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  • 1.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Brown, Andrew S.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Suitability of different containers for the sampling and storage of biogas and biomethane for the determination of the trace-level impurities - A review2016In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 902, p. 22-32Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traceable and accurate measurement of biogas impurities is essential in order to robustly assess compliance with the specifications for biomethane being developed by CEN/TC408. An essential part of any procedure aiming to determinate the content of impurities is the sampling and the transfer of the sample to the laboratory. Key issues are the suitability of the sample container and minimising the losses of impurities during the sampling and analysis process. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art in biogas sampling with the focus on trace impurities. Most of the vessel suitability studies reviewed focused on raw biogas. Many parameters need to be studied when assessing the suitability of vessels for sampling and storage, among them, permeation through the walls, leaks through the valves or physical leaks, sorption losses and adsorption effects to the vessel walls, chemical reactions and the expected initial concentration level. The majority of these studies looked at siloxanes, for which sampling bags, canisters, impingers and sorbents have been reported to be fit-for-purpose in most cases, albeit with some limitations. We conclude that the optimum method requires a combination of different vessels to cover the wide range of impurities commonly found in biogas, which have a wide range of boiling points, polarities, water solubilities, and reactivities. The effects from all the parts of the sampling line must be considered and precautions must be undertaken to minimize these effects. More practical suitability tests, preferably using traceable reference gas mixtures, are needed to understand the influence of the containers and the sampling line on sample properties and to reduce the uncertainty of the measurement.

  • 2.
    Barwick, Vicki
    et al.
    LGC Ltd, UK.
    Ellison, Stephen L. R.
    LGC Ltd, UK.
    Gjengedal, Elin
    NTNU Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Molinier, Olivier
    Aglae, France.
    Patriarca, Marina
    Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy.
    Sibbesen, Lorens
    LAB Quality International, Denmark.
    Vanlaethem, Nicole
    Classes Moyennes et Energie, Belgium.
    Vercruysse, Isabelle
    Belab, Belgium.
    Method validation in analytical sciences: discussions on current practice and future challenges2017In: Accreditation and Quality Assurance, ISSN 0949-1775, E-ISSN 1432-0517, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 253-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eurachem held a workshop on method validation in analytical sciences in Gent, Belgium, on 9–10 May 2016. A summary of the working group discussions is provided here. The discussions covered a range of issues concerned with current practice and future challenges in method validation, i.e. setting requirements for a method to be validated; planning validation studies; validation of qualitative and semi-quantitative methods; validation of multi-parameter methods; determination of trueness/bias; assessment of working range; validation in microbiology; and method validation under flexible scope of accreditation. Delegates (129) from 24 different countries and from different backgrounds, e.g. from both public and private laboratories, laboratory associations, accreditation bodies and universities, attended the working groups, thus providing opportunities to collect a variety of views and experiences as well as to identify potential gaps in current guidance and regulations. While the practicalities of assessing method performance characteristics are generally well understood, the issue of setting requirements for those characteristics beforehand is less straightforward. Although a number of documents addressing the principles of method validation are available, guidance on dealing with more complex and ‘non-ideal’ situations, as well as examples of good practice, would be welcomed and greater harmonisation of approaches was deemed necessary. There remains a need for guidance on both the concepts that apply to ‘qualitative’ or ‘nominal’ test methods and on the practical implementation of validation studies in such cases.

  • 3.
    Carlred, Louise
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vukojević, Vladana
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schalling, Martin
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Höök, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Imaging of amyloid-β in alzheimer’s disease transgenic mouse brains with ToF-SIMS using immunoliposomes2016In: Biointerphases, ISSN 1934-8630, E-ISSN 1559-4106, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 1-11, article id 02A312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has been proven to successfully image different kinds of molecules, especially a variety of lipids, in biological samples. Proteins, however, are difficult to detect as specific entities with this method due to extensive fragmentation. To circumvent this issue, the authors present in this work a method developed for detection of proteins using antibody-conjugated liposomes, so called immunoliposomes, which are able to bind to the specific protein of interest. In combination with the capability of ToF-SIMS to detect native lipids in tissue samples, this method opens up the opportunity to analyze many different biomolecules, both lipids and proteins, at the same time, with high spatial resolution. The method has been applied to detect and image the distribution of amyloid-β (Aβ), a biologically relevant peptide in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), in transgenic mouse brain tissue. To ensure specific binding, the immunoliposome binding was verified on a model surface using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The immunoliposome binding was also investigated on tissue sections with fluorescence microscopy, and compared with conventional immunohistochemistry using primary and secondary antibodies, demonstrating specific binding to Aβ. Using ToF-SIMS imaging, several endogenous lipids, such as cholesterol and sulfatides, were also detected in parallel with the immunoliposome-labeled Aβ deposits, which is an advantage compared to fluorescence microscopy. This method can thus potentially provide further information about lipid–protein interactions, which is important to understand the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in AD.

