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  • 1.
    Bouckaert, Igor
    et al.
    UCLouvain, Belgium.
    Godio, Michele
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Pacheco de Almeida, Joao
    UCLouvain, Belgium.
    A strategy for generating pushover curves of block assemblies including post-peak branch using the discrete element method2022In: Proceedings of 3rd EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING & SEISMOLOGY., 2022, p. 839-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pushover analyses are often used to evaluate the seismic performance of a structure. They give an estimate of the ultimate displacement a structure can undergo, as well as of the residual resisting forces in the post-peak response. When modelling masonry structures composed of multiple blocks, obtaining the post-peak branch of the pushover curve can be difficult with a classic displacement-control strategy. This paper describes a strategy designed to compute this branch for multi-block systems subjected to a given pattern of forces, without the need to apply a displacement-control algorithm. The strategy is general, therefore straightforwardly implementable in different software tools and applicable to complex block assemblies. In the present work, it is implemented in two different DEM software, namely LMCG90 and UDEC, and tested on a benchmark problem for evaluating the in-plane response of masonry walls.

  • 2.
    Gagliardo, Raffaele
    et al.
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy.
    Godio, Michele
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Portioli, Francesco
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy.
    Landolfo, Raffaele
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy.
    Rigid block modelling approach for the prediction of seismic performance of adjacent interacting masonry structures2022In: Proceedings of 3rd EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING & SEISMOLOGY., 2022, p. 3245-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current paper discusses the contents of the work completed for the project “SERA AIMS – BLIND PREDICTION COMPETITION”. The competition was focused on the prediction of the response of a masonry building composed of two adjacent interacting structural units under earthquake excitation. This research investigates the response of the experimental mock-up by using a numerical model based on the rigid block limit analysis and mathematical programming. The results of the analysis, namely, the failure modes and the corresponding collapse load multipliers, are related to base shear and peak ground accelerations observed for the damage and ultimate limit states using code provisions for the assessment of failure mechanisms in existing masonry structures. Finally, a preliminary comparison of numerical and experiemental results is presented.

  • 3.
    Gagliardo, Raffaele
    et al.
    University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Godio, Michele
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Portioli, Francesco P. A.
    University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Landolfo, Raffaele
    University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Seismic analysis of failure mechanisms in adjacent interacting stone masonry buildings via rigid block modeling2023In: Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, ISSN 1570-761X, E-ISSN 1573-1456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groups of contiguous unreinforced stone masonry buildings are a common type of housing seen in old European downtowns. However, assessing their response to earthquakes poses several challenges to the analysts, especially when the housing units are laid out in compact configurations. In fact, in those circumstances a modeling technique that allows for the dynamic interaction of the units is required. The numerical study carried out in this paper makes use of a rigid block modeling approach implemented into in-house software tools to simulate the static behavior and dynamic response of an aggregate stone masonry building. Said approach is used to reproduce the results of bi-axial shake-table tests that were performed on a building prototype as part of the activities organized within the Adjacent Interacting Masonry Structures project, sponsored by the Seismology and Earthquake Engineering Research Infrastructure Alliance for Europe. The experimental mock-up consisted of two adjacent interacting units with matching layout but different height. Two rigid block models are used to investigate the seismic response of the mock-up: a 3D model allowing for the limit analysis of the building on one hand, and a 2D model allowing for the non-linear static pushover and time-history analysis on the other. The 3D model was built for the blind prediction of the test results, as part of a competition organized to test different modeling approaches that are nowadays available to the analysts. The 2D model was implemented once the experimental data were made available, to deepen the investigation by non-linear static pushover and time-history analysis. In both models, the stonework is idealized into an assemblage of rigid blocks interacting via no-tension frictional interfaces, and mathematical programming is utilized to solve the optimization problems associated to the different types of analysis. Differences between numerical and experimental failure mechanisms, base shears, peak ground accelerations, and displacement histories are discussed. Potentialities and limitations of the adopted rigid block models for limit, pushover and time-history analyses are pointed out on the basis of their comparisons with the experimental results.

  • 4.
    Kiuru, Risto
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Király, Dorka
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary.
    Suikkanen, Johannes
    Posiva Oy, Finland.
    Geofysiikka louhintavauriotutkimuksissa2022In: XXX Geofysiikan päivät: Helsingissä 18.‐19.5.2022, Helsingfors: Geofysiikan Seura , 2022, p. 34-35Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Krüger, Harald
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Stephan, Thomas
    University of Chicago, US.
    Engrand, Cécile
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Briois, Christelle
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Merouane, Sihane
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Baklouti, Donia
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Fischer, Henning
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Fray, Nicolas
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Hornung, Klaus
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Lehto, Harry
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Orthous-Daunay, Francois-Régis
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Rynö, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Schulz, Rita
    ESA European Space Agency, Netherlands.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Thirkell, Laurent
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Trieloff, Mario
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    COSIMA-Rosetta calibration for in situ characterization of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko cometary inorganic compounds2015In: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, E-ISSN 1873-5088, Vol. 117, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer (COSIMA) is a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) instrument on board the Rosetta space mission. COSIMA has been designed to measure the composition of cometary dust particles. It has a mass resolution m/Δm of 1400 at mass 100 u, thus enabling the discrimination of inorganic mass peaks from organic ones in the mass spectra. We have evaluated the identification capabilities of the reference model of COSIMA for inorganic compounds using a suite of terrestrial minerals that are relevant for cometary science. Ground calibration demonstrated that the performances of the flight model were similar to that of the reference model. The list of minerals used in this study was chosen based on the mineralogy of meteorites, interplanetary dust particles and Stardust samples. It contains anhydrous and hydrous ferromagnesian silicates, refractory silicates and oxides (present in meteoritic Ca-Al-rich inclusions), carbonates, and Fe-Ni sulfides. From the analyses of these minerals, we have calculated relative sensitivity factors for a suite of major and minor elements in order to provide a basis for element quantification for the possible identification of major mineral classes present in the cometary particles.

