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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Fareed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ding, Penghui
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Warczak, Magdalena
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Grimoldi, Andrea
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Karl
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Manufacturing Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) Electrocatalytic Sheets for Large-Scale H2O2 Production2022Ingår i: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 6, nr 1, artikel-id 2100316Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Producing thick films of conducting polymers by a low-cost manufacturing technique would enable new applications. However, removing huge solvent volume from diluted suspension or dispersion (1–3 wt%) in which conducting polymers are typically obtained is a true manufacturing challenge. In this work, a procedure is proposed to quickly remove water from the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) suspension. The PEDOT:PSS suspension is first flocculated with 1 m H2SO4 transforming PEDOT nanoparticles (≈50–500 nm) into soft microparticles. A filtration process inspired by pulp dewatering in a paper machine on a wire mesh with apertures dimension between 60 µm and 0.5 mm leads to thick free-standing films (≈0.5 mm). Wire mesh clogging that hinders dewatering (known as dead-end filtration) is overcome by adding to the flocculated PEDOT:PSS dispersion carbon fibers that aggregate and form efficient water channels. Moreover, this enables fast formation of thick layers under simple atmospheric pressure filtration, thus making the process truly scalable. Thick freestanding PEDOT films thus obtained are used as electrocatalysts for efficient reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide, a promising green chemical and fuel. The inhomogeneity of the films does not affect their electrochemical function. © 2021 The Authors. 

  • 2.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    de Meatza, Iratxe
    CIDETEC, Spain.
    Kvasha, Andriy
    CIDETEC, Spain.
    Garcia-Calvo, Oihane
    CIDETEC, Spain.
    Ahmed, Istaq
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Sweden.
    Sgroi, Mauro Francesco
    C.R.F. S.C.p.A, Italy.
    Giuliano, Mattia
    C.R.F. S.C.p.A, Italy.
    Dotoli, Matteo
    C.R.F. S.C.p.A, Italy.
    Dumitrescu, Mihaela-Aneta
    Faam Research Center, Italy.
    Jahn, Marcus
    AIT, Austria.
    Zhang, Ningxin
    AIT, Austria.
    Progress in solid-state high voltage lithium-ion battery electrolytes2021Ingår i: Advances in Applied Energy, ISSN 2666-7924, Vol. 4, artikel-id 100070Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing high specific energy Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is of vital importance to boost the production of efficient electric vehicles able to meet the customers’ expectation related to the electric range of the vehicle. One possible pathway to high specific energy is to increase the operating voltage of the Li-ion cell. Cathode materials enabling operation above 4.2 V are available. The stability of the positive electrode-electrolyte interface is still the main bottleneck to develop high voltage cells. Moreover, important research efforts are devoted to the substitution of graphite anodes with Li metal: this would improve the energy density of the cell dramatically. The use of metallic lithium is prevented by the dendrite growth during charge, with consequent safety problems. To suppress the formation of dendrites solid-state electrolytes are considered the most promising approach. For these reasons the present review summarizes the most recent research efforts in the field of high voltage solid-state electrolytes for high energy density Li-ion cells.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Roos, Åke
    Boliden AB, Sweden.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    A Method for Synthesizing Iron Silicate Slags to Evaluate Their Performance as Supplementary Cementitious Materials2023Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 13, nr 14, artikel-id 8357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilizing iron silicate copper slag as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) is a means to improve resource efficiency and lower the carbon dioxide emissions from cement production. Despite multiple studies on the performance of these slags in SCM applications, the variations in cooling procedure, grinding, and methods for evaluating reactivity limit the ability to assess the influence of chemical composition on reactivity from the literature data. In this study, a methodology was developed to synthesize iron silicate slags, which were then evaluated for their inherent reactivity using the R3 calorimeter-based experiments. The results demonstrated that laboratory-scale granulation produced the same reactivity as industrially granulated slag. Furthermore, a synthesized triplicate sample showed high repeatability. Based on these two aspects, this method can be used to systematically study the influence of chemical composition on the inherent reactivity of iron silicate slags while producing results that are directly translatable to industrial slags. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 4.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Boda, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Posset, Uwe
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Schott, Marco
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Reflective and Complementary Transmissive All-Printed Electrochromic Displays Based on Prussian Blue2023Ingår i: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, Vol. 25, nr 6, artikel-id 2201299Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining the electrochromic (EC) properties of Prussian blue (PB) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), complementary EC displays manufactured by slot-die coating and screen printing on flexible plastic substrates are reported. Various display designs have been realized, resulting in displays operating in either transmissive or reflective mode. For the transmission mode displays, the color contrast is enhanced by the complementary switching of the two EC electrodes PB and PEDOT:PSS. Both electrodes are either exhibiting a concurrent colorless or blue appearance. For the displays operating in reflection mode, a white opaque electrolyte is used in conjunction with the EC properties of PB, resulting in a display device switching between a fully white state and a blue-colored state. The developments of the different device architectures, that either operate in reflection or transmission mode, demonstrate a scalable manufacturing approach of all-printed EC displays that may be used in a large variety of Internet of Things applications. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 5.
    Appelquist, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Detection of potential alkali-silica reactivity of aggregates from Sweden2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Belaineh Yilma, Dagmawi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Sani, Negar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Say, Mehmet
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Karl MO
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Printable carbon-based supercapacitors reinforced with cellulose and conductive polymers2022Ingår i: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 50, artikel-id 104224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable electrical energy storage is one of the most important scientific endeavors of this century. Battery and supercapacitor technologies are here crucial, but typically the current state of the art suffers from either lack of large-scale production possibilities, sustainability or insufficient performance and hence cannot match growing demands in society. Paper and cellulosic materials are mature scalable templates for industrial roll-to-roll production. Organic materials, such as conducting polymers, and carbon derivatives are materials that can be synthesized or derived from abundant sources. Here, we report the combination of cellulose, PEDOT:PSS and carbon derivatives for bulk supercapacitor electrodes adapted for printed electronics. Cellulose provides a mesoscopic mesh for the organization of the active ingredients. Furthermore, the PEDOT:PSS in combination with carbon provides superior device characteristics when comparing to the previously standard combination of activated carbon and carbon black. PEDOT:PSS acts as a mixed ion-electron conducting glue, which physically binds activated carbon particles together, while at the same time facilitating swift transport of both electrons and ions. A surprisingly small amount (10%) of PEDOT:PSS is needed to achieve an optimal performance. This work shows that cellulose added to PEDOT:PSS-carbon enables high-performing, mechanically stable, printed supercapacitor electrodes using a combination of printing methods.

  • 7.
    Benavente-Araoz, Fabian
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ko, Jing
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Ekström, Henrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; COMSOL AB, Sweden.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    An Aging Study of NCA/Si-Graphite Lithium-Ion Cells for Off-Grid Photovoltaic Systems in Bolivia2021Ingår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 168, nr 10, artikel-id 100541Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance and aging of lithium-ion 18650 cylindrical cells containing NCA and Si-graphite composite electrodes are investigated during long-term low current rate (∼0.1C) cycling protocol resembling charge/discharge profile of off-grid photovoltaic battery system. The cells are cycled within 30% and 75% state-of-charge ranges (SOC) with low, middle and high cut-off voltages. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data of full cylindrical cells exhibit severe aging for cells that have been cycled at higher cut-off voltage of 4.2 V. Symmetric cell impedance from each electrode shows that aging of NCA is dominant over aging of Si-graphite. Using a Newman-based impedance model, the NCA symmetrical cells' impedance spectra are parameterized to evaluate the aging modes. The resulting parameterization confirms increased particles' surface film resistance due to possible electrolyte oxidation and tortuosity increase at high cut-off voltages. Cycling the cells with middle and low cut-off voltages causes few significant changes when compared to calendar-aged samples. This opens up the possibility to significantly increase battery lifetime for small photovoltaic battery systems in rural areas of Bolivia. © 2021 The Author(s). 

