strategies at wastewater treatment plants(WWTPs) is a challenging task. The holistic perspective applied to evaluationof modern WWTPs, including not only effluent quality but also, resourceefficiency and recovery, global environmental impact and operational cost callsfor assessment methods including both on and off-site effects. In this study amethod combining dynamic process models – including greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions and detailed energy models – and life cycle assessment was developed.The method is applied and calibrated to a large Swedish WWTP. In a performanceassessment study changing the operational strategy to chemically enhanced primarytreatment was performed and evaluated. The results show that the primaryobjectives, to enhance bio-methane production and reduce greenhouse gasemissions were reached. Bio-methane production increased by 14% and the globalwarming potential (GWP) decreased by 28%. However, the LCA revealed that due toincreased consumption of precipitation chemicals and additional carbon sourcedosing (methanol) the abiotic depletion of elements and fossil re-sourcesincreased by 77 and 305%, respectively. The results emphasise the importance ofusing plant-wide mechanistic models and life cycle analysis to capture thedynamics of the plant – e.g. dynamics of GHG emissions – and the potentialglobal environmental impact.

  • 17.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lunds university, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Multi-objective performance assessment of wastewatertreatment plants combining plant-wide process modelsand life cycle assessment2017In: Journal of Water and Climate Change, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 715-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objective performance assessment of operational strategies at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a challenging task. The holistic perspective applied to evaluation of modern WWTPs, including not only effluent quality but also resource efficiency and recovery, global environmental impact and operational cost calls for assessment methods including both on- and off-site effects. In this study, a method combining dynamic process models – including greenhouse gas (GHG), detailed energy models and operational cost – and life cycle assessment (LCA) was developed. The method was applied and calibrated to a large Swedish WWTP. In a performance assessment study, changing the operational strategy to chemically enhanced primary treatment was evaluated. The results show that the primary objectives, to enhance bio-methane production and reduce GHG emissions were reached. Bio-methane production increased by 14% and the global warming potential decreased by 28%. However, due to increased consumption of chemicals, the operational cost increased by 87% and the LCA revealed that the abiotic depletion of elements and fossil resources increased by 77 and 305%, respectively. The results emphasize the importance of using plant-wide mechanistic models and life cycle analysis to capture both the dynamics of the plant and the potential environmental impacts.

  • 18.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Transporttjänsteklasser för trafik på järnväg: Delresultat i projektet Transporttillgänglighet – tillgänglighetsnyckeltal för järnvägsnät och banunderhåll (TT-JOB)2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver ett delresultat i forsknings- och innovationsprojektet ”Transporttillgänglighet – tillgänglighetsnyckeltal för järnvägsnät och banunderhåll”, TT-JOB, som är ett projekt i branschprogrammet KAJT, Kapacitet i järnvägstrafiken. Projektet studerar möjligheten att utveckla ett (eller flera) tillgänglighetsmått baserat på transporter snarare än kapacitetsmått för individuella spårlänkar. Måttet ska vara relevant för all berörd trafik, och ska även ta i beaktande de effekter på tillgänglighet som trafiksammansättningen (den s.k. trafikmixen) på en bana skapar. Vi definierar begreppet Transporttjänsteklasser för järnväg, vilka beskriver sammanfattande egenskaper för flera liknande tåglägen. Individer (tåglägen) ur transporttjänsteklasserna skall i ett senare skede kunna kombineras för att bygga upp trafiksystem som kan användas för utfästelser om kommande planeringsperioders trafik och som underlag för t.ex. kombinationeseffekter i samband med underhållsplanering. Denna rapport beskriver grundansatsen, definierar grundläggande begrepp och sätter transporttjänsteklasserna i perspektiv gentemot t.ex. de funktionella kraven och deras transportflöden som används på Trafikverket.

  • 19. Balksten, Kristin
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Two-hundred year old lime putty found in the ground explaining the character of fat historic lime mortars2016In: Proceedings of HMC 2016, 4th Historic Mortars Conference, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20. Bellopede, R.
    et al.
    Castelletto, E.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Marini, P.
    Assessment of the European Standard for the determination of resistance of marble to thermal and moisture cycles: recommendations for improvements2016In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 75, no 11, article id 946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bowing phenomenon is so relevant that two projects, EU funded, from 1999 studied it and a European Standard to assess the resistance to thermal and moisture cycles (influencing bowing) has been recently adopted. In particular, according EN 16306: 2013, measurements of bowing and flexural strength should be performed before and at the end of the ageing cycles. Additional non-destructive tests are recommended, but are not compulsory for the standard. Moreover, Annex A of EN 16306 contains guidance on the limit values for the selection of marble types suitable for outdoor uses, especially façade applications. Eleven varieties of marble have been tested by means of this laboratory ageing test. Non-destructive tests such as the measurements of ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), adjacent grains analysis, open porosity, and water absorption have been executed together with the conventional flexural strength test. The results obtained from image analysis on thin sections indicate that the AGA index may not always be correlated with the other tests: amount of bowing, loss of flexural strength, or loss of UPV. Some consideration of the decrease in mechanical resistance and the bowing in relation to the variety of marble tested and the limit values indicated in Annex A of EN 16306 can be noted. It is known that bowing and rapid strength loss occur in some varieties of marble when used as exterior cladding and other exterior applications. Additional conclusions have been drawn: bowing and flexural strength correlate well and can be used to assess the suitability of the marble to be employed in outdoors.

