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  • 1.
    Bakratsas, Georgios
    et al.
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Polydera, Angeliki
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Nilson, Oskar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Chatzikonstantinou, AV
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Xiros, Charilaos
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Katapodis, Petros
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Stamatis, Haralambos
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Mycoprotein Production by Submerged Fermentation of the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus in a Batch Stirred Tank Bioreactor Using Agro-Industrial Hydrolysate2023In: Foods, E-ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 12, no 12, article id 2295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for cheap, healthy, and sustainable alternative protein sources has turned research interest into microbial proteins. Mycoproteins prevail due to their quite balanced amino acid profile, low carbon footprint and high sustainability potential. The goal of this research was to investigate the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to metabolize the main sugars of agro-industrial side streams, such as aspen wood chips hydrolysate, to produce high-value protein with low cost. Our results indicate that P. ostreatus LGAM 1123 could be cultivated both in a C-6 (glucose)- and C-5(xylose)-sugar-containing medium for mycoprotein production. A mixture of glucose and xylose was found to be ideal for biomass production with high protein content and rich amino acid profile. P. ostreatus LGAM 1123 cultivation in a 4 L stirred-tank bioreactor using aspen hydrolysate was achieved with 25.0 ± 3.4 g L−1 biomass production, 1.8 ± 0.4 d−1 specific growth rate and a protein yield of 54.5 ± 0.5% (g/100 g sugars). PCA analysis of the amino acids revealed a strong correlation between the amino acid composition of the protein produced and the ratios of glucose and xylose in the culture medium. The production of high-nutrient mycoprotein by submerged fermentation of the edible fungus P. ostreatus using agro-industrial hydrolysates is a promising bioprocess in the food and feed industry. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 2.
    Burke, Anthony
    et al.
    University of Evora, Portugal.
    Carreiro, Elisabete
    University of Evora, Portugal.
    Amorim, Catarina
    ChiraTecnics, Portugal.
    Herrman, Gesine
    Chiratecnics, Portugal.
    Federsel, Hans-Jürgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Fonseca, Daniela
    University of Evora, Portugal.
    Immobilization of Functionalized epi-Cinchonine Organocatalysts on Controlled Porous Glass-Beads: Applications in Batch and Continuous Flow2022In: Synlett: Accounts and Rapid Communications in Synthetic Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0936-5214, E-ISSN 1437-2096, Vol. 33, no 17, p. 1756-1762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-known Squaramide-Cinchonine organocatalyst was immobilized in a controlled way onto three types of commercial porous glass beads EziGTM (EziG OPAL, EziG Amber and EziG Coral) and applied in asymmetric Michael reactions. The performance of the immobilized catalysts was evaluated under batch and continuous flow conditions showing promising results in both approaches. In batch reactions, 0.8 and 1.6 mol% of the immobilized cinchonine-squaramide provided the products with excellent yields (up to 99%) and enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). These excellent results were also verified in the case of continuous flow reactions, where also 0.8 and 1.6 mol% of the catalyst immobilized onto the glass beads afforded the product with extraordinary yields (up to 99%) and very high enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee). The immobilized catalysts could be recycled (up to 7 cycles) using both approaches. 

  • 3.
    Cano, María Emilia
    et al.
    Université de Picardie Jules Verne, France; Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Lindgren, Åsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Rosendahl, Jennifer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Johansson, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Garcia-Martin, Alberto
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Galan, Miguel Ladero
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Kovensky, José
    Université de Picardie Jules Verne, France.
    Chinga Carrasco, Gary
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Characterization of carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils and oligosaccharides from Kraft pulp fibers and their potential elicitor effect on the gene expression of Capsicum annuum2024In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 267, article id 131229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass-derived oligo- and polysaccharides may act as elicitors, i.e., bioactive molecules that trigger plant immune responses. This is particularly important to increase the resistance of plants to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) gels were obtained by TEMPO-mediated oxidation of unbleached and bleached kraft pulps. The molecular structures were characterized with ESI and MALDI MS. Analysis of the fine sequences was achieved by MS and MS/MS of the water-soluble oligosaccharides obtained by acid hydrolysis of the CNF gels. The analysis revealed the presence of two families: one corresponding to homoglucuronic acid sequences and the other composed by alternating glucose and glucuronic acid units. The CNF gels, alone or with the addition of the water-soluble oligosaccharides, were tested on Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum). Based on the characterization of the gene expression with Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of the C. annuum’s total messenger RNA, the differences in growth of the C. annuum seeds correlated well with the downregulation of the pathways regulating photosynthesis. A downregulation of the response to abiotic factors was detected, suggesting that these gels would improve the resistance of the C. annuum plants to abiotic stress due to, e.g., water deprivation and cold temperatures. 