  • 8.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioekonomi, Biobaserade material. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Hedlund, Artur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mass transport and yield during spinning oflignin-cellulose carbon fiber precursors2019Ingår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 73, nr 5, s. 509-516Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin, a substance considered as a residue in biomass and ethanol production, has been identified as a renewable resource suitable for making inexpensive carbon fibers (CFs), which would widen the range of possible applications for light-weight CFs reinforced composites. Wet spinning of lignin-cellulose ionic liquid solutions is a promising method for producing lignin-based CFs precursors. However, wet-spinning solutions containing lignin pose technical challenges that have to be solved to enable industrialization. One of these issues is that a part of the lignin leaches into the coagulation liquid, which reduces yield and might complicate solvent recovery. In this work, the mass transport during coagulation is studied in depth using a model system and trends are confirmed with spinning trials. It was discovered that during coagulation, efflux of ionic liquid is not hindered by lignin concentration in solution and the formed cellulose network will enclose soluble lignin. Consequently, a high total concentration of lignin and cellulose in solution is advantageous to maximize yield. This work provides a fundamental understanding on mass transport during coagulation of lignin-cellulose solutions, crucial information when designing new solution-based fiber forming processes.

  • 9.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport.
    Experimental evaluation of fire toxicity test methods2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental evaluation of the most common bench-scale tests methods for fire toxicity was conducted by RISE Fire Research. The background of the work was the on-going discussion in the fire community on the applicability and relevance of these test methods.

    The test methods included in the programme were the ISO/TS 19700 steady-state tube furnace (SSTF), the controlled atmosphere cone calorimeter (CACC), and the EN 45545-2 smoke chamber test (SC). In these tests the production of selected toxic gases was quantitatively analysed using FTIR. Tests for the measurement of toxic gas production were made with eleven different materials used as test specimens, both combustible and non-combustible materials. The materials were commercially available insulation products provided by EURIMA, the sponsor of the project. These materials should not be regarded as typical or fully representative of a product category.

    The evaluation of the results from the different test methods was divided into combustible test specimens and non-combustible test specimens. That was because the test conditions in the first case are greatly influenced by the combustion behaviour of the test specimen, while in the second case the test conditions are more constant.

    A general observation was that there in many cases was correlation between both species composition and level of toxic gas species yields between test methods when the combustion conditions were similar. In cases where yields differed significantly it could in most cases be explained by clear differences in test conditions.

    For combustible materials it was concluded that the SSTF offers the best means for conducting tests at pre-decided and controlled flaming combustion conditions. The CACC does not give steady-state flaming combustion and the influence of vitiation was limited in the tests made. The SC generally accumulates a mixture of gases from both flaming and non-flaming combustion periods in a test, and the yields measured do not in those cases represent any specific combustion stage.

    For non-combustible materials a general observation was that any of the test methods investigated in principle could be used since the influence on the test conditions from the material itself is limited compared to combustible materials. However, there were specific properties and limitations of the different test methods observed that are important to consider.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    RISE Report 2018_40
  • 10.
    Boda, Ulrika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Screen-Printed Corrosion-Resistant and Long-Term Stable Stretchable Electronics Based on AgAu Microflake Conductors2023Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 15, nr 9, s. 12372-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High-throughput production methods such as screen printing can bring stretchable electronics out of the lab into the market. Most stretchable conductor inks for screen printing are based on silver nanoparticles or flakes due to their favorable performance-to-cost ratio, but silver is prone to tarnishing and corrosion, thereby limiting the stability of such conductors. Here, we report on a cost-efficient and scalable approach to resolve this issue by developing screen printable inks based on silver flakes chemically coated by a thin layer of gold. The printed stretchable AgAu conductors reach a conductivity of 8500 S cm-1, remain conductive up to 250% strain, show excellent corrosion and tarnishing stability, and are used to demonstrate wearable LED and NFC circuits. The reported approach is attractive for smart clothing, as the long-term functionality of such devices is expected in a variety of environments. © 2023 The Authors.

  • 11.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Majee, Subimal
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Olsson, Oliver
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Aandres
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    All-Printed Multilayers and Blends of Poly(dioxythiophene) Derivatives Patterned into Flexible Electrochromic Displays2023Ingår i: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 308, nr 2, artikel-id 2200453Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-cost, flexible and thin display technology is becoming an interesting field of research as it can accompany the wide range of sensors being developed. Here, the synthesis of poly(dimethylpropylene-dioxythiophene) (PProDOT-Me2) by combining vapor phase polymerization and screen printing is presented. A multilayer architecture using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and PProDOT-Me2 to allow for electrochromic switching of PProDOT-Me2, thereby eliminating the need for a supporting transparent conductive (metal oxide) layer is introduced. Furthermore, the technology is adapted to a blended architecture, which removes the additional processing steps and results in improved color contrast (∆E* > 25). This blend architecture is extended to other conductive polymers, such as PEDOT and polypyrrole (PPy), to highlight the ability of the technique to adjust the color of all-printed electrochromic displays. As a result, a green color is obtained when combining the blue and yellow states of PEDOT and PPy, respectively. This technology has the potential to pave the way for all-printed multicolored electrochromic displays for further utilization in printed electronic systems in various Internet of Things applications. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 12.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Wijeratne, Kosala
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Electrochromic Displays Manufactured by a Combination of Vapor Phase Polymerization and Screen Printing2022Ingår i: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, nr 8, artikel-id 2200054Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart label technology such as indicators is a growing field due to society's demand for Internet of Things devices. New materials and technologies are continuously being discovered and developed in order to provide better resolution, better performance, or more environmentally friendly devices. Within this report, screen printing technology is combined with vapor phase polymerization to synthesize three conductive polymers; poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy), and polythiophene (PTh). The conductive polymers are created in micrometer resolution and investigated for their electrochromic properties. PEDOT and PPy samples are combined into printed, laminated, transmissive electrochromic displays. The technology is further advanced to establish separate PEDOT, PPy, and PTh all-printed electrochromic displays using several screen printed layers. The PEDOT displays show improved color retention as compared to displays created with commercially available PEDOT:poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) with comparable contrast and switching behavior. All-printed PPy and PTh electrochromic displays with impressive electrochromic behavior are demonstrated. More complex patterns of 7-segment displays are created, thereby highlighting flexibility and individually switched sections of the conductive polymers. This research extends the screen printing and vapor phase polymerization combination to other conductive polymers and the potential commercialization of multicolor electrochromic displays that has been otherwise dominated by monochromatic PEDOT:PSS. 

  • 13.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Wijeratne, Kosala
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Hübscher, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Belaineh Yilma, Dagmawi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Combining Vapor Phase Polymerization and Screen Printing for Printed Electronics on Flexible Substrates2022Ingår i: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, nr 7, artikel-id 2101665Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large area manufacturing of printed electronic components on ~A4-sized substrates is demonstrated by the combination of screen printing and vapor phase polymerization (VPP) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The oxidant layer required for the polymerization process is screen printed, and the resulting conductive polymer patterns are manufactured at high resolution (100 µm). Successful processing of several common oxidant species is demonstrated, and the thickness can be adjusted by altering the polymerization time. By comparing the polymer films of this work to a commercial PEDOT:PSS (PEDOT doped with poly(styrene sulfonate)) screen printing ink shows improved surface roughness (26 vs 69 nm), higher conductivity (500 vs 100 S cm–1) and better resolution (100 vs 200 µm). Organic electrochemical transistors, in which the transistor channel is polymerized into PEDOT through VPP, are also demonstrated to further emphasize on the applicability of this manufacturing approach. The resulting transistor devices are not only functional, they also show remarkable switching behavior with respect to ON current levels (–70 mA at –1 V), ON/OFF ratios (>105), switching times (tens of ms) and transconductance values (>100 mS) in standalone transistor devices, in addition to a high amplification factor (>30) upon integration into a screen printed inverter circuit. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 14.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Hübscher, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Hagel, Olle
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Large-scale paper supercapacitors on demand2022Ingår i: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 50, artikel-id 104191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Clean, sustainable electrical energy could be the next greatest challenge and opportunity of mankind. While the creation of clean energy has been proven, the storage of such energy requires much more research and development. Battery and energy storage technology today relies heavily on rare metals which cannot support large production needs of society. Therefore, the need for energy storage technology to be created sustainably is of great importance. Recently, conductive polymers, a class of organic materials, have shown impressive results in energy storage but requires further development if this technology is to be implemented in various energy storage applications. Here, we report a new ‘on demand’ design for supercapacitors that allows for individual devices in addition to devices in parallel and in series to increase the capacitance and voltage, respectively. The individual device showed impressive capacity up to 10 F while increasing the area with the large parallel device increased the capacitance to a record 127.8 F (332.8 mF/cm2). The ‘on demand’ design also allows paper supercapacitors to be in series to increase the operating voltage with an example device showing good charging behavior up to 5 V when 4 individual paper supercapacitors were arranged in series. Finally, the paper supercapacitors were incorporated into a prototype titled: ‘Norrkoping Starry Night’ which bridges the gap between art and science. An all-printed electrochromic display showing the city of Norrkoping, Sweden, complete with a touch sensor as an on/off switch and silicon solar cells to charge the paper supercapacitors is presented to bring several printed technologies together, highlighting the possibilities of the new paper supercapacitors within this report. © 2022