  • 21. Bissonnette, B.
    et al.
    Courard, L.
    Beushausen, H.
    Fowler, D.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Trevino, M.
    Vaysburd, A.
    Recommendations for the repair, the lining or the strengthening of concrete slabs or pavements with bonded cement-based material overlays2013In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 481-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recommendations presented in this publication are inspired by the State of the Art Report edited by the RILEM Technical Committee TC 193 RLS Bonded cement-based material overlays for the repair, the lining or the strengthening of slabs and pavements. The objective is to lay out all the practical aspects to be considered in the design of concrete overlay.bonded concrete overlay process, assessment of the existing structure, surface preparation, overlay materials, design methods, construction procedure and quality control/assurance system, and maintenance.

  • 22.
    Blomfors, Mattias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Larsson, Oskar
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Engineering Assessment Method for Anchorage in Corroded Reinforced Concrete2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment. Report, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 2109-2116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing need for reliable methods to assess load-carrying capacity and remaining service life of existing infrastructure. Several previous research projects have resulted in a verified, simple 1D model for assessment of anchorage in corroded reinforced concrete structures. Previous verification has involved both experiments and detailed 3D NLFE analyses. To further develop the 1D model it needs to be extended to comprise more practical situations. In order to facilitate an efficient extension procedure in the future, the size of 3D NLFE model that is required to capture the bond behaviour between corroded reinforcement and concrete is investigated. Beam-end models and models of sub-sections were studied, and the results in terms of bond stress and crack pattern were compared. Preliminary results indicate good agreement for some situations; however for some cases a section model seems to overestimate the capacity.

  • 23.
    Bok, Gunilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Nya möjligheter att minska mängden deponerat gipsavfall från bygg- och ombyggnadsprojekt2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasterboard is a common building material used in several parts of a building. In the case of retrofitting and demolition a part of the waste consists of components combined with the plasterboards, for example, frame work timber.

    In the case of new construction and retrofitting, construction waste is produced from clean plasterboard boards, either as cut off pieces or as unused whole boards. This waste can be used as raw material to produce new plasterboards. Manufacturers want to use gypsum from wasted boards to decrease the use of primary gypsum from mining and the quality requirements are relatively easy to achieve.

    In this project it has been found that the major construction companies already handle gypsum from new construction separately. This waste fraction could already be used in the production of new boards. Gypsum from retrofitting is usually assembled with other building materials and require more extensive efforts to achieve necessary purity to be used in the productions of new boards. Today, plasterboard waste is deposited or used to improve soil and/or sludge. In order to increase the recycling of plasterboards new inventory routines of rebuilding and demolition projects need to be elaborated. New tools and methods for dismantling plasterboard need to be development to achieve safe working environment and environmentally and economically sustainable recycling.

    Preparation plants producing raw material from plasterboard waste are already in operation. Today the waste mainly is wastage from the production stage. In order to increase the recycling of plasterboards from the construction- and demolition branch new logistic systems need to be developed, for example by creating collection points for gypsum board waste and / or developing new transport vehicles and systems. Prerequisites of changing the system of piece work in the construction industry need to be investigated with the intension to create a more sustainable building industry.

  • 24.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Innemiljö i nytt ljus: Metoder för objektiv bedömning av belysning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nuvarande belysningsstandarder baseras enbart på tekniska krav, såsom ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Att även inkludera upplevelsebaserade krav skulle troligen främja bättre ljuskomfort, men även mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Kunskapen om hur upplevda belysningsparametrar kan beskrivas är dock begränsad. Detta hämmar fastighetsägare och brukare att precisera önskvärda ljusmiljöer, liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Syftet med detta forskningsprojekt var att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar.

    En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer som uppfyller särskilda urvalskriterier rekryterades och tränades att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorie-försök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.

    Resultaten visar att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar av armaturer; paneldeltagarna kunde skilja mellan attribut och prover. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna, både i form av sensoriska och fysikaliska egenskaper såsom läsbarhet och bländning. Fysikaliska och sensoriska parametrar samvarierar dock inte alltid, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysningskvalitet. Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att samma resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, men med lägre signifikans, vilket verifierar metodens tillämpbarhet på belysning.

    Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

  • 25.
    Boss, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sacco, Francesco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Systematisk utvärdering av hållbarhet vid renovering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det europeiska fastighetsbeståndet är i behov av omfattande renoveringar för att uppnå minskade koldioxidutsläpp, men också för att skapa förbättrade livsvillkor för människor samtidigt som fastighetsägare drivs av ökad ekonomisk bärkraft. Men det är inte alltid lätt att veta hur mål av detta slag ska uppnås och balanseras. Därför har RISE tillsammans med partners i fastighetsbranschen tagit fram Renobuild – en beslutsmetod för att utvärdera renoveringar utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. I projektet har två versioner av metodiken tagits fram, testats och vidareutvecklats via fallstudier.

    Med hjälp av Renobuild Bostad utvärderas renoveringar av flerbostadshus och deras omgivningar med hänsyn till klimatpåverkan, livscykelkostnader och sociala faktorer så som trygghet, säkerhet, hälsa och sociala relationer. Med Renobuild Skola utvärderas skolrenoveringar och dess effekter på inte bara ekonomi och miljö, utan också med hänsyn till elevers lärande, trygghet och sociala relationer. Metodiken genererar en sammantagen hållbarhetsvärdering som ska ge fastighetsägare och samarbetspartners fördjupad förståelse för möjliga hållbarhetskonsekvenser av olika renoveringsalternativ samt tillfälle att diskutera och göra avvägningar mellan olika mål.