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  • 4.
    Carlred, Louise
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Michno, Wojciech
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kaya, Ibrahim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Syvänen, Stina
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hanrieder, Jörg
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University College London, UK.
    Probing amyloid-β pathology in transgenic Alzheimer's disease (tgArcSwe) mice using MALDI imaging mass spectrometry2016In: Journal of Neurochemistry, ISSN 0022-3042, E-ISSN 1471-4159, Vol. 138, no 3, p. 469-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pathological mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still not understood. The disease pathology is characterized by the accumulation and aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides into extracellular plaques, however the factors that promote neurotoxic Aβ aggregation remain elusive. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful technique to comprehensively elucidate the spatial distribution patterns of lipids, peptides and proteins in biological tissues. In the present study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS)-based imaging was used to study Aβ deposition in transgenic mouse brain tissue and to elucidate the plaque-associated chemical microenvironment. The imaging experiments were performed in brain sections of transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice carrying the Arctic and Swedish mutation of amyloid-beta precursor protein (tgArcSwe). Multivariate image analysis was used to interrogate the IMS data for identifying pathologically relevant, anatomical features based on their chemical identity. This include cortical and hippocampal Aβ deposits, whose amyloid peptide content was further verified using immunohistochemistry and laser microdissection followed by MALDI MS analysis. Subsequent statistical analysis on spectral data of regions of interest revealed brain region-specific differences in Aβ peptide aggregation. Moreover, other plaque-associated protein species were identified including macrophage migration inhibitory factor suggesting neuroinflammatory processes and glial cell reactivity to be involved in AD pathology. The presented data further highlight the potential of IMS as a powerful approach in neuropathology. Hanrieder et al. described an imaging mass spectrometry based study on comprehensive spatial profiling of C-terminally truncated Aβ species within individual plaques in tgArcSwe mice. Here, brain region-dependent differences in Aβ truncation and other plaque-associated proteins, such as macrophage migration inhibitory factor, were observed. The data shed further light on plaque-associated molecular mechanisms implicated in Alzheimer's pathogenesis.

  • 5.
    Carlred, Louise
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vukojević, Vladana
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schalling, Martin
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Höök, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Imaging of amyloid-β in alzheimer’s disease transgenic mouse brains with ToF-SIMS using immunoliposomes2016In: Biointerphases, ISSN 1934-8630, E-ISSN 1559-4106, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 1-11, article id 02A312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has been proven to successfully image different kinds of molecules, especially a variety of lipids, in biological samples. Proteins, however, are difficult to detect as specific entities with this method due to extensive fragmentation. To circumvent this issue, the authors present in this work a method developed for detection of proteins using antibody-conjugated liposomes, so called immunoliposomes, which are able to bind to the specific protein of interest. In combination with the capability of ToF-SIMS to detect native lipids in tissue samples, this method opens up the opportunity to analyze many different biomolecules, both lipids and proteins, at the same time, with high spatial resolution. The method has been applied to detect and image the distribution of amyloid-β (Aβ), a biologically relevant peptide in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), in transgenic mouse brain tissue. To ensure specific binding, the immunoliposome binding was verified on a model surface using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The immunoliposome binding was also investigated on tissue sections with fluorescence microscopy, and compared with conventional immunohistochemistry using primary and secondary antibodies, demonstrating specific binding to Aβ. Using ToF-SIMS imaging, several endogenous lipids, such as cholesterol and sulfatides, were also detected in parallel with the immunoliposome-labeled Aβ deposits, which is an advantage compared to fluorescence microscopy. This method can thus potentially provide further information about lipid–protein interactions, which is important to understand the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in AD.