  • 15.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Rossi, Stefano
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Shanker, Ravi
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Cincotti, Giancarlo
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gamage, Sampath
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Kühne, Philipp
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus P
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tunable Structural Color Images by UV-Patterned Conducting Polymer Nanofilms on Metal Surfaces.2021Ingår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 33, nr 33, artikel-id 2102451Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise manipulation of light-matter interactions has enabled a wide variety of approaches to create bright and vivid structural colors. Techniques utilizing photonic crystals, Fabry-Pérot cavities, plasmonics, or high-refractive-index dielectric metasurfaces have been studied for applications ranging from optical coatings to reflective displays. However, complicated fabrication procedures for sub-wavelength nanostructures, limited active areas, and inherent absence of tunability of these approaches impede their further development toward flexible, large-scale, and switchable devices compatible with facile and cost-effective production. Here, a novel method is presented to generate structural color images based on monochromic conducting polymer films prepared on metallic surfaces via vapor phase polymerization and ultraviolet (UV) light patterning. Varying the UV dose enables synergistic control of both nanoscale film thickness and polymer permittivity, which generates controllable structural colors from violet to red. Together with grayscale photomasks this enables facile fabrication of high-resolution structural color images. Dynamic tuning of colored surfaces and images via electrochemical modulation of the polymer redox state is further demonstrated. The simple structure, facile fabrication, wide color gamut, and dynamic color tuning make this concept competitive for applications like multifunctional displays.

  • 16.
    Cherian, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Roy, A
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bersellini Farinotti, Alex
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Svensson, Camilla
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Flexible Organic Electronic Ion Pump Fabricated Using Inkjet Printing and Microfabrication for Precision In Vitro Delivery of Bupivacaine2023Ingår i: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, Vol. 12, nr 24, s. 2300550-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) is an on-demand electrophoretic drug delivery device, that via electronic to ionic signal conversion enables drug delivery without additional pressure or volume changes. The fundamental component of OEIPs is their polyelectrolyte membranes which are shaped into ionic channels that conduct and deliver ionic drugs, with high spatiotemporal resolution. The patterning of these membranes is essential in OEIP devices and is typically achieved using laborious microprocessing techniques. Here, the development of an inkjet printable formulation of polyelectrolyte is reported, based on a custom anionically functionalized hyperbranched polyglycerol (i-AHPG). This polyelectrolyte ink greatly simplifies the fabrication process and is used in the production of free-standing OEIPs on flexible polyimide (PI) substrates. Both i-AHPG and the OEIP devices are characterized, exhibiting favorable iontronic characteristics of charge selectivity and the ability to transport aromatic compounds. Further, the applicability of these technologies is demonstrated by the transport and delivery of the pharmaceutical compound bupivacaine to dorsal root ganglion cells with high spatial precision and effective nerve blocking, highlighting the applicability of these technologies for biomedical scenarios. © 2023 The Authors. Advanced Healthcare Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

  • 17.
    Cong, Jiayan
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kinschel, Dominik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Dyenamo AB, Sweden.
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Safdari, Majid
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Dyenamo AB, Sweden.
    Chen, Hong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Svensson, Per H.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Process Development, Analys och fastfas. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; DUT Dalian University of Technology, China.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bis(1,1-bis(2-pyridyl)ethane)copper(I/II) as an efficient redox couple for liquid dye-sensitized solar cells2016Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 4, nr 38, s. 14550-14554Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new redox couple, [Cu(bpye)2]+/2+, has been synthesized, and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Overall efficiencies of 9.0% at 1 sun and 9.9% at 0.5 sun were obtained, which are considerably higher than those obtained for cells containing the reference redox couple, [Co(bpy)3]2+/3+. These results represent a record for copper-based complex redox systems in liquid DSSCs. Fast dye regeneration, sluggish recombination loss processes, faster electron self-exchange reactions and suitable redox potentials are the main reasons for the observed increase in efficiency. In particular, the main disadvantage of cobalt complex-based redox couples, charge-transport problems, appears to be resolved by a change to copper complex redox couples. The results make copper complex-based redox couples very promising for further development of highly efficient DSSCs.

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  • 18.
    Danyliv, Olesia
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Strach, Michel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nechyporchuk, Oleksandr
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Nypelö, Tiina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Martinelli, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Self-Standing, Robust Membranes Made of Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNCs) and a Protic Ionic Liquid: Toward Sustainable Electrolytes for Fuel Cells2021Ingår i: ACS Applied Energy Materials, E-ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 4, nr 7, s. 6474-6485Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy-conversion devices based on the phenomenon of proton conduction, for example, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), require low cost and sustainable electrolytes with high ionic conductivity and good mechanical properties under anhydrous conditions and at temperatures up to 150 °C. Biopolymers possess an intrinsic thermomechanical stability but an insufficient proton conductivity in the dry state, which however may be imparted by a protic ionic liquid (PIL). This work presents the preparation and properties of composite membranes made of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and a PIL. The membranes are thermally stable and display an ionic conductivity within the range 10-4-10-3 S/cm for temperatures between 120 and 160 °C. Moreover, the analysis of the biopolymer's apparent dimensions at nanoscale reveals a dependence of the CNCs' defects, twisting, and aggregation in the presence of the PIL. Preliminary tests using a simple fuel cell setup demonstrate a response of the membranes to the inlet of H2 gas, with a generation of electrical current. These findings provide a solid groundwork for further development and future studies of biopolymer/PIL electrolytes for energy applications. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 19.
    Dobryden, Illia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Montanari, Celine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Bhattacharjya, DHRUBAJYOTI
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Aydin, Juhanes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Bio-Based Binder Development for Lithium-Ion Batteries.2023Ingår i: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, nr 16, artikel-id 5553Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of rechargeable lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology has facilitated the shift toward electric vehicles and grid storage solutions. This technology is currently undergoing significant development to meet industrial applications for portable electronics and provide our society with "greener" electricity. The large increase in LIB production following the growing demand from the automotive sector has led to the establishment of gigafactories worldwide, thus increasing the substantial consumption of fossil-based and non-sustainable materials, such as polyvinylidene fluoride and/or styrene-butadiene rubber as binders in cathode and anode formulations. Furthermore, the use of raw resources, such as Li, Ni, and Mn in cathode active materials and graphite and nanosilicon in anodes, necessitates further efforts to enhance battery efficiency. To foster a global sustainable transition in LIB manufacturing and reduce reliance on non-sustainable materials, the implementation of bio-based binder solutions for electrodes in LIBs is crucial. Bio-based binders such as cellulose, lignin, alginate, gums, starch, and others can address environmental concerns and can enhance LIBs' performance. This review aims to provide an overview of the current progress in the development and application of bio-based binders for LIB electrode manufacturing, highlighting their significance toward sustainable development.

  • 20.
    Ejenstam, Lina
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Toward superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane−silica particle coatings2016Ingår i: Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, ISSN 0193-2691, E-ISSN 1532-2351, Vol. 37, nr 9, s. 1375-1383Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrophobized silica nanoparticles of different sizes, from 16 to 500 nm, were used to impart roughness to a hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating with the aim of obtaining superhydrophobic properties. The particle silanization process and the curing process of the PDMS coating were optimized to increase the contact angle (CA) of the particle containing coating. The evaluation of the coatings, by means of water CA measurements and scanning electron microscopy imaging, shows that superhydrophobicity in the adhesive rose state was achieved using combinations of two differently sized particles, with an excess of the small 16 nm ones. Superhydrophobicity in the lotus state was obtained when the filler concentration of 16 nm particles was 40 wt%, but under such conditions the coating was found to partially crack, which is detrimental in barrier applications. The preference for the rose wetting state can be explained by the round shape of the particles, which promotes the superhydrophobic rose wetting state over that of the superhydrophobic lotus state.