    Renobuild består av en Excelfil och en användarhandbok fritt tillgängliga för vem som helst att använda. Dessa nås via en webbplats, tillsammans med bakgrundsmaterial för den som vill få en djupare förståelse för hur metodiken har utvecklats. Förhoppningen är att metodiken nu ska spridas i fastighetsbranschen och därmed generera en större medvetenhet om hållbarhetsfrågor vid renoveringar.

  • 26.
    Boss, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sacco, Francesco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Folland, Anna
    Hedén, Alice
    Renobuild 2.0 – verktyg för systematisk hållbarhetsutvärdering vid renovering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fastighetsbeståndet i Sverige och resten av Europa är i behov av omfattande renoveringar för att uppnå minskade koldioxidutsläpp, skapa förbättrade livsvillkor för människor och öka dess ekonomiska bärkraft. Men det är inte alltid lätt att veta hur dessa mål ska uppnås och balanseras. Därför har RISE tillsammans med partners i fastighetsbranschen tagit fram Renobuild – en beslutsmetod för att utvärdera renoveringar utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. I projektet har två versioner av metodiken tagits fram, testats och vidareutvecklats via fallstudier. I Renobuild Bostad utvärderas renoveringar av flerbostadshus och deras omgivningar. Analysen tar hänsyn till klimatpåverkan, livscykelkostnader och sociala faktorer så som trygghet, säkerhet, hälsa och sociala relationer. Renobuild Skola utvärderar skolrenoveringar och dess effekter på ekonomi, miljö och sociala aspekter så som elevers lärande, trygghet och sociala relationer. Resultatet ger en sammantagen hållbarhetsvärdering som fördjupar fastighetsägares och samarbetspartners förståelse för möjliga konsekvenser av olika renoveringsalternativ. Renobuild består av ett Excelark och en användarhandbok som är fritt tillgängliga för vem som helst att använda. Dessa nås via en webbsida tillsammans med bakgrundsmaterial. En del av det materialet är den här rapporten som ämnar ge en djupare förståelse för hur metodiken har utvecklats. Rapporten beskriver vad användaren kan utvärdera med hjälp av dessa verktyg, hur verktyget behandlar indata, hur resultatet framställs och visualiseras samt hur den nya version 2.0 skiljer sig från en tidigare version. Här beskrivs också hur bakgrundsdata och teori har används för att utveckla innehållet i verktygen. Dessutom diskuteras det vilka avgränsningar som har gjorts i den miljömässiga, ekonomiska och sociala analysen – alltså reflektioner kring systemgränserna för respektive hållbarhetsdimension. Förhoppningen är att metodiken ska spridas i fastighetsbranschen och därmed generera en större medvetenhet om hållbarhetsfrågor vid renoveringar.

  • 27.
    Boström, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hofmann-Böllinghaus, Anja
    BAM, Germany.
    Colwell, Sarah
    BRE, UK.
    Chiva, Roman
    Efectis, France.
    Toth, Peter
    EMI, Hungary.
    Moder, Istvan
    EMI, Hungary.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. RISE.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Development of a European approach to assess the fire performance of facades2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this project was to address a request from the Standing Committee of Construction (SCC) to provide EC Member States regulators with a means to regulate the fire performance of façade systems based on a European approach agreed by SCC.

  • 28.
    Boubitsas, Dimitrios
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg. Lund University, Lund Institute of Technology, Division of Building Materials.
    Chloride transport and chloride threshold values: studies on concretes and mortars with Portland cement and limestone blended cement2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used building materials and if it is properly designed and produced, it is an extremely durable material with a service life up to 100 years. However, under certain environmental conditions the service life of reinforced concrete structures is more limited. Deterioration ofconcrete structure is in most cases caused by the penetration of aggressive media from the surrounding environment. Chloride initiated reinforcement corrosion is one of the major causes of deterioration of Concrete structures. One conflicting issue is how replacing Portland cement with mineral additions influences chlorideinitiated reinforcement corrosion. This issue is of immediate interest, as there is a steady growth in the use of cement blended with mineral additions, such as blast-furnace slag, fly ash and limestone filler. This is done by the cement and concrete industry to reduce the CO2 emissions linked to Portland cement manufacturing, bylimiting the use of clinker in the cement.The main objective of this work has been to further clarify the role of limestone filler as partial substitute to Portland cement on the two main decisive parameters for chloride induced reinforcement corrosion: chloride ingress rate and chloride threshold values. In the first part of this work the chloride ingress was studied both with accelerated laboratory methods and also after field exposure. The initial focus for the second part of the study was to determine the chloride threshold values for the binders investigated in the first part, so a comprehensive view of the effect of limestone addition on chloride initiated corrosion could be presented.However, during the work the need for the development of a practice-related method for determining the chloride threshold values was identified and the focus of the research was redirected to meet that need.The efficiency of limestone filler concerning chloride ingress showed to be dependent on replacement ratio, time (age) and on the test method. It was not possible to draw any rigid conclusion of the limestone filler’s efficiency regarding chloride ingress. But part of the inconsistency in the results was identified to be that limestone filler has two opposite effects on chloride ingress, on one hand contribute to a refinement of microstructure and on the other hand diminishing the chloride binding.The steel surface condition was shown to have a strong effect on the corrosion initiation, and can likely be one of the most decisive parameters attributing to the variability in the reported chloride threshold values obtained in laboratory experiments. The chloride threshold value for the sulphate resistant Portland cement fromthe laboratory experiments was estimated to be about 1% by weight of binder. For the concrete with limestone blended cement (CEM II/A-LL 42.5R) tested in this work the chloride threshold value was at the same level as for the sulphate resistant Portland cement. From the field study but with a somewhat different definition ofchloride threshold value, a chloride threshold value of about 1% by weight of binder was also estimated for ordinary Portland cement and sulphate resistance Portland with 5% silica fume exposed to marine environment.