  • 6.
    Carstens, Bodil B.
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Rosengren, K. Johan
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Gunasekera, Sunithi
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Schempp, Stefanie
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Mia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Clark, Richard J.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Göransson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Isolation, characterization, and synthesis of the Barrettides: disulfide-containing peptides from the marine sponge Geodia barretti2015In: Journal of Natural Products, ISSN 0163-3864, E-ISSN 1520-6025, Vol. 78, no 8, p. 1886-1893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two disulfide-containing peptides, barrettides A (1) and B (2), from the cold-water marine sponge Geodia barretti are described. Those 31 amino acid residue long peptides were sequenced using mass spectrometry methods and structurally characterized using NMR spectroscopy. The structure of 1 was confirmed by total synthesis using the solid-phase peptide synthesis approach that was developed. The two peptides were found to differ only at a single position in their sequence. The three-dimensional structure of 1 revealed that these peptides possess a unique fold consisting of a long β-hairpin structure that is cross-braced by two disulfide bonds in a ladder-like arrangement. The peptides are amphipathic in nature with the hydrophobic and charged residues clustered on separate faces of the molecule. The barrettides were found not to inhibit the growth of either Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus but displayed antifouling activity against barnacle larvae (Balanus improvisus) without lethal effects in the concentrations tested. (Figure Presented).

  • 7.
    El Miri, N.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Heggset, Ellinor B
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Wallsten, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Svedberg, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    A comprehensive investigation on modified cellulose nanocrystals and their films properties2022In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 219, p. 998-1008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we aimed to tune cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) properties by introducing different functional groups (aldehyde, carboxyl, silane, and ammonium groups) on the surface through different chemical modifications. These functional groups were obtained by combining: the periodate oxidation with TEMPO-oxidation, aminosylation or cationization. CNCs produced and their films were characterized to elucidate their performances. The results showed that the properties of obtained CNCs varied depending on the grafted functionalities on the surface. The results reveal that after each modification a colloidal stability is preserved. Interestingly, Periodate oxidation of cellulose nanocrystals results in film components that interact through intra- and intermolecular hemiacetals and lead to films with a tensile strength of 116 MPa compared to the pristine CNCs, in contrast the subsequent modifications led to lower tensile strength. Of note, remarkable thermal stability has been achieved after modifications reaching a maximum of 280 °C. The oxygen barrier properties of the films after modifications varied between 0.48 and 0.54 cm3μm/(m2d*kPa) at 50 % RH. 

  • 8.
    Frady, E. P.
    et al.
    Intel Labs, USA.
    Kleyko, Denis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science. University of California, USA.
    Kymn, C. J.
    University of California, USA.
    Olshausen, B. A.
    University of California, USA.
    Sommer, F. T.
    Intel Labs, USA; University of California, USA.
    Computing on Functions Using Randomized Vector Representations (in brief)2022In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2022, p. 115-122Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vector space models for symbolic processing that encode symbols by random vectors have been proposed in cognitive science and connectionist communities under the names Vector Symbolic Architecture (VSA), and, synonymously, Hyperdimensional (HD) computing [22, 31, 46]. In this paper, we generalize VSAs to function spaces by mapping continuous-valued data into a vector space such that the inner product between the representations of any two data points approximately represents a similarity kernel. By analogy to VSA, we call this new function encoding and computing framework Vector Function Architecture (VFA). In VFAs, vectors can represent individual data points as well as elements of a function space (a reproducing kernel Hilbert space). The algebraic vector operations, inherited from VSA, correspond to well-defined operations in function space. Furthermore, we study a previously proposed method for encoding continuous data, fractional power encoding (FPE), which uses exponentiation of a random base vector to produce randomized representations of data points and fulfills the kernel properties for inducing a VFA. We show that the distribution from which components of the base vector are sampled determines the shape of the FPE kernel, which in turn induces a VFA for computing with band-limited functions. In particular, VFAs provide an algebraic framework for implementing large-scale kernel machines with random features, extending [51]. Finally, we demonstrate several applications of VFA models to problems in image recognition, density estimation and nonlinear regression. Our analyses and results suggest that VFAs constitute a powerful new framework for representing and manipulating functions in distributed neural systems, with myriad potential applications in artificial intelligence.