  • 21.
    Ejenstam, Lina
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Corrosion protection by hydrophobic silica particle-polydimethylsiloxane composite coatings2015Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 99, s. 89-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the time-dependent corrosion protection ability of 10-15. μm thin polydimethylsiloxane-nanoparticle composite coatings was evaluated using mainly open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The best result was obtained for the coating containing 20. wt% hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, where it was possible to achieve protection for almost 80 days in 3. wt% NaCl solution. The protective properties offered by this coating are suggested to be due to a synergistic effect of the hydrophobicity of the polydimethylsiloxane matrix and the prolonged diffusion path caused by addition of hydrophobic silica particles.

  • 22.
    Ejenstam, Lina
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Haapanen, Janne
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Mäkelä, Jyrki M.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Long-term corrosion protection by a thin nano-composite coating2015Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 357, nr Part B, s. 2333-2342Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report and discuss the corrosion protective properties of a thin nano-composite coating system consisting of an 11μm thick polyester acrylate (PEA) basecoat, covered by an approximately 1-2μm thick layer of TiO2 nanoparticles carrying a 0.05μm thick hexamethyl disiloxane (HMDSO) top coat. The corrosion protective properties were evaluated on carbon steel substrates immersed in 3wt% NaCl solution by open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The protective properties of each layer, and of each pair of layers, were also evaluated to gain further understanding of the long-term protective properties offered by the nano-composite coating. The full coating system showed excellent corrosion protective properties in the corrosive environment of 3wt% NaCl-solution for an extended period of 100 days, during which the coating impedance, at the lower frequency limit (0.01Hz), remained above 108 Ωcm2. We suggest that the excellent corrosion protective properties of the complete coating system is due to a combination of (i) good adhesion and stability of the PEA basecoat, (ii) the surface roughness and the elongated diffusion path provided by the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles, and (iii) the low surface energy provided by the HMDSO top coat.

  • 23.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Fighting flameless fires: Initiating and extinguishing self-sustainedsmoldering fires in wood pellets2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires represent domestic, environmental and industrial hazards. This flameless form of combustion is more easily initiated than flaming, and is also more persistent and difficult to extinguish. The growing demand for non-fossil fuels has increased the use of solid biofuels such as biomass. This represents a safety challenge, as biomass self-ignition can cause smoldering fires, flaming fires or explosions.

    Smoldering and extinguishment in granular biomass was studied experimentally. The set-up consisted of a cylindrical fuel container of steel with thermally insulated side walls. The container was closed at the bottom, open at the top and heated from below by a hot surface. Two types of wood pellets were used as fuel, with 0.75-1.5 kg samples.

    Logistic regression was used to determine the transition region between non-smoldering and self-sustained smoldering experiments, and to determine the influence of parameters. Duration of external heating was most important for initiation of smoldering. Sample height was also significant, while the type of wood pellet was near-significant and fuel container height was not.

    The susceptibility of smoldering to changes in air supply was studied. With a small gap at the bottom of the fuel bed, the increased air flow in the same direction as the initial smoldering front (forward air flow) caused a significantly more intense combustion compared to the normal set-up with opposed air flow.

    Heat extraction from the combustion was studied using a water-cooled copper pipe. Challenges with direct fuel-water contact (fuel swelling, water channeling and runoff) were thus avoided. Smoldering was extinguished in 7 of 15 cases where heat extraction was in the same range as the heat production from combustion. This is the first experimental proof-of-concept of cooling as an extinguishment method for smoldering fires.

    Marginal differences in heating and cooling separated smoldering from extinguished cases; the fuel bed was at a heating-cooling balance point. Lower cooling levels did not lead to extinguishment, but cooling caused more predictable smoldering, possibly delaying the most intense combustion. Also observed at the balance point were pulsating temperatures; a form of long-lived (hours), macroscopic synchronization not previously observed in smoldering fires.

    For practical applications, cooling could be feasible for prevention of temperature escalation from self-heating in industrial storage units. This study provides a first step towards improved fuel storage safety for biomass. 

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    Mikalsen_DoctoralThesis_FightingFlamelessFires
  • 24.
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul Christian
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Long-term performance of MSWI Bottom ash in a test road construction2016Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2180-3242, Vol. 7, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on long-term performances of MSWI bottom ash used as a reinforcement layer in a 8 years old road-construction. Long term properties may change under the combined effects of loading, climate- and chemical conditions. Characterization of the chemical changes in aged MSWI bottom ash is thus of prime interest as secondary alteration is a key process for the ageing of these kind of materials. The MSWI bottom ash in this study comprises a 60 meter-long segment of a test road, which was sampled eight years after construction. The objective of the sampling was to obtain a very low degree of disturbance to the application’s in-situ properties. Access to the sub-base was achieved by removing the surface course and unbound base course, leaving the top surface of the unbound sub-base reachable.  Epoxy impregnated slabs were also used for a micro textural and chemical characterization by SEM/EDS of the bottom ash sub-base layer. No cracks that imply movements or rotation of particles in the road construction or other disturbances as due to the sampling process were found. This undisturbed material made it possible to study chemical processes and structural changes that have been ongoing in the test road since it was constructed. The SEM/EDS analysis showed that most particles had reacted to some extent and that reaction-products surrounding aluminum particles were undisturbed. Partly decomposed particles indicate that the reaction (that has been ongoing since the road was constructed) has been slow and incomplete because of the coexistence of metallic aluminum and aluminum hydroxide. It also shows that the material not has been subjected to any physical influence during these 8 years that otherwise would have moved the reaction products from the particles that originally have reacted. Clay mineralization that indicates long-term ageing of the ash material was also detected by XRPD. The pH of the material was lower than 8.5, indicating a mature degree of carbonization. It is also concluded from the study that chemical reactions consistent with this maturity have been taking place in the road construction as indicated by textural relationships.

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  • 25.
    Gao, Jiajia
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institue of Technology, Sweden.
    Fischer, Andreas
    KTH Royal Institue of Technology, Sweden.
    Svensson, Per H.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Yta, process och formulering. KTH Royal Institue of Technology, Sweden.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH Royal Institue of Technology, Sweden.
    Crystallography as forensic tool for understanding electrolyte degradation in dye-sensitized solar cells2017Ingår i: ChemistrySelect, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 1675-1680Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The precipitation of solid compounds from model electrolytes for liquid dye-sensitized solar cells has a story to tell regarding decomposition processes to be expected in such systems. Of course, the crystal lattice energy for a specific crystalline compounds plays a role in what compound that will eventually precipitate, but the compounds nevertheless serve as indicators for what type of processes that take place in the solar cell electrolytes upon ageing. From the compounds isolated in this study we learn that both ligand exchange processes, double-salt precipitation and oxidation are degradation processes that should not be overlooked when formulating efficient and stable electrolytes for this type of electrochemical system.