  • 29.
    Brolin, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Rootzen, Johan
    Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Industry’s Electrification and Role in the Future Electricity System: A Strategic Innovation Agenda2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends visible today suggest that a transformation of industrial firms’ use of electricity, and a change in their role in the electricity system, could take place as a part of a long-term transition towards a low-carbon Swedish economy. The shape of these changes remains highly uncertain, but electrification, flexible electricity use, and emerging roles in the electricity system for industrial consumers are interdependent developments and should be investigated from a holistic perspective where possible.

    Swedish industry is relatively energy intensive, and has stood for roughly 37% of the country’s electricity use for a decade. The Swedish Energy Agency’s Vivace scenario suggests that this share could expand, despite improved efficiency, to 49% by 2050. The increased use of electricity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and take advantage of market conditions would play out differently in different sectors, and depending on the development of different technologies. However large-scale opportunities may exist in the long-term, such as using electrolysis to produce hydrogen for replacing coke in the iron and steel industry and as a feedstock in the petrochemical industry.

    Smaller-scale but still important options for electrification include electric/hybrid boilers in the pulp and paper industry and a variety of electro-thermal technologies for heating and drying.

    Increased use of electricity in industry is likely to go hand-in-hand with increasingly flexible use of electricity. In some cases, such as the production of hydrogen or process media, this flexibility will be in-built since the storable energy carriers create new production planning options. In other cases, new approaches to planning, process design, and the use of automation may allow firms to match electricity use to favourable market conditions.

    The expected high penetration of intermittent renewable electricity in the power system may create incentives for this flexibility. These incentives should appear on the wholesale market, in the form of high- and low-price periods. They may also appear via new capacity markets, or through markets for new system services needed to support stability in both transmission and distribution networks. The frameworks and regulations needed to create these markets are not yet in place, and firms will also need to develop technical and management capabilities to take advantage of them.

  • 30.
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Anna, Pettersson Skog
    Emilsson, Tobias
    Malmberg, Jonatan
    Jägerhök, Tove
    Edwards, Ylva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Grönatakhandboken: Vägledning2017Report (Other academic)
  • 31. Chozas, V.
    et al.
    Larraza, Í.
    Vera-Agullo, J.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Da Silva, Nelson
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Synthesis and characterization of reactive powder concrete for its application on thermal insulation panels2015In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2015, Vol. 96, no 1, article id 012044Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a set of textile reinforced reactive powder concrete (RPC) mixes that have been prepared in the framework of the SESBE project which aims to develop facade panels for the building envelope. In order to reduce the environmental impact, high concentration of type I and II mineral additions were added to the mixtures (up to 40% of cement replacement). The mechanical properties of the materials were analysed showing high values of compression strength thus indicating no disadvantages in the compression mechanical performance (∼140 MPa) and modulus of elasticity. In order to enable the use of these materials in building applications, textile reinforcement was introduced by incorporating layers of carbon fibre grids into the RPC matrix. The flexural performance of these samples was analysed showing high strength values and suitability for their further utilization.

  • 32.
    Delin, Mattias
    et al.
    DeBrand Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Norén, Johan
    Briab Brand & Riskingenjörerna AB, Sweden.
    Ronchi, Enrico
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Halder, Amitava
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fridolf, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ascending stair evacuation: walking speed as a function of height2017In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 514-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is reason to believe that factors such as physical exertion and behavioural changes will influence the ascending walking speed and ultimately the possibility of satisfactory evacuation. To study these effects, a 2-year research project was initiated with the focus on effects of physical exertion on walking speeds, physiological performance and behaviours during long ascending evacuations. Two sets of experiments on human performance during ascending long stairs, with a height of 48 and 109 m, were performed. The results include aspects such as walking speeds, physical exertion (oxygen consumption, heart rates and electromyography data), perceived exertion and behavioural changes, showing that physical work capacity affects walking speeds in case of long ascending evacuation and should be considered while using long ascending evacuation. Analysis of both walking and vertical speeds is recommended because it provides additional insights on the impact of stair configuration on vertical displacement and the importance of not using the same value for walking speed for different stairs because the design of the stairs has an impact. The novel datasets presented in this paper are deemed to provide useful information for fire safety engineers both for assisting fire safety design as well as the calibration of evacuation modelling tools.

  • 33.
    Döse, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg. KTH, Betongbyggnad.
    Ionizing Radiation in Concrete and Concrete Buildings: Empirical Assessments2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major issues with radiation from the natural isotopes 40K, 226Ra (238U) and 232Th and their decay products is the forthcoming legislation from the European Commission in relation to its Basic Safety Directive (2014). The European legislation is mandatory and could not be overthrown by national legislation. Hence, even though the BSS is still a directive it is foreseen as becoming a regulation in due time.

    The reference value of the natural isotopes, from a radiation point of view, set for building materials is 1 mSv per year (EC, 2014). Earlier recommendations (The Radiation Protection Authorities in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, 2000) within the Nordic countries set an upper limit at 2 mSv per year of radiation from building materials.