  • 4.
    Dahlman, Olof
    et al.
    STFI.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Liljenberg, Annika
    STFI.
    Ismail Olsson, Asha
    STFI.
    Analysis of carbohydrates in wood and pulps employing enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent capillary zone electrophoresis2000In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 891, no 1, p. 157-174Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Gao, Yu
    et al.
    Washington University, USA.
    Walker, Michael J
    Washington University, USA.
    Barrett, Jacob A
    University of California, USA.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Harper, David P
    University of Tennessee, USA.
    Ford, Peter C
    University of California, USA.
    Williams, Brent J
    Washington University, USA.
    Foston, Marcus B
    Washington University, USA.
    Analysis of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data for catalytic lignin depolymerization using positive matrix factorization2018In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 20, no 18, p. 4366-4377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various catalytic technologies are being developed to efficiently convert lignin into renewable chemicals. However, due to its complexity, catalytic lignin depolymerization often generates a wide and complex distribution of product compounds. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a common analytical technique to profile the compounds that comprise lignin depolymerization products. GC-MS is applied not only to determine the product composition, but also to develop an understanding of the catalytic reaction pathways and of the relationships among catalyst structure, reaction conditions, and the resulting compounds generated. Although a very useful tool, the analysis of lignin depolymerization products with GC-MS is limited by the quality and scope of the available mass spectral libraries and the ability to correlate changes in GC-MS chromatograms to changes in lignin structure, catalyst structure, and other reaction conditions. In this study, the GC-MS data of the depolymerization products generated from organosolv hybrid poplar lignin using a copper-doped porous metal oxide catalyst and a methanol/dimethyl carbonate co-solvent was analyzed by applying a factor analysis technique, positive matrix factorization (PMF). Several different solutions for the PMF model were explored. A 13-factor solution sufficiently explains the chemical changes occurring to lignin depolymerization products as a function of lignin, reaction time, catalyst, and solvent. Overall, seven factors were found to represent aromatic compounds, while one factor was defined by aliphatic compounds.

  • 6.
    Garg, Neeraj
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Chemoselective Probe Containing a Unique Bioorthogonal Cleavage Site for Investigation of Gut Microbiota Metabolism2018In: Angewandte Chemie, ISSN n2:1433-7851, Vol. 57, no 42, p. 13805-13809Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Garg, Neeraj
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Highly Sensitive MassSpectrometric Analysis of Metabolic Ketones and Aldehydes in Human FecalSamples2019In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, Vol. 55, no 62, p. 9080-9083Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Garg, Neeraj
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    New enzymatic and massspectrometric methodology for the selective investigation of gutmicrobiota-derived metabolites2018In: Chem. Sci., ISSN 2456-706X, Vol. 9, no 29, p. 6233-6239Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Garg, Neeraj
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Structural elucidation of major selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) metabolites for doping control2018In: Org. Biomol. Chem., Vol. 29, p. 698-702, article id 10.1039/C7OB03030DArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Goetz, W.
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Brinckerhoff, W. B.
    NASA, US.
    Arevalo, R.
    NASA, US.
    Freissinet, C.
    NASA, US.
    Getty, S.
    NASA, US.
    Glavin, D. P.
    NASA, US.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Buch, A.
    Ecole Centrale Paris, France.
    Stalport, F.
    Ecole Centrale Paris, France.
    Grubisic, A.
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Li, X.
    NASA, US.
    Pinnick, V.
    NASA, US.
    Danell, R.
    NASA, US.
    Van Amerom, F. H. W.
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France; Danell Consulting, US.
    Goesmann, F.
    Mini-Mass Consulting, US.
    Steininger, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Grand, N.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Raulin, F.
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France, France.
    Szopa, C.
    LATMOS, France.
    Meierhenrich, U.
    University of Nice, France.
    Brucato, J. R.
    INAF Astrophysical Observatory of Arcetri, Italy; University of Bremen, Germany.
    MOMA: The challenge to search for organics and biosignatures on Mars2016In: International Journal of Astrobiology, ISSN 1473-5504, E-ISSN 1475-3006, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 239-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes strategies to search for, detect, and identify organic material on the surface and subsurface of Mars. The strategies described include those applied by landed missions in the past and those that will be applied in the future. The value and role of ESA's ExoMars rover and of her key science instrument Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) are critically assessed.