  • 26.
    Gimåker, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa. Digital Cellulose Center, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Digital Cellulose Center, Sweden.
    Graphite materials – Production from biomass?2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphite materials show high electrical and thermal conductivity making them useful in electronics both as electrical conductor, but as of today primarily used as a thermal conductor for thermal management and as the dominating anode material in lithium ion batteries. The conductivities depend on for example the degree of graphitisation, that is how close the material is to perfect graphite. Graphite materials can occur naturally in the earth’s bedrock and can thus be extracted by mining and is then called natural graphite. Graphitic carbon materials can also be synthesised and are then usually referred to a synthetic or artificial graphite, even though they should be referred to as graphite materials if being strict, as they never reach the structure of perfect graphite and always contain some defects and irregularities. This report starts with a short description of all carbon allotropes, i.e. structurally different forms of the same element due to how the atoms are chemically bonded to each other. It then continues with an overview of how graphitic carbon materials can and should be characterised, as well as analytical methods for making this characterisation. After this a section on production methods for graphite materials follows, that dependent on the principles they operate by are divided into: • Mining for graphite that occurs naturally in the earth’s bedrock. • High temperature heat-treatment, so called carbonisation, hydrothermal carbonisation if done in water, and graphitisation. • Chemical vapour deposition, i.e. depositing molecules or atoms in gas phase on a solid surface, that is used to synthesise pyrolytic carbon and graphite. • Extraction from a steelmaking by-product called Kish to obtain so called Kish graphite. • Thermal decomposition of carbides. This is followed by a section on the today most common and important graphite materials, which are: natural graphite (mined), anisotropic synthetic graphite, isotropic synthetic graphite, pyrolytic carbon and graphite. This section also includes specific production process details for the above listed graphite materials, their main properties, advantages, and common uses. Two of the most common and important uses of graphite materials, i.e. as anode in lithium ion batteries and for thermal management in electronics, are described somewhat more in depth. The focus of this report is biomass derived graphitic materials and this focus start fully first in section number four, which compares published values on electrical and thermal conductivity of different fossil and bio-based graphitic carbon materials. This comparison clearly shows that it is very challenging to derive graphitic carbon materials with high conductivities from biomass. This is because essentially all biomass is so-called non-graphitising or hard carbon precursor meaning that it is not transformed into highly graphitic carbon no matter how high temperature it is heated to. Catalytic graphitisation using metals salts or oxides can increase the degree of graphitisation that can be achieved, but all substances used for catalysing graphitisation forms solid nanoparticles which leaves voids when removed by for example acid dissolution, making the resulting graphitic material porous which in turn limits its electrical and thermal conductivity. Of all production processes reviewed here to create highly electrically and thermally conductive graphitic carbon materials from biomass, requiring a high degree of graphitisation and dense material, two methods stand out as especially interesting: • Chemical vapour deposition on suitable substrate (carbon materials, metals or ceramics) using biomass as carbon source. • Resistive heating of biomass derived films/objects. Bio-based free-standing graphene film with very high electrical and thermal conductivity have been produced using chemical vapour deposition technique. From a practical handling perspective, it would be beneficial to create thicker highly graphitic carbon films to make them stronger, although it may reduce the conductivities of the material. Methods based on chemical vapour deposition may be improved to be able to produce thicker graphitic films. Resistive heating of a film made of e.g. biobased lignin, mixed with mined graphene to 2192 °C have been shown to create a highly graphitic carbon film with the excellent electrical conductivity of 4480 S/cm. By substituting the mined graphene to bio-based ditto may open up for the production of a fully biobased, highly graphitic film with excellent conductive properties. It is suggested that the way to achieve fully biobased highly graphitic and dense films is to further refine the chemical vapour deposition and the resistive heating method.

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  • 27.
    Gond, Ritambhara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Asfaw, Habtom
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Naylor, Andrew
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    A Lignosulfonate Binder for Hard Carbon Anodes in Sodium-Ion Batteries: A Comparative Study2021Ingår i: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 9, nr 37, s. 12708-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An important factor in the development of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) is the use of cheap and sustainable materials. Sodium lignosulfonate, a lignin derivative, is demonstrated here as an attractive, "green", water-soluble, and potentially cost-effective binder for use in hard carbon anodes for SIBs. A comparison of its battery cycling performance is made against other binders including sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and lignin, obtained from the kraft process, as well as sodium alginate, derived from algae. Apart from lignin, which requires processing in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, the other three binders are water-soluble. Lignosulfonate shows comparable or better performance, with high capacity retention and stability, when using 1 M NaPF6 in propylene carbonate or ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate electrolytes for both half- and full-cells (against a Prussian white cathode). Further improvements are observed when including styrene-butadiene rubber as a co-binder. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates similar solid electrolyte interphase compositions after the initial sodium insertion for both lignosulfonate and carboxymethyl cellulose binders. However, after subsequent cycling, the surface layer composition and thickness are found to be dependent on the binder. For the lignosulfonate-based electrode, the layer appears thicker but comprises a smaller fraction of carbon-oxygen species. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 28.
    González-Alonso, David
    et al.
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Espeso, Jose I.
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Gavilán, Helena
    ICMM/CSIC Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Spain.
    Zeng, Lunjie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fernandez-Diaz, Maria Teresa
    Institut Laue-Langevin, France.
    Subías, Gloria
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain.
    de Pedro, Imanol
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Rogriguez, Jesus
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Bender, Philipp
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Fernandez Barquin, Luis
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Identifying the presence of magnetite in an ensemble of Iron-oxide nanoparticles: A comparative Neutron diffraction study between bulk and nanoscale.2021Ingår i: Nanoscale Advances, E-ISSN 2516-0230, Vol. 3, s. 3491-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific interest in iron–oxides and in particular magnetite has been renewed due to the broad scope of its fascinating properties, which are finding applications in electronics and biomedicine. Specifically, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are gathering attraction in biomedicine. Their cores are usually constituted by a mixture of maghemite/magnetite phases. In view of this, to fine-tune the properties of an ensemble of IONPs towards their applications, it is essential to enhance mass fabrication processes towards the production of monodispersed IONPs with controlled size, shape, and stoichiometry. We exploit the vacancy sensitivity of the Verwey transition to detect the presence of magnetite. Here we are providing a direct evidence of the Verwey transition in an ensemble of IONPs through neutron diffraction. This transition is observed as a variation in the Fe moment at the octahedral sites and, in turn, gives rise to a change of the net magnetic moment. Finally, we show this variation as the microscopic ingredient driving the characteristic kink that hallmarks the Verwey transition in thermal variation of magnetization.

  • 29.
    González-Gil, Rosa
    et al.
    Leitat Technological Center, Spain; Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Spain.
    Borràs, Mateu
    Leitat Technological Center, Spain; Arkyne Technologies SL, Spain.
    Chbani, Aiman
    Leitat Technological Center, Spain;.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Aulin, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Holmen Iggesund, Sweden.
    Aucher, Christophe
    Leitat Technological Center, Spain;.
    Martínez-Crespiera, Sandra
    Leitat Technological Center, Spain.
    Sustainable and Printable Nanocellulose-Based Ionogels as Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Supercapacitors2022Ingår i: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 12, nr 2, artikel-id 273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) based supercapacitor with an ionic conductivity up to 0.32–0.94 mS cm−2 has been synthesized from a mixture of an ionic liquid (IL) with nanocellulose (NC). The new NC-ionogel was prepared by combining the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate (EMIMP) with carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibers (CNFc) at different ratios (CNFc ratio from 1 to 4). The addition of CNFc improved the ionogel properties to become easily printable onto the electrode surface. The new GPE based supercapacitor cell showed good electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 160 F g−1 and an equivalent series resistance (ESR) of 10.2 Ω cm−2 at a current density of 1 mA cm−2. The accessibility to the full capacitance of the device is demonstrated after the addition of CNFc in EMIMP compared to the pristine EMIMP (99 F g−1 and 14.7 Ω cm−2). © 2022 by the authors. 

  • 30.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik. Linneaus Univerrsity, Sweden.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik. University of Jena, Germany.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    X-ray and UV–Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy studies of the Cu (I) and Cu (II) coordination environments in mixed alkali-lime-silicate glasses2019Ingår i: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: X, ISSN 2590-1591, Vol. 3, artikel-id 100029Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The local structures of Cu(I) and Cu(II) in (20-x)Na2O-xK2O-10CaO-70SiO2 glasses with a copper content of 0.4 mol% have been investigated by Cu K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Complementary data for Cu(II) was derived using UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy. Indication for mainly linear two-fold coordination of the Cu+ ion was found by both EXAFS and XANES, but other coordination between Cu+ and O2– cannot be excluded. The Cu(I)-O bond lengths were found to be 1.79–1.83 ± 0.02 Å. EXAFS results showed that Cu(II) was mostly present in a Jahn-Teller distorted environment with oxygen, an octahedron with four shorter Cu(II)-O bonds and two longer in axial position. The equatorial bond lengths were found to be 1.89–1.91 ± 0.02 Å and the axial 2.20–2.24 ± 0.02 Å with no effect of the Jahn-Teller distortion of the octahedron when the glass composition was altered.