    The main objective within the frame of the thesis was to investigate gamma radiation in relation to Swedish aggregates and their use as final construction products and the applicability and use of a model (EC, 1999) for building materials to calculate the effective dose within a pre-defined room. Part of the thesis also investigates different methodologies that can be used to assess the radiation in a construction material made up of several constituents (building materials) and aims to show that for some purposes as for the construction industries (precast concrete), that a hand-held spectrometer can be used with good accuracy, even though the object is limited in thickness and size. Secondly, the author proposes a simplified way of assessing the radiation in a construction material by use of correlation coefficient of a specified recipe by use of a hand-held spectrometer. Moreover, an understanding of the different building materials´ contribution to the finalized construction product, e.g. concrete is demonstrated, and how to achieve a good control of the radiation levels in the concrete building.

  • 34.
    Döse, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Silfwerbrand, J.
    Jelinek, C.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Isaksson, M.
    Naturally occurring radioactivity in some Swedish concretes and their constituents - Assessment by using I-index and dose-model2016In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 155-156, p. 105-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reference level for effective dose due to gamma radiation from building materials and construction products used for dwellings is set to 1 mSv per year (EC, 1996, 1999), (CE, 2014). Given the specific conditions presented by the EC in report 112 (1999) considering building and construction materials, an I-index of 1 may generate an effective dose of 1 mSv per year. This paper presents a comparison of the activity concentrations of 4 0K, 226Ra and 232Th of aggregates and when these aggregates constitute a part of concrete. The activity concentration assessment tool for building and construction materials, the I-index, introduced by the EC in 1996, is used in the comparison. A comparison of the I-indices values are also made with a recently presented dose model by Hoffman (2014), where density variations of the construction material and thickness of the construction walls within the building are considered. There was a ~16-19% lower activity index in concretes than in the corresponding aggregates. The model by Hoffman further implies that the differences between the I-indices of aggregates and the concretes' final effective doses are even larger. The difference is due, mainly to a dilution effect of the added cement with low levels of natural radioisotopes, but also to a different and slightly higher subtracted background value (terrestrial value) used in the modeled calculation of the revised I-index by Hoffman (2014). Only very minimal contributions to the annual dose could be related to the water and additives used, due to their very low content of radionuclides reported.

  • 35.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Emilsson, T.
    Malmberg, J.
    Skog, A. P.
    Capener, C.-M.
    Quality-assured solutions for green roof gardens on concrete deck with zero tolerance for leaks2016In: The Sustainable City XI / [ed] A. Galiano-Garrigos, C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-neighborhoods with gardens on concrete decks are for several reasons increasingly being prescribed today in major Swedish cities. However, there is a lack of knowledge, experience, standards and guidelines as well as collaboration between parties and stakeholders when installing such systems. It is incredibly important to avoid any leakage during the lifetime of a green roof garden but this cannot be completely guaranteed with today’s installation practice and project management. At Sustainable City 2014 in Siena, we presented a paper about a new project aiming at bringing together researchers, government and industry to collaborative development of new and attractive solutions for green roof gardens with consideration to the environment and high requirements for durability, materials, construction and energy efficiency. This paper is a continuation of the paper presented in Siena and reports on the most recent results from the collaborative project which will finalize in November 2016. After that, the project will be further evaluated in a proposed continuation project for another couple of years.

  • 36. Eriksson, Jonny
    et al.
    Johansson, Sölve
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Development of mortars in Sweden during the period 1800 to 19502016In: Proceedings of HMC 2016, 4th Historic Mortars Conference, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire risk assessment of alternative ship design2017In: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212X, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The procedure to evaluate fire safety of alternative ship design solutions, described in MSC/Circ.1002, has been found insufficient for novel and large scopes. In this paper, it is analysed with regards to function and applicability as a risk-based assessment procedure. Deficiencies are addressed based on risk assessment research and involvement in over a dozen performed assessments. Clarified are inconsistencies in the fire safety regulations, which must be considered particularly during identification of hazards. It is also suggested that affected safety functions are evaluated separately if possible and that the assessment sophistication is adapted to the scope of introduced hazards; four levels to perform parts of or the whole assessment are proposed.

  • 38. Falchi, Laura
    et al.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Fontana, Patrick
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Balliana, Eleonora
    Izzo, Francesca
    Zendri, Elisabetta
    Artificial weathering of water-repellent mortars suitable for restoration applications2014In: Hydrophobe VII / [ed] Mimoso, J.-M., Charola, A.E., 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39. Falchi, Laura
    et al.
    Zendri, Elisabetta
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Fontana, Patrick
    The influence of water-repellent admixtures on the behaviour and the effectiveness of Portland limestone cement mortars2015In: Cement & Concrete Composites, ISSN 0958-9465, E-ISSN 1873-393X, Vol. 59, p. 107-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Water-repellent mortars were prepared using different hydrophobic compounds as admixtures. Calcium and zinc stearates, silane/siloxane products (as liquid solution and powder) were mixed into limestone cement mortars for obtaining in-bulk water-repellent mortars suitable for building protection and resistant to the degrading action of water. The influences of the admixtures on the hydration and structure of the designed mortars were investigated by SEM, TG–DSC, FT-IR, XRD, and isothermal calorimetry. The effectiveness of these agents against water action was evaluated by using techniques and methods such as mercury intrusion porosimetry, water absorption tests and contact angle measurements. Siloxane products conveyed good water-repellent effectiveness, without strongly influencing the setting and hydration of the binder, while the zinc stearates slowed down the hydration reactions.