  • 9.
    Guccini, V.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Aalto University, Finland.
    Yu, Shun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Meng, Z.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Kontturi, E.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Demmel, F.
    Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK.
    Salazar-Alvarez, G.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The Impact of Surface Charges of Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofibrils on the Water Motions in Hydrated Films2022In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 3104-3115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) with carboxylated surface ligands are a class of materials with tunable surface functionality, good mechanical properties, and bio-/environmental friendliness. They have been used in many applications as scaffold, reinforcing, or functional materials, where the interaction between adsorbed moisture and the CNF could lead to different properties and structures and become critical to the performance of the materials. In this work, we exploited multiple experimental methods to study the water movement in hydrated films made of carboxylated CNFs prepared by TEMPO oxidation with two different surface charges of 600 and 1550 μmol·g-1. A combination of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) shows that both the surface charge of a single fibril and the films' network structure contribute to the moisture uptake. The films with 1550 μmol·g-1 surface charges take up twice the amount of moisture per unit mass, leading to the formation of nanostructures with an average radius of gyration of 2.1 nm. Via the nondestructive quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS), a faster motion is explained as a localized movement of water molecules inside confined spheres, and a slow diffusive motion is found with the diffusion coefficient close to bulk water at room temperature via a random jump diffusion model and regardless of the surface charge in films made from CNFs.

  • 10.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hedenqvist, M. S.
    Ture, H.
    Production, Chemistry and Properties of Proteins2011In: Biopolymers: New Materials for Sustainable Films and Coatings / [ed] Plackett David, John Wiley & Sons, 2011, p. 107-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The importance of extracellular speciation and corrosion of copper nanoparticles on lung cell membrane integrity2016In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 141, p. 291-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) are increasingly used in various biologically relevant applications and products, e.g., due to their antimicrobial and catalytic properties. This inevitably demands for an improved understanding on their interactions and potential toxic effects on humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the corrosion of copper nanoparticles in various biological media and to elucidate the speciation of released copper in solution. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lung cell (A549 type II) membrane damage induced by Cu NPs in the various media were studied. The used biological media of different complexity are of relevance for nanotoxicological studies: Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM), DMEM+ (includes fetal bovine serum), phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and PBS + histidine. The results show that both copper release and corrosion are enhanced in DMEM+, DMEM, and PBS + histidine compared with PBS alone. Speciation results show that essentially no free copper ions are present in the released fraction of Cu NPs in neither DMEM+, DMEM nor histidine, while labile Cu complexes form in PBS. The Cu NPs were substantially more membrane reactive in PBS compared to the other media and the NPs caused larger effects compared to the same mass of Cu ions. Similarly, the Cu NPs caused much more ROS generation compared to the released fraction only. Taken together, the results suggest that membrane damage and ROS formation are stronger induced by Cu NPs and by free or labile Cu ions/complexes compared with Cu bound to biomolecules.

  • 12.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bäcklund, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Arndt, Tina
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schmuck, Benjamin
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Greco, Gabriele
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Rising, Anna
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Barth, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Force-Induced Structural Changes in Spider Silk Fibers Introduced by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy2023In: ACS Applied Polymer Materials, ISSN 2637-6105, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 9433-9444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silk fibers have unique mechanical properties, and many studies of silk aim at understanding how these properties are related to secondary structure content, which often is determined by infrared spectroscopy. We report significant method-induced irreversible structural changes to both natural and synthetic spider silk fibers, derived from the widely used attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) technique. By varying the force used to bring fibers into contact with the internal reflection elements of ATR-FTIR accessories, we observed correlated and largely irreversible changes in the secondary structure, with shape relaxation under pressure occurring within minutes. Fitting of spectral components shows that these changes agree with transformations from the α-helix to the β-sheet secondary structure with possible contributions from other secondary structure elements. We further confirm the findings with IR microspectroscopy, where similar differences were seen between the pressed and unaffected regions of spider silk fibers. Our findings show that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy requires care in its use and in the interpretation of the results. 