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  • 31.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Sharafat, Ali
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet. Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    X-ray and UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy studies of the Cu(I) and Cu(II) coordination spheere in (mixed) alkali-lime-silicate glassesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32.
    Jafarzadeh, Shadi
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sundell, Per-Erik
    SSAB EMEA AB, Sweden.
    Tyrode, Eric
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Active corrosion protection by conductive composites of polyaniline in a UV-cured polyester acrylate coating2016Ingår i: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 90, s. 154-162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyaniline doped with phosphoric acid (PANI-PA) was synthesized and characterized by impedance and Raman spectroscopy. Exposure to UV-light resulted in a slight decrease in the PANI's electrical conductivity and no significant change in the oxidation state (of an emeraldine salt). Composite coatings containing 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt.% PANI-PA in a UV-curable polyester acrylate (PEA) resin were prepared and applied on polished carbon steel. Closely packed PANI-PA particles of several tens of nanometers were observed inside the composite coating by scanning electron microscopy, and a connected conductive network across the film was detected by Peak Force TUNA atomic force microscopy. The evolution of open circuit potential and impedance data during long-term exposure to 3 wt.% NaCl electrolyte revealed that the short-term barrier-type corrosion protection provided by the insulating PEA coating can be turned into a long-term and active protection by addition of as little as 1 wt.% PANI-PA to the formulation. Stable ennoblement in the corrosive media was observed for the coatings containing conducting polymer up to 3 wt.%. However, higher content of PANI-PA (5 wt.%) led to poorer protective properties, probably due to the hydrophilicity of PANI-PA facilitating water transport in the coating and the presence of potentially weaker spots in the film. An iron oxide layer was found to fully cover the metal surface beneath the coatings containing PANI-PA after final failure observed by electrochemical testing.

  • 33.
    Johansson, Kenth S.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    20 - Surface Modification of Plastics2017Ingår i: Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook (Second Edition): Processing, Materials, and Applications / [ed] Kutz, Myer, Elsevier, 2017, s. 443-487Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract This chapter gives an overview of different methods for improving surface properties of plastics. Plastics are inherently hydrophobic, low surface energy materials and thus do not adhere well to other materials. Adhesion improvement is the most common application but other surface characteristics, such as wettability, water- and chemical resistance, nonfouling, tribological behavior, oxygen, and moisture transmission are also addressed. It has been estimated that 70% of the total production of plastic materials must be surface treated prior to processing. The methods range from vacuum to atmospheric pressure, wet to dry, simple to sophisticated, and inexpensive to very costly to obtain the required functional characteristics of plastics. Most methods used today are dry and environmentally sound. The methods presented are roughly divided in surface activation (e.g., plasma, corona, flame, and UV laser) and surface coating (e.g., plasma polymerization, chemical vapor deposition, Parylene, physical vapor deposition) techniques.

  • 34.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Chemical strengthening of soda lime silicate glass and the effects of dopants2022Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Dataset: Viscosity of alumina doped soda lime silicate glasses2021Dataset
    Abstract [en]

    Adding alumina to the conventional soda lime silicate glass composition improves many properties, however, also increases the viscosity. Alumina doping of soda lime silicate glasses is investigated and its implications to high temperature viscosity as SiO2 is replaced by Al2O3.

  • 36.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Functional cover glass materials for solar energy applications2023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass materials are essential in everyone’s life by enabling daylight to reach the interior of our buildings,being the primary component for communication via optical fibers and a key component in electronic devices as protective cover and/or dielectric material. It is also an essential component in solar energy applications which comprise, e.g., photovoltaics , solar thermal collectors, greenhouses and algae reactors, by acting as a protective and light transmitting barrier. Adding functionalities to glass in an intelligent way creates opportunities to enhance the properties of the glass material for its use. There are several possibilities to add functionalities and the wider concept Transparent Intelligence will be briefly introduced and how it can aid our efforts to overcome today’s societal challenges. Glass as a cover material for solar energy applications constitutes a significant part of the costs and isan important component for efficient light capture and protection to the environment. The research and development of cover glass for solar energy applications have so far received limited attention eventhough it is an important material for our future sustainable development. Recent research efforts have provided knowledge of which properties that needs to be optimized ‐ balancing efficiency, service lifetime and cost. The challenges of cover glass for different solar energy applications differs somewhat but all have in common the efficient solar light capture and protection to the environment. Thus, theknow‐how can be used in several different industrial sectors. The fundamentals of cover glasses for solarenergy applications as well as previous and on‐going project concepts will be presented. This includes i) state‐of‐the‐art of cover materials for greenhouses, ii) results on optimization of cover glass for photovoltaics, iii) initial results on how to provide both anti‐reflective and anti‐soiling properties,iv) results on broadband antireflective coatings for solar thermal energy, and v) other promising concepts. At last will some future challenges and needs be discussed, e.g., in relation to the concept ofideal material choices for PV.

  • 37.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Mathew, Renny
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Paemurru, Mart
    GlasStress Ltd, UK.
    Anton, Johan
    GlasStress Ltd, UK.
    Stevensson, Baltzar
    Baltzar Stevensson, Sweden.
    Edén, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Dataset: Mechanical, thermal, and structural investigations of chemically strengthened Na2O–CaO–Al2O3–SiO2 glasses2022Dataset
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effect of alumina doping on thermal, mechanical, and structural properties of a conventional soda lime silicate glass before and after ion exchange strengthening. The techniques to measure properties were:- 23Na and 27Al Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR)- Scattered light polariscope- Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)- Nanoindentation- MicroindentationMore detailed information can be found in the documentation-readme file.

  • 38.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Mathew, Renny
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaus University, Sweden.
    Paemurru, Mart
    GlasStress Ltd, UK.
    Anton, Johan
    GlasStress Ltd, UK.
    Stevensson, Baltzar
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Edén, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Mechanical, thermal, and structural investigations of chemically strengthened Na2O–CaO–Al2O3–SiO2 glasses2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Materials, E-ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 9, artikel-id 953759Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For a series of conventional soda-lime-silicate glasses with increasing Al2O3 content, we investigated the thermal, mechanical, and structural properties before and after K+-for-Na+ ion-exchange strengthening by exposure to molten KNO3. The Al-for-Si replacement resulted in increased glass network polymerization and lowered compactness. The glass transition temperature (Tg), hardness (H) and reduced elastic modulus (Er), of the pristine glasses enhanced monotonically for increasing Al2O3 content. H and Er increased linearly up to a glass composition with roughly equal stoichiometric amounts of Na2O and Al2O3 where a nonlinear dependence on Al2O3 was observed, whereas H and Er of the chemically strengthened (CS) glasses revealed a strictly linear dependence. Tg, on the other hand, showed linear increase with Al-for-Si for pristine glasses while for the CS glasses a linear to nonlinear trend was observed. Solid-state 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed the sole presence of AlO4 groups in both the pristine and CS glasses. 23Na NMR and wet-chemical analysis manifested that all Al-bearing glasses had a lower and near-constant K+-for-Na+ ion exchange ratio than the soda-lime-silicate glass. Differential thermal analysis of CS glasses revealed a “blurred” glass transition temperature (Tg) and an exothermic step below Tg; the latter stems from the relaxation of residual compressive stresses. The nanoindentation-derived hardness at low loads and <5 mol% Al2O3 showed evidence of stress relaxation for prolonged ion exchange treatment. The crack resistance is maximized for molar ratios n(M(2)O)/n(Al2O3)≈1≈1 for the CS glasses, which is attributed to an increased elastic energy recovery that is linked to the glass compactness.