  • 40.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Methodology for Mesomechanical Study of Concrete Material2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This project focuses on detailed studies of how the cracking process in concrete is influenced by the concrete micro- and mesostructure. The aim is to increase knowledge of how critical parameters affect the cracking process and how this is related to the material's macroscopic properties. A methodology based on the combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scale levels has been developed. Crack propagation during tensile loading of small-scale specimens in a tensile stage was monitored by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Acoustic Emission (AE). After the test, crack patterns were studied using fluorescence microscopy.

  • 41.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    3D Analysis of Strains in Fibre Reinforced Concrete Using X-Ray Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In fibre reinforced concrete (FRC), understanding the underlying interaction mechanisms between discrete fibres and the surrounding concrete matrix can lead to the optimization of the fibre-matrix combination. This paper presents the initial development of a method enabling the analysis of this given interaction on ameso-mechanical level. The method is such that volume images are initially captured using X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) on small-scale FRC specimens under loading which are thereafter analysed to measure full 3D strainand deformation via Digital Volume Correlation (DVC). It is anticipated that the method developed in this project can be a useful tool for the developmentof new innovative and high performance FRC.

  • 42.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hall, Stephen
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Engqvist, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Analysis of Failure Modes in Fiber Reinforced Concrete Using X-rayTomography and Digital Volume Correlation2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pull-out mechanisms for different common steel fibers were investigatedusing adapted pull-out tests performed in-situ in an x-ray micro tomograph(µXRT). High-resolution volume images from the µXRT scans enable clearvisualization of aggregates, pores, the fiber and the fiber-matrix interface.Furthermore, the natural density speckle pattern from aggregate distributionand pores was found suitable for Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) analysis.From the DVC results it was possible to visualize and quantify the straindistribution in the matrix around the fiber at the different load levels up tofinal failure, being marked by either pull-out or fiber rupture. This studydemonstrates that strain measurements within the concrete matrix can beobtained successfully using µXRT imaging and DVC analysis, which leads to anincreased understanding of the interaction mechanisms in fibre reinforcedconcrete under mechanical loading.

  • 43.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Vennetti, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Composite Behaviour of Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete Sandwich Façade Elements2018In: International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, ISSN 1976-0485, E-ISSN 2234-1315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the EC funded project smart elements for sustainable building envelopes, carbon textile reinforcement was incorporated into reactive powder concrete, namely textile reinforced reactive powder concrete (TRRPC), to additionally improve the post-cracking behaviour of the cementitious matrix. This high-performance composite material was included as outer and inner façade panels in prefabricated and non-load bearing sandwich elements along with low density foamed concrete (FC) and glass fibre reinforced polymer continuous connecting devices. Experiments and finite element analysis (FEA) were applied to characterize the structural performance of the developed sandwich elements. The mechanical behaviour of the individual materials, components and large-scale elements were quantified. Four-point bending tests were performed on large-scale TRRPC-FC sandwich element beams to quantify the flexural capacity, level of composite action, resulting deformation, crack propagation and failure mechanisms. Optical measurements based on digital image correlation were taken simultaneously to enable a detailed analysis of the underlying composite action. The structural behaviour of the developed elements was found to be highly dependent on the stiffness and strength of the connectors to ensure composite action between the two TRRPC panels. As for the FEA, the applied modelling approach was found to accurately describe the stiffness of the sandwich elements at lower load levels, while describing the stiffness in a conservative manner after the occurrence of connector failure mechanisms.

  • 44. Frogner-Kockum, Paul Christian
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Long-term performance of MSWI Bottom ash in a test road construction2016In: International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2180-3242, Vol. 7, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on long-term performances of MSWI bottom ash used as a reinforcement layer in a 8 years old road-construction. Long term properties may change under the combined effects of loading, climate- and chemical conditions. Characterization of the chemical changes in aged MSWI bottom ash is thus of prime interest as secondary alteration is a key process for the ageing of these kind of materials. The MSWI bottom ash in this study comprises a 60 meter-long segment of a test road, which was sampled eight years after construction. The objective of the sampling was to obtain a very low degree of disturbance to the application’s in-situ properties. Access to the sub-base was achieved by removing the surface course and unbound base course, leaving the top surface of the unbound sub-base reachable.  Epoxy impregnated slabs were also used for a micro textural and chemical characterization by SEM/EDS of the bottom ash sub-base layer. No cracks that imply movements or rotation of particles in the road construction or other disturbances as due to the sampling process were found. This undisturbed material made it possible to study chemical processes and structural changes that have been ongoing in the test road since it was constructed. The SEM/EDS analysis showed that most particles had reacted to some extent and that reaction-products surrounding aluminum particles were undisturbed. Partly decomposed particles indicate that the reaction (that has been ongoing since the road was constructed) has been slow and incomplete because of the coexistence of metallic aluminum and aluminum hydroxide. It also shows that the material not has been subjected to any physical influence during these 8 years that otherwise would have moved the reaction products from the particles that originally have reacted. Clay mineralization that indicates long-term ageing of the ash material was also detected by XRPD. The pH of the material was lower than 8.5, indicating a mature degree of carbonization. It is also concluded from the study that chemical reactions consistent with this maturity have been taking place in the road construction as indicated by textural relationships.

  • 45.
    Glebe, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Vad betyder det nya regelverket runt buller och bostadsbyggande för ljudmiljön inomhus?2016In: Bo i Ro: Texter från ett tvärvetenskapligt symposium om bostäder, buller och hälsa / [ed] Frans Mossberg, Lund: Ljudmiljöcentrum vid Lunds universitet , 2016, p. 29-42Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The new Swedish regulations for outdoor sound levels at facades in housing construction in new areas will also affect indoor levels, especially low-frequency noise levels. However, the perception of indoor noise is even more affected. The disturbance or annoyance of noise is generally stronger in the low frequency range, and this is accentuated by the fact that facades are generally performing worse in this region, in combination with the dynamics of hearing in the low frequency region .