  • 13.
    Lovén, Karin
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dobric, Jenny
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bölükbas, Deniz
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kåredal, Monica
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Tas, Sinem
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Wagner, Darcy
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaxon, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Toxicological effects of zinc oxide nanoparticle exposure: an in vitro comparison between dry aerosol air-liquid interface and submerged exposure systems2021In: Nanotoxicology, ISSN 1743-5390, E-ISSN 1743-5404, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 494-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly produced and used today, but health risks due to their occupational airborne exposure are incompletely understood. Traditionally, nanoparticle (NP) toxicity is tested by introducing NPs to cells through suspension in the growth media, but this does not mimic respiratory exposures. Different methods to introduce aerosolized NPs to cells cultured at the air-liquid-interface (ALI) have been developed, but require specialized equipment and are associated with higher cost and time. Therefore, it is important to determine whether aerosolized setups induce different cellular responses to NPs than traditional ones, which could provide new insights into toxicological responses of NP exposure. This study evaluates the response of human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) to zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs after dry aerosol exposure in the Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity (NACIVT) system as compared to conventional, suspension-based exposure: cells at ALI or submerged. Similar to other studies using nebulization of ZnO NPs, we found that dry aerosol exposure of ZnO NPs via the NACIVT system induced different cellular responses as compared to conventional methods. ZnO NPs delivered at 1.0 µg/cm2 in the NACIVT system, mimicking occupational exposure, induced significant increases in metabolic activity and release of the cytokines IL-8 and MCP-1, but no differences were observed using traditional exposures. While factors associated with the method of exposure, such as differing NP aggregation, may contribute toward the different cellular responses observed, our results further encourage the use of more physiologically realistic exposure systems for evaluating airborne ENM toxicity. © 2021 The Author(s). 

  • 14.
    Luige, Olivia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Karalė, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Bose, Partha
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Bollmark, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Tedebark, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Murtola, Merita
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Roger
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Influence of sequence variation on the RNA cleavage activity of Zn2+-dimethyl-dppz-PNA-based artificial enzymes2022In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 5398-5406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of Zn2+-dependent dimethyl-dppz-PNA conjugates (PNAzymes) as efficient site-specific artificial ribonucleases enables rapid sequence-specific degradation of clinically relevant RNA target sequences, but the significance of the RNA/PNAzyme sequence and structural demands for the identification of novel RNA targets are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the influence of sequence variation in the recognition arms of the RNA/PNAzyme complex on the RNA cleavage activity of the artificial enzymes. The base pairs closing the 3-nucleotide bulge region on both sides of the bulge as well as the neighbouring nucleobases were shown to significantly influence the RNA cleavage activity. Elongation of the RNA/PNAzyme complex was shown to be tolerated, although potentially prohibitive for catalytic turnover. The specificity of PNAzyme action was clearly demonstrated by the significantly reduced or absent cleavage activity in complexes containing mismatches. Further investigation into 2- and 4-nucleotide RNA bulges indicated that formation of 3-nucleotide bulges in the target RNA gives the optimal cleavage rates, while some potential off-target cleavage of formed 4-nucleotide bulges of select sequences should be considered. 

  • 15.
    Olsen, Elisabeth K.
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Hansen, Espen
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Moodie, Lindon W. K.
    University of Umeå, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Johan
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Sepčić, Kristina
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Cergolj, Marija
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia; University of Rijeka, Croatia.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Andersen, Jeanette H.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Marine AChE inhibitors isolated from Geodia barretti: Natural compounds and their synthetic analogs2016In: Organic and biomolecular chemistry, ISSN 1477-0520, E-ISSN 1477-0539, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1629-1640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Barettin, 8,9-dihydrobarettin, bromoconicamin and a novel brominated marine indole were isolated from the boreal sponge Geodia barretti collected off the Norwegian coast. The compounds were evaluated as inhibitors of electric eel acetylcholinesterase. Barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin displayed significant inhibition of the enzyme, with inhibition constants (Ki) of 29 and 19 μM respectively towards acetylcholinesterase via a reversible noncompetitive mechanism. These activities are comparable to those of several other natural acetylcholinesterase inhibitors of marine origin. Bromoconicamin was less potent against acetylcholinesterase, and the novel compound was inactive. Based on the inhibitory activity, a library of 22 simplified synthetic analogs was designed and prepared to probe the role of the brominated indole, common to all the isolated compounds. From the structure-activity investigation it was shown that the brominated indole motif is not sufficient to generate a high acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, even when combined with natural cationic ligands for the acetylcholinesterase active site. The four natural compounds were also analysed for their butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in addition and shown to display comparable activities. The study illustrates how both barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin display additional bioactivities which may help to explain their biological role in the producing organism. The findings also provide new insights into the structure-activity relationship of both natural and synthetic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