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  • 39.
    Kessler, Amanda
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    McCarrick, Sarah
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Adsorption of Horseradish Peroxidase on Metallic Nanoparticles: Effects on Reactive Oxygen Species Detection Using 2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescin Diacetate2021Ingår i: Chemical Research in Toxicology, ISSN 0893-228X, E-ISSN 1520-5010, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 1481-1495Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fluorescent probe 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) together with the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is widely used in nanotoxicology to study acellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from nanoparticles (NPs). This study examined whether HRP adsorbs onto NPs of Mn, Ni, and Cu and if this surface process influences the extent of metal release and hence the ROS production measurements using the DCFH assay in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), saline, or Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). Adsorption of HRP was evident onto all NPs and conditions, except for Mn NPs in PBS. The presence of HRP resulted in an increased release of copper from the Cu NPs in PBS and reduced levels of nickel from the Ni NPs in saline. Both metal ions in solution and the adsorption of HRP onto the NPs can change the activity of HRP and thus influence the ROS results. The effect of HRP on the NP reactivity was shown to be solution chemistry dependent. Most notable was the evident affinity/adsorption of phosphate toward the metal NPs, followed by a reduced adsorption of HRP, the concomitant reduction in released manganese from the Mn NPs, and increased levels of released metals from the Cu NPs in PBS. Minor effects were observed for the Ni NPs. The solution pH should be monitored since the release of metals can change the solution pH and the activity of HRP is known to be pH-dependent. It is furthermore essential that solution pH adjustments are made following the addition of NaOH during diacetyl removal of DCFH-DA. Even though not observed for the given exposure conditions of this study, released metal ions could possibly induce agglomeration or partial denaturation of HRP, which in turn could result in steric hindrance for H2O2 to reach the active site of HRP. This study further emphasizes the influence of HRP on the background kinetics, its solution dependence, and effects on measured ROS signals. Different ways of correcting for the background are highlighted, as this can result in different interpretations of generated results. The results show that adsorption of HRP onto the metal NPs influenced the extent of metal release and may, depending on the investigated system, result in either under- or overestimated ROS signals if used together with the DCFH assay. HRP should hence be used with caution when measuring ROS in the presence of reactive metallic NPs. © 2021 The Authors. 

  • 40.
    Khort, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; National University of Science and Technology, Russia.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Western University, Canada.
    Mei, Nanxuan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Romanovski, Valentin
    National University of Science and Technology, Russia; National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Belarus.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Karolinska Insitute, Sweden.
    Corrosion and transformation of solution combustion synthesized Co, Ni and CoNi nanoparticles in synthetic freshwater with and without natural organic matter2021Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 7860Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pure metallic Co, Ni, and their bimetallic compositions of Co3Ni, CoNi, and CoNi3 nanomaterials were prepared by solution combustion synthesis. Microstructure, phase composition, and crystalline structure of these nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized along with studies of their corrosion and dissolution properties in synthetic freshwater with and without natural organic matter (NOM). The nanomaterials consisted of aggregates of fine NPs (3–30 nm) of almost pure metallic and bimetallic crystal phases with a thin surface oxide covered by a thin carbon shell. The nanomaterials were characterized by BET surface areas ranging from ~ 1 to 8 m2/g for the Ni and Co NPs, to 22.93 m2/g, 14.86 m2/g, and 10.53 m2/g for the Co3Ni, CoNi, CoNi3 NPs, respectively. More Co and Ni were released from the bimetallic NPs compared with the pure metals although their corrosion current densities were lower. In contrast to findings for the pure metal NPs, the presence of NOM increased the release of Co and Ni from the bimetallic NPs in freshwater compared to freshwater only even though its presence reduced the corrosion rate (current density). It was shown that the properties of the bimetallic nanomaterials were influenced by multiple factors such as their composition, including carbon shell, type of surface oxides, and the entropy of mixing. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 41.
    Kim, Nara
    et al.
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Lienemann, Samuel
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Khan, Ziyauddin
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Rahmanudin, Aiman
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Fareed
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara. Linköping university, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    An intrinsically stretchable symmetric organic battery based on plant-derived redox molecules2023Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 11, nr 46, s. 25703-25714Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intrinsically stretchable energy storage devices are essential for the powering of imperceptible wearable electronics. Organic batteries based on plant-derived redox-active molecules can offer critical advantages from a safety, sustainability, and economic perspective, but such batteries are not yet available in soft and stretchable form factors. Here we report an intrinsically stretchable organic battery made of elastomeric composite electrodes formulated with alizarin, a natural dye derived from the plant Rubia tinctorum, whose two quinone motifs enable its uses in both positive and negative electrodes. The quaternary biocomposite electrodes possess excellent electron-ion conduction/coupling and superior stretchability (>300%) owing to self-organized hierarchical morphology. In a full-cell configuration, its energy density of 3.8 mW h cm−3 was preserved at 100% strain, and assembled modules on stretchy textiles and rubber gloves can power integrated LEDs during various deformations. This work paves the way for low-cost, eco-friendly, and deformable batteries for next generation wearable electronics. 

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  • 42.
    Kuppuswamy, G. P.
    et al.
    SRM Institute of Science and Technology, India.
    Shabanur Matada, M. S.
    SRM Institute of Science and Technology, India.
    Marappan, G.
    SRM Institute of Science and Technology, India.
    Mulla, Yusuf M
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Velappa Jayaraman, S.
    SRM Institute of Science and Technology, India; Tohoku University, India.
    Di Natale, C.
    University of Rome, Italy.
    Sivalingam, Y.
    SRM Institute of Science and Technology, India.
    NiOX Template-Grown Ni-MOF-Coated Carbon Paper Electrode Embedded Extended Gate Field Effect Transistor for Glucose Detection in Saliva: En Route toward the Noninvasive Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus2023Ingår i: ACS Applied Electronic Materials, ISSN 2637-6113, Vol. 5, nr 6, s. 3268-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Our present work focuses on the development of nickel oxalate (NiOX) template-assisted growth of a nickel-metal organic framework (Ni-MOF) with sheetlike morphology on carbon paper (CP) electrode for the noninvasive detection of glucose. We have utilized an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET) where the Ni-MOF/CP electrode serves as the extended gate of a commercial n-type metal oxide semiconductor FET for sensing glucose. The electrode detects glucose concentrations ranging from 20 μM to 1.47 mM. The sensor operates at a voltage of 0.7 V in the physiologically relevant electrolyte of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with a response time of less than 5 s. The sensitivity is calculated as 86 μA mM-1 cm-2 from the linear region of the sensor response to the glucose concentration (20 μM to 0.27 mM). Also, Ni-MOF/CP has shown a good selective response toward glucose against uric acid, sucrose, fructose, and ascorbic acid. Additionally, the glucose sensing mechanism is investigated through work function changes of the sensing electrode using a scanning Kelvin probe. Real-time sample testing has revealed that the sensor preserves the sensitivity in human saliva too. In summary, we conclude that the Ni-MOF/CP extended gate electrode EGFET is an alternative device for salivary glucose detection toward the noninvasive diagnosis of diabetes mellitus that can identify hyperglycemic, normal, and hypoglycemic conditions. 

  • 43.
    Li, Jing
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Huang, Hui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fielden, Matthew
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ecco, Luiz
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Schellbach, Carsten
    Enthone GmbH, Germany.
    Delmas, Grégory
    Arkema Coating Resins, France.
    Claesson, Per Martin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Towards the mechanism of electrochemical activity and self-healing of 1 wt% PTSA doped polyaniline in alkyd composite polymer coating: Combined AFM-based studies2016Ingår i: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 6, nr 23, s. 19111-19127Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A composite solvent-borne alkyd coating with 1 wt% p-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) doped polyaniline (PANI) was prepared. The mechanisms of electrochemical activity and self-healing properties of the composite coating were investigated by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), intermodulation AFM (ImAFM), electrochemical controlled (EC)-AFM combined with cyclic voltammetry (CV), Kelvin force microscopy (KFM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as open-circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The ImAFM demonstrates the multiphase structure of the composite coating and a high compatibility between the doped PANI and alkyd matrix. The CV and EC-AFM results reveal a high electrochemical activity of the doped PANI in the composite coating as well as reversible redox reactions between the emeraldine salt (ES) and leuco emeraldine base (LB) forms. The Volta potential mapping of KFM demonstrates a strong self-healing ability of the doped PANI in air conditions. The good electrochemical connection between the fine network of PANI in the composite coating and metal surface underneath enable the occurrence of reversible redox reaction between the ES/LB forms of doped PANI and a concomitant release of dopant anions both in air and in 3 wt% NaCl solution as demonstrated by OCP and EIS results. These therefore lead to the strong passivation and self-healing effect of the composite coated on the carbon steel surface.