  • 46.
    Glebe, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Larsson, Krister
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Persson, Kent
    Lund University, LTH.
    Comparisons of various approaches to low frequency in-situ measurements and corresponding models2016In: Proceedings of the INTER-NOISE 2016: 45th International Congress and Exposition  on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future / [ed] Wolfgang Kropp, Otto von Estorff, Brigitte Schulte-Fortkamp, Berlin: German Acoustical Society (DEGA) , 2016, Vol. 45, p. 1154-1161, article id 07-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New recommendations for environmental noise levels have been issued in Sweden. The permissible levels at facades of new buildings have been increased, which has resulted in a risk for higher indoor low frequency noise levels, since the recommended indoor levels are A-weighted. The additional Swedish low frequency third octave band requirements might be violated. Therefore, there is a need for reviewing how well façade insulation properties are manifested in measurements, and how accurate the measurement results indicate the indoor noise situation from the residents' perspective. In this paper, the results of façade insulation measurements are compared with corresponding models, with a special attention to associated challenges (e.g. to establish representative microphone positions in low frequency sound fields). The measurements are performed in a demonstrator house, which replicates a modern single family house. The models are evaluated both with respect to the total sound energy integrated over the entire room volumes, and as sampled sound fields, where the sample points may correspond to microphone positions. The congruence of the measured and the modelled results are analysed and discussed, as well as the relevance of different approaches

  • 47.
    Gram, Annika
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Silfwerbrand, J.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Particle motion in fluid: Analytical and numerical study2016In: Applied Rheology, ISSN 1430-6395, E-ISSN 1617-8106, Vol. 26, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle motion in fluid is discussed for one-particle systems as well as for dense suspensions, such as cementitious materials. The difference in large particle motion between larger particles and behaviour of fines (<125 μm) is explained, motion of one particle is shown by numerical simulation. It is concluded and highlighted that it is the particular motion of the fines that to a large extent contribute to the rheological properties of a suspension. It is also shown why larger ellipsoidal particles do not necessarily contribute to the increase of viscosity.

  • 48. Gram, Hans-Erik
    et al.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Westerholm, Mikael
    Betong med krossat bergmaterial som ballast: Kvalitetskriterier och proportionering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there is a local shortage of natural aggregate. Moreover, for environmental reasons remaining natural aggregate should be preserved. Crushed rocks are the only economically realistic alternative. Aggregate from crushed rocks is different from natural aggregate as regard particle distribution, grain shape and particle surface. Crushed rocks mostly generate a larger amount of filler. That will affect the workability of concrete. In part it is possible to change the particle distribution and particle shape but in general with present rules for concrete proportioning crushed rocks and especially the fine material from crushed rocks will increase the cement demand at a given quality.  Aggregate from crushed rocks is, however, not a uniform product. There are several methods for crushing and different types of rocks that will give different products with different degree of suitability for concrete production.  Different types of granites have since long been the prime source of rock for aggregate in Sweden. Earlier, however, only the coarse aggregate has been from crushed rocks but today Sweden has to learn also to use fine aggregate from crushed rocks. Crushed granites often give bad fine aggregate mainly due to that it contains flaky minerals and generate large amount of filler. The variation is, however, large and some crushed granites give aggregates that is good while other give fine aggregates that con not be used in concrete production. 7(119)  The analysis and tests in this report show how it is possible to characterize crushed rocks. The material characterization is correlated to substitute methods for practical testing. These are in turn correlated to rheological measurements and workability tests. The material characterization can be used to select rock, optimizing processes and to find more cost-effective methods for sustainable concrete optimization.  Granites are composed of a certain set of minerals, mainly quartz, alkali feldspar, plagioclase and micas (muscovite and biotite). In the finer fractions the micas become free and free mica is flaky. Free mica affects the rheology and workability negatively.  Basically, concrete proportioning is about finding an optimized particle size distribution that considers the particle shape. A fresh concrete is a particle slurry where the different grains interfere. A flaky and angular particle needs finer material and water to flow than a round one. This is the case from the course down to the finest material. To find the appropriate distribution curve a computer based proportioning tool has been developed. The difference between this program and earlier similar programs is that it also considers the particle shape. Basically, it calculates the void volume needed to be filled with micro mortar (< 125 μm) to allow flow. Less void demands less cement for the same strength. In the second step the micro mortar is optimized.  Analysis and tests show that the crushing technique is important. With VSI (Vertical Shaft impact) crushing it is possible to get more cubic grains down to the mineral limit, i.e. the size where free minerals dominate over rock particles. Free mica is common in sizes less than 0.5 mm but it depends on the coarseness of the rock. It is possible to lower the amount of micas and filler by wind sieving that separates light and fine particles from coarser but this demands that the fine fraction is replaced. The amount of free micas in the fine fraction varies from almost nothing up to 20-30 % in granites. Thus, it is important to find and use rocks with low contents of mica in aggregate production. Carbonate and basic rocks generally give better fine aggregates than granitic rocks but they can give other problems.  To be able to reduce the amount of cement the properties of the micro mortar have to be considered. Tests have shown that it is possible to lower the strength by increasing the amount of filler and keeping the water/cement ratio constant. This, however, demands a filler of good quality and the use of efficient superplasticizer. Like with the other particles good quality filler is made up of round or cubic particles.  Concrete production demands a uniform and good quality of the aggregate. One of the major problems is inhomogeneities of the rock. As different rocks give different products this demands a geological characterization of the rock. As different rocks give different products it is difficult to give a specific test procedure. Especially the properties of fine aggregate are correlated with rheology and workability. Different methods for testing and describing both rock and products are given in this report. Each quarry has to be characterized and an appropriate quality test procedure has to be established. With data given in this report it is possible to characterize and evaluate different products and from this to find ways to improve the properties.