  • 6.
    Tomic, Igor
    et al.
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Godio, Michele
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Oliver, Stuart
    Holmes Consulting LP, New Zealand.
    Seismic testing of adjacent interacting masonry structures – shake table test and blind prediction competition2022In: Proceedings of Third European Conferenceon Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, 2022, p. 3224-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across historical centres in Europe, stone masonry buildings form building aggregates that developed as the layout of the city or village was densified. In these aggregates, adjacent buildings can share structural walls with an older and a newer unit connected either by interlocking stones or by a layer of mortar. Observations after for example the recent Central Italy earthquakes showed that joints between the buildings were often the first elements to be damaged, leading to a complex interaction between the units. The analysis of such building aggregates is difficult due to the lack of guidelines, as the advances were impeded by the scarce experimental data. Therefore, the objective of the project AIMS (Seismic Testing of Adjacent Interacting Masonry Structures), included in the H2020 project SERA, was to provide such data by testing an aggregate of two double-leaf stone masonry buildings under two horizontal components of dynamic excitation. The test units were constructed at half-scale, with a two-storey building and a one-storey building. The buildings shared one common wall, while only a layer of mortar connected the façade walls. The floors were at different heights and had different beam orientations. Prior to the test, a blind prediction competition was organized with twelve participants from academia and industry that were provided with all the geometrical and material data, construction details, and the seismic input. The participants were asked to report results in terms of damage mechanisms, recorded displacements and base shear values. Results of the shaketable campaign are reported, together with a comparison with the blind predictions. Large scatter in terms of reported predictions highlights the impact of modelling uncertainties and the need for further tests.

  • 7.
    Tomić, I.
    et al.
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Penna, A.
    University of Pavia, Italy.
    DeJong, M.
    McGill University, Canada.
    Butenweg, C.
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Correia, A. A.
    National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Portugal.
    Candeias, P. X.
    National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Portugal.
    Senaldi, I.
    EUCENTRE European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering, Italy.
    Guerrini, G.
    EUCENTRE European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering, Italy; University of Pavia, Italy.
    Malomo, D.
    McGill University, Canada.
    Wilding, B.
    Basler & Hofmann AG, Switzerland.
    Pettinga, D.
    Holmes Consulting LP, New Zealand.
    Spanenburg, M.
    BAM Advies & Engineering, Netherlands.
    Galanakis, N.
    BAM Advies & Engineering, Netherlands.
    Oliver, S.
    Holmes Consulting LP, New Zealand.
    Parisse, F.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Marques, R.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Cattari, S.
    University of Genoa, Italy.
    Lourenço, P. B.
    University of Genoa, Italy.
    Galvez, F.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Dizhur, D.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Ingham, J. M.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Ramaglia, G.
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy.
    Lignola, G. P.
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy.
    Prota, A.
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy.
    AlShawa, O.
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Liberatore, D.
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Sorrentino, L.
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Gagliardo, R.
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy.
    Godio, Michele
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Portioli, F.
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy.
    Landolfo, R.
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy.
    Solarino, F.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Bianchini, N.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Ciocci, M. P.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Romanazzi, A.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Aşıkoğlu, A.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    D’Anna, J.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Ramirez, R.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Romis, F.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Marinković, M.
    University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Đorđević, F.
    University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Beyer, K.
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Shake-table testing of a stone masonry building aggregate: overview of blind prediction study2023In: Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, ISSN 1570-761X, E-ISSN 1573-1456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    City centres of Europe are often composed of unreinforced masonry structural aggregates, whose seismic response is challenging to predict. To advance the state of the art on the seismic response of these aggregates, the Adjacent Interacting Masonry Structures (AIMS) subproject from Horizon 2020 project Seismology and Earthquake Engineering Research Infrastructure Alliance for Europe (SERA) provides shake-table test data of a two-unit, double-leaf stone masonry aggregate subjected to two horizontal components of dynamic excitation. A blind prediction was organized with participants from academia and industry to test modelling approaches and assumptions and to learn about the extent of uncertainty in modelling for such masonry aggregates. The participants were provided with the full set of material and geometrical data, construction details and original seismic input and asked to predict prior to the test the expected seismic response in terms of damage mechanisms, base-shear forces, and roof displacements. The modelling approaches used differ significantly in the level of detail and the modelling assumptions. This paper provides an overview of the adopted modelling approaches and their subsequent predictions. It further discusses the range of assumptions made when modelling masonry walls, floors and connections, and aims at discovering how the common solutions regarding modelling masonry in general, and masonry aggregates in particular, affect the results. The results are evaluated both in terms of damage mechanisms, base shear forces, displacements and interface openings in both directions, and then compared with the experimental results. The modelling approaches featuring Discrete Element Method (DEM) led to the best predictions in terms of displacements, while a submission using rigid block limit analysis led to the best prediction in terms of damage mechanisms. Large coefficients of variation of predicted displacements and general underestimation of displacements in comparison with experimental results, except for DEM models, highlight the need for further consensus building on suitable modelling assumptions for such masonry aggregates.

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