  • 44.
    Li, Shanghua
    et al.
    ABB, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    ABB, Sweden.
    Liu, Rongsheng
    ABB, Sweden.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Fornara, Andrea
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Johansson Salazar-Sandoval, Eric
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    The effect of ceria nanoparticles on the breakdown strength of transformer oil2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE 11th International Conference on the Properties and Applications of Dielectric Materials (ICPADM), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, s. 289-292Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanotechnologies have potential to be used in transformer industry in enhancing material properties which may lead to a compact design of transformer and reduced manufacturing cost. Effect of adding different nanoparticles such as titania, silica, nano-diamond, etc. has been studied in literatures. In this paper, nano-ceria particles have been successfully added into transformer mineral oil with different content. The suspension is very stable and no segmentation can be observed over several months. The ceria nanoparticles are commercially available, which have a quite narrow size distribution. UV-Vis, TGA and FT-IR are used to characterize the ceria nanofluids. The water content of the ceria nanofluids has been measured by Karl Fisher titration, which is important for the breakdown strength of transformer oil. AC voltage breakdown and lightning impulse voltage breakdown measurements have been performed on the ceria nanofluids. An enhancement of 15% on AC breakdown voltage has been observed on ceria nanofluids with some content compared to reference transformer oil. On the other hand, no clear difference on the lightning impulse breakdown voltage is observed between the ceria nanofluids and reference transformer oil.

  • 45.
    Limbach, René
    et al.
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Scannell, Garth
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Mathew, Renny
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Edén, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    The effect of TiO2 on the structure of Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glasses and its implications for thermal and mechanical properties2017Ingår i: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, ISSN 0022-3093, E-ISSN 1873-4812, Vol. 471, nr C, s. 6-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Titania represents an important compound for property modifications in the widespread family of soda lime silicate glasses. In particular, such titania-containing glasses offer interesting optical and mechanical properties, for example, for substituting lead-bearing consumer glasses. Here, we provide a systematic study of the effect of TiO2 on the structural, thermal, and mechanical properties for three series of quaternary Na2O–CaO–TiO2–SiO2 glasses with TiO2 concentrations up to 12 mol% and variable Na2O, CaO, and SiO2 contents. Structural analyses by Raman and magic-angle spinning 29Si NMR spectroscopy reveal the presence of predominantly four-fold coordinated Ti[4] atoms in glasses of low and moderate TiO2 concentrations, where Si–O–Si bonds are replaced by Si–O–Ti[4] bonds that form a network of interconnected TiO4 and SiO4 tetrahedra, with a majority of the non-bridging oxygen ions likely being located at the SiO4 tetrahedra. At higher TiO2 contents, TiO5 polyhedra are also formed. Incorporation of TiO2 strongly affects the titanosilicate network connectivity, especially when its addition is accompanied by a decrease of the CaO content. However, except for the thermal expansion coefficient, these silicate-network modifications seem to have no impact on the thermal and mechanical stability. Instead, the compositional dependence of the thermal and mechanical properties on the TiO2 content stems from its effect on the network energy and packing efficiency.

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  • 46.
    Lindgård, Jan
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Grelk, Bent
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Wigum, Børge Johannes
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Appelquist, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Holt, Erika E.
    VTT, Finland.
    Ferreira, Miguel
    RILEM, Finland.
    Leivo, Markku
    VTT, Finland.
    Nordic Europe2017Ingår i: Alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete: a world review / [ed] Ian Sims, Alan B. Poole, Taylor & Francis, 2017, s. 277-320Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 47.
    Lobov, Gleb S.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Marinins, Aleksandrs
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Max
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Toprak, Muhammet Sadaka
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Thylen, Lars
    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, US; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Electric field induced optical anisotropy of P3HT nanofibers in a liquid solution2015Ingår i: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 5, nr 11, s. 2642-2647Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The nanofiber morphology of regioregular Poly-3- hexylthiophene (P3HT) is a 1D crystalline structure organized by π - π stacking of the backbone chains. In this study, we report the impact of electric field on the orientation and optical properties of P3HT nanofibers dispersed in liquid solution. We demonstrate that alternating electric field aligns nanofibers, whereas static electric field forces them to migrate towards the cathode. The alignment of nanofibers introduces anisotropic optical properties, which can be dynamically manipulated until the solvent has evaporated. Time resolved spectroscopic measurements revealed that the electro-optical response time decreases significantly with the magnitude of applied electric field. Thus, for electric field 1.3 V ·μm-1 the response time was measured as low as 20 ms, while for 0.65 V ·μm-1 it was 110-150 ms. Observed phenomenon is the first mention of P3HT supramolecules associated with electrooptical effect. Proposed method provides real time control over the orientation of nanofibers, which is a starting point for a novel practical implementation. With further development P3HT nanofibers can be used individually as an anisotropic solution or as an active component in a guest-host system.

  • 48.
    Lobov, Gleb S.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Marinins, Aleksandrs
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Max
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Toprak, Muhammet Sadaka
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Thylen, Lars
    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, US; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Electro-optical response of P3HT nanofibers in liquid solution2015Ingår i: Asia Communications and Photonics Conference 2015, Optical Society of America, 2015, artikel-id ASu1A.5Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AC electric poling introduces in P3HT nanofibers anisotropic electro-optical response and birefringence. Along with birefringence, such material exhibits strong amplitude modulation which makes it more efficient alternative to liquid crystals.

  • 49.
    Lobov, Gleb S.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Marinins, Alexandrs
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Min
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Thylén, Lars
    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, US; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dynamic manipulation of optical anisotropy of suspended Poly-3-hexylthiophene nanofibers2016Ingår i: Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN 2162-7568, E-ISSN 2195-1071, Vol. 4, nr 10, s. 1651-1656Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) nanofibers are 1D crystalline semiconducting nanostructures, which are known for their application in photovoltaics. Due to the internal arrangement, P3HT nanofibers possess optical anisotropy, which can be enhanced on a macroscale if nanofibers are aligned. Alternating electric field, applied to a solution with dispersed nanofibers, causes their alignment and serves as a method to produce solid layers with ordered nanofibers. The transmission ellipsometry measurements demonstrate the dichroic absorption and birefringence of ordered nanofibers in a wide spectral range of 400–1700 nm. Moreover, the length of nanofibers has a crucial impact on their degree of alignment. Using electric birefringence technique, it is shown that external electric field applied to the solution with P3HT nanofibers can cause direct birefringence modulation. Dynamic alignment of dispersed nanofibers changes the refractive index of the solution and, therefore, the polarization of transmitted light. A reversible reorientation of nanofibers is organized by using a quadrupole configuration of poling electrodes. With further development, the described method can be used in the area of active optical fiber components, lab-on-chip or sensors. It also reveals the potential of 1D conducting polymeric structures as objects whose highly anisotropic properties can be implemented in electro-optical applications.​.

  • 50.
    Lu, Xiaohu
    et al.
    Nynas AB, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Soenen, Hilde
    Nynas NV, Belgium.
    Andersson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Yta, process och formulering.
    Microstructures of bitumen observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and chemical analysis using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS)2018Ingår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 229, s. 198-208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to characterize structures induced on bitumen surfaces under analysis by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and to examine possible contributing factors to the formation of their formation. Various bitumen samples are investigated, including soft and hard, as well as polymer modified bitumen. Chemical characterization is carried out by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), combined with principle component analysis (PCA). The study shows that, for soft bitumen, a tube pattern or worm structure is rapidly formed during ESEM analysis, but for hard bitumen, a longer exposure time is needed to develop a structure. The structures on the hard bitumen are also denser as compared to those on the soft bitumen. When sample specimens are deformed or stretched, the orientation of the created deformation is clearly reflected in the structures formed under ESEM, and for soft bitumen, the structure disappears overnight in vacuum but reappears with the same pattern upon repeated ESEM analysis. TOF-SIMS shows small but consistent chemical differences, indicating higher aliphatic and lower aromatic contents on the surface of the structured area compared to the unstructured area. Based on an estimated temperature increase on the bitumen surface due to the electron-beam irradiation, it is speculated that the ESEM-induced worm structure may be attributed to evaporation of volatiles, surface hardening and local expansion. In addition, under the electron-beam exposure, certain chemical reactions (e.g. breaking of chemical bonds, chain scission and crosslinking) may take place, possibly resulting in the observed chemical differences between the structured and unstructured areas.

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