  • 49.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Falk, Andreas
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Jesper
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Framtidens utmaningar för flervåningshus i trä: Del 2b: Övergripande helhetsperspektiv på flervåningshus2017In: Bygg&Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 3, p. 50-55Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Lagar och regler vid renovering: en översikt2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ordet renovering existerar inte i något av våra regelverk. Begreppet renovering ingår i det som benämns ändring av en byggnad i vilket ombyggnad ingår som en del.De tekniska egenskapskrav som gäller vid nybyggnad gäller i princip också vid ändring. Vid ombyggnad ska de uppfyllas för hela byggnaden eller, om detta inte är rimligt, den del av byggnaden som påtagligt förnyas genom ombyggnaden. Vid ändring gäller de för ändringen. Enkelt avhjälpta hinder mot tillgänglighet till eller användbarhet av lokaler dit allmänheten har tillträde ska dock alltid avhjälpas.När det gäller ändringar tillkommer dock ett krav på varsamhet, d.v.s. att man tar hänsyn till byggnadens karaktärsdrag och tar till vara byggnadens tekniska, historiska, kulturhistoriska, miljömässiga och konstnärliga värden. En byggnad som är särskilt värdefull från historisk, kulturhistorisk, miljömässig eller konstnärlig synpunkt får inte förvanskas.Kravet på varsamhet och förbudet mot förvanskning innebär att det är nödvändigt att ibland göra avsteg från de rent tekniska egenskapskraven som gäller vid nybyggnad när man genomför en ändring.Ändringsreglerna i BBR och EKS avser att förtydliga vilka av de egenskapskrav som gäller vid nybyggnad som man inte får göra avsteg från och i vilka fall det är möjligt att mot bakgrund av ändringens omfattning och byggnadens förutsättningar göra anpassningar.Vad som avses med ändringens omfattning och byggnadens förutsättningar förtydligas i BBR. När det gäller ändringens omfattning utgås från hur stor del av byggnaden som berörs, konsekvenserna för de tekniska egenskapskraven och byggnadens kulturvär-den. Motiveringar med hänsyn till byggnadens förutsättningar kan dels ha att göra med om det är fråga om omfattande ändringar eller ny användning. I sådana fall finns få skäl till avsteg från nybyggnadsnivån. Är det fråga om en kulturhistoriskt värdefull byggnad finns det större skäl. Tekniska skäl, som t.ex. att utrymme saknas eller att uppfylla ett krav medför att ett annat inte blir uppfyllt på ett godtagbart sätt kan också åberopas. Ekonomiska skäl baserade på byggnadens placering, utformning eller tekniska förutsättningar kan också vara motiveringar. Låg likviditet får dock inte beaktas. Därutöver kan även boendekvaliteter av praktisk eller upplevelsemässig art utgöra skäl för anpassning.Kravnivån vid ändring varierar också beroende på vilket krav det är fråga om. I BBR och EKS används följande terminologi:Ska: I princip inget utrymme för avvikelseSka ...om inte synnerliga skäl: Visst modifieringsutrymme finns om byggnaden ändå kan antas få godtagbara egenskaper och det inte är möjligt att tillgodose kravet fullt ut utan höga kostnader eller påtagligt negativa konsekvenser för övriga tekniska egen-skapskrav eller byggnadens kulturvärden.Ska eftersträvas: Kraven ska tillgodoses om det kan ske till en skälig kostnad och inte medför negativa konsekvenser för övriga tekniska egenskapskrav, byggnadens kulturvärden eller andra boende- och brukarkvaliteter. Har byggnaden redan den eftersträvade egenskapen finns inte utrymme för att försämra den om det inte finns synnerliga skäl.Dock får anpassningar av kraven aldrig medföra en oacceptabel risk för människors hälsa och säkerhetEn hel del av det som står i BBR, EKS och Hissreglerna är allmänna råd och inte absoluta krav, och ger exempel på godtagna konstruktionslösningar. Dessa är inte alltid möjliga att tillämpa vid ändring, utan man måste söka andra lösningar som ändå ger samma säkerhet.Reglerna ger för de olika egenskapskraven vägledning för eventuella anpassningar, förslag på alternativa lösningar t.ex. moderniseringar då äldre byggteknik använts.I hyreslagstiftningen är det främst två aspekter som berör ändringar: Hyresgästinfly-tande vid förbättrings- och ändringsarbete och villkor vid större förändring av hyran. I båda dessa fall krävs godkännande av hyresgäster eller tillstånd av hyresnämnd. Dock står det inget om att hyresgäster kan var med och påverka vad som ska ändras, t.ex. hur omfattande ändringarna ska vara.När det gäller bostadsrätter är det hur stora beslut ska tas som avhandlas. Om alla medlemmar inte är eniga har hyresnämnden en roll även här. En bostadsrättsinneha-vare har rätt att frånträda en bostadsrätt om avgiftsändringarna blir för stora. Bostadssätten återgår då till föreningen, mot skälig ersättning.

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