  • 11.
    Gren, Johan A.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Eriksson, Mats E.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sylvestersen, Rene L.
    MUSERUM, Denmark.
    Marone, Frederica
    Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.
    Sigfridsson Clauss, Kajsa G. V.
    MAX IV Laboratory, Sweden.
    Taylor, Gavin J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlson, Stefan
    MAX IV Laboratory, Sweden.
    Uvdal, Per
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Molecular and microstructural inventory of an isolated fossil bird feather from the Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark2017In: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 73-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An isolated, yet virtually intact contour feather (FUM-1980) from the lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark was analysed using multiple imaging and molecular techniques, including field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), X-ray absorption spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Additionally, synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) was employed in order to produce a digital reconstruction of the fossil. Under FEG-SEM, the proximal, plumulaceous part of the feather revealed masses of ovoid microstructures, about 1.7 μm long and 0.5 μm wide. Microbodies in the distal, pennaceous portion were substantially smaller (averaging 0.9 × 0.2 μm), highly elongate, and more densely packed. Generally, the microbodies in both the plumulaceous and pennaceous segments were aligned along the barbs and located within shallow depressions on the exposed surfaces. Biomarkers consistent with animal eumelanins were co-localized with the microstructures, to suggest that they represent remnant eumelanosomes (i.e. eumelanin-housing cellular organelles). Additionally, ToF-SIMS analysis revealed the presence of sulfur-containing organics – potentially indicative of pheomelanins – associated with eumelanin-like compounds. However, since there was no correlation between melanosome morphology and sulfur content, we conclude these molecular structures derive from diagenetically incorporated sulfur rather than pheomelanin. Melanosomes corresponding roughly in both size and morphology with those in the proximal part of FUM-1980 are known from contour feathers of extant parrots (Psittaciformes), an avian clade that has previously been reported from the Fur Formation.

  • 12.
    Hammarström, Lars G. J.
    et al.
    Science for Life Laboratory, Sweden; Glionova Therapeutics, Sweden.
    Harmel, Robert K.
    Science for Life Laboratory, Sweden; FMP Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Germany.
    Granath, Mikael
    OnTargetChemistry AB, Sweden.
    Ringom, Rune
    OnTargetChemistry AB, Sweden.
    Gravenfors, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Färnegårdh, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Svensson, Per H.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Process Development, Analys och fastfas.
    Wennman, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Process Development, Analys och fastfas.
    Lundin, Göran
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Process Development, Analys och fastfas.
    Roddis, Ylva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Process Development, Analys och fastfas.
    Kitambi, Satish
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Bernlind, Alexandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Process Development, Analys och fastfas.
    Lehmann, Fredrik
    OnTargetChemistry AB, Sweden.
    Ernfors, Patrik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    The Oncolytic Efficacy and in Vivo Pharmacokinetics of [2-(4-Chlorophenyl)quinolin-4-yl](piperidine-2-yl)methanol (Vacquinol-1) Are Governed by Distinct Stereochemical Features2016In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 59, no 18, p. 8577-8592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glioblastoma remains an incurable brain cancer. Drugs developed in the past 20 years have not improved the prognosis for patients, necessitating the development of new treatments. We have previously reported the therapeutic potential of the quinoline methanol Vacquinol-1 (1) that targets glioblastoma cells and induces cell death by catastrophic vacuolization. Compound 1 is a mixture of four stereoisomers due to the two adjacent stereogenic centers in the molecule, complicating further development in the preclinical setting. This work describes the isolation and characterization of the individual isomers of 1 and shows that these display stereospecific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features. In addition, we present a stereoselective synthesis of the active isomers, providing a basis for further development of this compound series into a novel experimental therapeutic for glioblastoma.