  • 16.
    Parker, Helen
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Heriot-Watt University, UK.
    Sengupta, Sanghamitra
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; AMOLF, Netherlands.
    Harish, Achar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Soares, Ruben
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Joensson, Haakan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Margulis, Walter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Russom, Aman
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden: Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    A Lab-in-a-Fiber optofluidic device using droplet microfluidics and laser-induced fluorescence for virus detection2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 3539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfluidics has emerged rapidly over the past 20 years and has been investigated for a variety of applications from life sciences to environmental monitoring. Although continuous-flow microfluidics is ubiquitous, segmented-flow or droplet microfluidics offers several attractive features. Droplets can be independently manipulated and analyzed with very high throughput. Typically, microfluidics is carried out within planar networks of microchannels, namely, microfluidic chips. We propose that fibers offer an interesting alternative format with key advantages for enhanced optical coupling. Herein, we demonstrate the generation of monodisperse droplets within a uniaxial optofluidic Lab-in-a-Fiber scheme. We combine droplet microfluidics with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection achieved through the development of an optical side-coupling fiber, which we term a periscope fiber. This arrangement provides stable and compact alignment. Laser-induced fluorescence offers high sensitivity and low detection limits with a rapid response time making it an attractive detection method for in situ real-time measurements. We use the well-established fluorophore, fluorescein, to characterize the Lab-in-a-Fiber device and determine the generation of ∼ 0.9 nL droplets. We present characterization data of a range of fluorescein concentrations, establishing a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 nM fluorescein. Finally, we show that the device operates within a realistic and relevant fluorescence regime by detecting reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) products in the context of COVID-19 diagnostics. The device represents a step towards the development of a point-of-care droplet digital RT-LAMP platform. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 17.
    Parker, Helen
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sengupta, Sanghamitra
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Harish, Achar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Soares, Ruben
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Joensson, Haakan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Margulis, Walter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Russom, Aman
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Viral detection and quantification in a digital droplet microfluidic lab-in-a-fiber device2021In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we present the design and fabrication of a fiber device that performs digital droplet microfluidics for molecular diagnostics. A variety of fibers and capillaries were used to build three connected modules dedicated to droplet generation, incubation, and fluorescence detection which enables a uniaxial arrangement. This is in contrast to the traditional 2-dimensional lab-on-a-chip architecture. We characterize our fiber device using a fluorescein dilution series. Our observed detection limit is on the order of 10 nM fluorescein. We demonstrate our all-fiber device for the fluorescence readout after loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of synthetic SARS-CoV-2. Our results suggest that this fiber device can successfully distinguish between positive and negative samples in molecular diagnostics. We propose that our fiber device offers benefits over microfluidic chip techniques such as easier optical integration, much simpler sample loading, and faster diagnosis with high specificity and sensitivity. Keywords: All-fiber device, microfluidics, optofluidics, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), molecular diagnostics, SARS-CoV2.

  • 18.
    Pedersen, Emma
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Fant, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Guidance Document on Good In Vitro Method Practices (GIVIMP): Series on Testing and Assessment No. 2862018Other (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Rasheed, Faiza
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Newson, William R.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Plivelic, Tomás S.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kuktaite, Ramune
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, Eva
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Macromolecular changes and nano-structural arrangements in gliadin and glutenin films upon chemical modification. Relation to functionality2015In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 79, p. 151-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein macromolecules adopted for biological and bio-based material functions are known to develop a structured protein network upon chemical modification. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of chemical additives such as, NaOH, NH4OH and salicylic acid (SA), on the secondary and nano-structural transitions of wheat proteins. Further, the effect of chemically induced modifications in protein macromolecular structure was anticipated in relation to functional properties. The gliadin-NH4OH-SA film showed a supramolecular protein organization into hexagonal structures with 65Å lattice parameter, and other not previously observed structural entities having a characteristic distance of 50Å. Proteins in gliadin-NH4OH-SA films were highly polymerized, with increased amount of disulfide crosslinks and β-sheets, causing improved strength and stiffness. Glutenin and WG proteins with NH4OH-SA showed extensive aggregation and an increase in β-sheet content together with irreversible crosslinks. Irreversible crosslinks hindered a high order structure formation in glutenins, and this resulted in films with only moderately improved stiffness. Thus, formation of nano-hierarchical structures based on β-sheets and disulfide crosslinks are the major reasons of high strength and stiffness in wheat protein based films.

  • 20.
    Røyne, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Cintas, Olivia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Assessment Roadmapfor Emerging Bio-based Technologies: Identifying Sustainability Prospects with Multiple Perspectives2019In: Life cycle Management Conference 2019: Life cycle Management Conference 2019, Poznan, Polen, 2019, Vol. 9Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many bio-based technologies are emerging technologies, with the characteristics of being radical and fast growing. The 2018 Nobel prize in chemistry is based on enzymatic bio-based conversion as a green alterative for several conventional technologies. Overall, the transition to a bio-based economy is seen as a mean to reach sustainability, energy independence and economic growth. Bioeconomy strategies have however also been criticized for focusing too much on economic growth and too little on sustainability. Assessing potential life cycle sustainability risks and benefits early in the development of technologies – when still at lab or pilot scale – provides valuable insights about how to prioritize research activities and to potentially avert unintended consequences. The lack of knowledge and high uncertainty in early development however also makes such assessments challenging. On the social sustainability side, bio-based technologies create new jobs, while the social acceptance can hinder the market growth even in an innovation country like Sweden. Emerging technologies like for example artificial intelligence might reduce jobs and gene therapy in medicine might bear risk for coming future generation. The questions and risks are manifold. Therefore, it is essential to have a roadmap for guidance that takes a holistic approach to sustainability with a life cycle perspective. To add to the complexity, the possibilities for assessment approaches are extensive. Different perspectives can be assessed in numerous ways and with many different methods. The goal of this study is to contribute to a sustainable transition to the bioeconomy, by serving as a roadmap for research and innovation (R&I) on emerging bio-based technologies.

    To suggest a general roadmap for holistic and interdisciplinary assessments, this study identifies, and describes the use of multiple perspective assessments in selected R&I projects on emerging bio-based technologies. The projects include virgin and waste raw materials, biotechnology conversion processes and products such as bio-based chemicals, building materials, soil amendment, and pellets for heat. The findings are, in combination with existing frameworks on biomass- and bio-product prospect models, used to suggest an assessment roadmap for identifying sustainability prospects of emerging bio-based technologies.

    The result consists of an “assessment roadmap” including the perspectives resource-, economic-, environmental-, social- and market potential. Each perspective is accompanied by questions targeted to identify benefits and risks, such as “What valorization routes currently exists, and are under research, for the feedstock?”; “Is the feedstock available, also in the future?”; “Is the production technology socially accepted?”. The roadmap for bio -based emerging technologies also provides advice on the procedure for sustainability assessments, such as organizing an initial workshop with expert knowledge and highlight the importance of scanning before allocating resources for in depth analyses.

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  • 21.
    Schulze, Yves
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Ghiaci, Payam
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zhao, Liqian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Biver, Marc
    Bibliothèque Nationale du Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Warringer, Jonas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Filella, Montserrat
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Tamás, Markus
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chemical-genomic profiling identifies genes that protect yeast from aluminium, gallium, and indium toxicity2023In: Metallomics, ISSN 1756-5901, E-ISSN 1756-591X, Vol. 15, no 6, article id mfad032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminium, gallium, and indium are group 13 metals with similar chemical and physical properties. While aluminium is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth's crust, gallium and indium are present only in trace amounts. However, the increased use of the latter metals in novel technologies may result in increased human and environmental exposure. There is mounting evidence that these metals are toxic, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Likewise, little is known about how cells protect themselves from these metals. Aluminium, gallium, and indium are relatively insoluble at neutral pH, and here we show that they precipitate in yeast culture medium at acidic pH as metal-phosphate species. Despite this, the dissolved metal concentrations are sufficient to induce toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By chemical-genomic profiling of the S. cerevisiae gene deletion collection, we identified genes that maintain growth in the presence of the three metals. We found both shared and metal-specific genes that confer resistance. The shared gene products included functions related to calcium metabolism and Ire1/Hac1-mediated protection. Metal-specific gene products included functions in vesicle-mediated transport and autophagy for aluminium, protein folding and phospholipid metabolism for gallium, and chorismate metabolic processes for indium. Many of the identified yeast genes have human orthologues involved in disease processes. Thus, similar protective mechanisms may act in yeast and humans. The protective functions identified in this study provide a basis for further investigations into toxicity and resistance mechanisms in yeast, plants, and humans. © 2023 The Author(s). 

  • 22.
    Solstad, Runar Gjerp
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Li, Chun
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Isaksson, Johan
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Johansen, Jostein
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Stensvåg, Klara
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Haug, Tor
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Novel antimicrobial peptides EeCentrocins 1, 2 and EeStrongylocin 2 from the Edible sea urchin Echinus esculentus have 6-br-trp post-translational modifications2016In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 3, article id e0151820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global problem of microbial resistance to antibiotics has resulted in an urgent need to develop new antimicrobial agents. Natural antimicrobial peptides are considered promising candidates for drug development. Echinoderms, which rely on innate immunity factors in the defence against harmful microorganisms, are sources of novel antimicrobial peptides. This study aimed to isolate and characterise antimicrobial peptides from the Edible sea urchin Echinus esculentus. Using bioassay-guided purification and cDNA cloning, three antimicrobial peptides were characterised from the haemocytes of the sea urchin; two heterodimeric peptides and a cysteine-rich peptide. The peptides were named EeCentrocin 1 and 2 and EeStrongylocin 2, respectively, due to their apparent homology to the published centrocins and strongylocins isolated from the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. The two centrocin-like peptides EeCentrocin 1 and 2 are intramolecularly connected via a disulphide bond to form a heterodimeric structure, containing a cationic heavy chain of 30 and 32 amino acids and a light chain of 13 amino acids. Additionally, the light chain of EeCentrocin 2 seems to be N-terminally blocked by a pyroglutamic acid residue. The heavy chains of EeCentrocins 1 and 2 were synthesised and shown to be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the natural peptides. EeStrongylocin 2 contains 6 cysteines engaged in 3 disulphide bonds. A fourth peptide (Ee4635) was also discovered but not fully characterised. Using mass spectrometric and NMR analyses, EeCentrocins 1 and 2, EeStrongylocin 2 and Ee4635 were all shown to contain post-translationally brominated Trp residues in the 6 position of the indole ring.

  • 23.
    Stading, Mats
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Andersson, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Edible and sustainable hot-melt adhesive2022In: Annual Transactions - The Nordic Rheology Society, ISSN 1601-4057, Vol. 30, p. 49-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hot-melt adhesives (HMA) are used for hobby as well as in industrial applications as a fast-setting alternative without solvents. They are used for corrugated boxes and in electronic devices to affix parts and wires, as well as for bookbinding as well as a glue in hygiene products. An edible HMA can be used for e.g. food decorations, for the childcare sector as a safe alternative to other glues as well as in packagings where corrugated boxes and paperboard cartons arc glued. We have developed an edible HMA based on sugars which can be applied by the same application techniques as conventional HMAs. The rheol. properties showed a similar melting behavior as a conventional HMA. A characterization of the mech. properties of the glue showed that the edible HMA was strong but fragile as compared to the more rubbery conventional HMA.

  • 24. Thiel, V.
    et al.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS): Principles and practice in the biogeosciences2014In: Principles and practice of analytical techniques in Geosciences / [ed] Kliti Grice, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014, no 4, p. 122-170Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) provides chemical information on the outermost molecular layers of sample surfaces without solvent extraction. In TOF-SIMS, a pulsed beam of high-energy ions (primary ions) is scanned over a selected analysis area on the sample. During the primary ion bombardment, neutral and charged particles (secondary ions) are released from the outermost molecular layers of the sample surface. Analysis of the secondary ions in a TOF analyser yields a mass spectral data set that allows the retrospective production of(1) ion images showing the spatial signal intensity distribution from selected ions over the analysis area; (2) mass spectra from the total analysis area; or (3) mass spectra from user-defined regions of interest inside the analysis area. In the so-called static SIMS regime, the primary ions are provided in very short pulses and the analysis is completed before the incoming primary ions damage a significant fraction of the surface. Static TOF-SIMS is therefore capable of providing molecularly specific secondary ions, and thus mass spectra with detailed organic information, which is not possible with other (‘dynamic’) SIMS techniques. In this chapter, we describe the principles of static TOF-SIMS instrumentation and data evaluation, review a number of relevant applications, and discuss the potential of this technique in the biogeosciences, with a focus on organic biomarker applications.

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