  • 13.
    Hannestad, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Höök, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nanometer-scale molecular organization in lipid membranes studied by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry2018In: Biointerphases, ISSN 1934-8630, E-ISSN 1559-4106, Vol. 13, no 3, article id 03B408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of lipid membranes plays an important role in a wide range of biological processes at different length scales. Herein, the authors present a procedure based on time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to characterize the nanometer-scale ordering of lipids in lipid membrane structures on surfaces. While ToF-SIMS is a powerful tool for label-free analysis of lipid-containing samples, its limited spatial resolution prevents in-depth knowledge of how lipid properties affect the molecular assembly of the membrane. The authors overcome this limitation by measuring the formation of lipid dimers, originating in the same nanometer-sized primary ion impact areas. The lipid dimers reflect the local lipid environment and thus allow us to characterize the membrane miscibility on the nanometer level. Using this technique, the authors show that the chemical properties of the constituting lipids are critical for the structure and organization of the membrane on both the nanometer and micrometer length scales. Our results show that even at lipid surface compositions favoring two-phase systems, lipids are still extracted from solid, gel phase, domains into the surrounding fluid supported lipid bilayer surrounding the gel phase domains. The technique offers a means to obtain detailed knowledge of the chemical composition and organization of lipid membranes with potential application in systems where labeling is not possible, such as cell-derived supported lipid bilayers.

  • 14.
    Hilchenbach, M.
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Kissel, J.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Langevin, Y.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Briois, C.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Hoerner, H. V.
    Von Hoerner & Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Koch, A.
    Von Hoerner & Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Schulz, R.
    ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Silén, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Altwegg, K.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Colangeli, L.
    ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Cottin, H.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Engrand, C.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Saclay, France.
    Fischer, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Glasmachers, A.
    University of Wuppertal, Germany.
    Grün, E.
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany.
    Haerendel, G.
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Henkel, H.
    Von Hoerner & Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Höfner, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Hornung, K.
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Jessberger, E. K.
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Lehto, H.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Lehto, K.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Raulin, F.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Roy, L. L.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Rynö, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Steiger, W.
    RC Seibersdorf Research GmbH Business Field Aerospace Technology, Austria.
    Stephan, T.
    University of Chicago, US.
    Thirkell, L.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Thomas, R.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Torkar, K.
    Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria.
    Varmuza, K.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Wanczek, K. -P
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Altobelli, N.
    ESAC European Space Astronomy Centre, Spain.
    Baklouti, D.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Bardyn, A.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Fray, N.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Krüger, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Ligier, N.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Lin, Z.
    NCU National Central University, Taiwan.
    Martin, P.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Merouane, S.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Orthous-Daunay, F. R.
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Paquette, J.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Revillet, C.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Stenzel, O.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Zaprudin, B.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO: CLOSE-UP on DUST PARTICLE FRAGMENTS2016In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 816, no 2, article id L32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser instrument on board ESA's Rosetta mission has collected dust particles in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. During the early-orbit phase of the Rosetta mission, particles and particle agglomerates have been imaged and analyzed in the inner coma at distances between 100 km and 10 km off the cometary nucleus and at more than 3 AU from the Sun. We identified 585 particles of more than 14 μm in size. The particles are collected at low impact speeds and constitute a sample of the dust particles in the inner coma impacting and fragmenting on the targets. The sizes of the particles range from 14 μm up to sub-millimeter sizes and the differential dust flux size distribution is fitted with a power law exponent of -3.1. After impact, the larger particles tend to stick together, spread out or consist of single or a group of clumps, and the flocculent morphology of the fragmented particles is revealed. The elemental composition of the dust particles is heterogeneous and the particles could contain typical silicates like olivine and pyroxenes, as well as iron sulfides. The sodium to iron elemental ratio is enriched with regard to abundances in CI carbonaceous chondrites by a factor from ∼1.5 to ∼15. No clear evidence for organic matter has been identified. The composition and morphology of the collected dust particles appear to be similar to that of interplanetary dust particles.

  • 15.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    How accurately can we determine the pulp carbohydrate composition?: comparison of results and reproducibility of different methods for carbohydrate analysis2005In: Chromatography in pulping and papermaking: Cost Action E41 : analytical tools with applications for wood and pulping chemistry, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    MALDI mass spectrometry as a tool for hemicellulose characterisation2005In: Spectrometric techniques used for the analysis of carbohydrates, lignin and extractives: COST Action E41 : analytical tools with applications for wood and pulping chemistry., 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lignin properties for the biorefinery, and their analytical challenges2015In: NWBC 2015: The 6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference, Espoo: VTT , 2015, p. 203-204Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of official standardised methods for lignin has meant that the results from analysis of lignin properties are largely dependent on which method or laboratory that is used. Therefore, relevant and harmonised analytical methods are essential to allow producers of biorefinery products to prepare specifications for their products and to improve the possibilities for systematic development of process and product. The current status of the most important methods for lignin characterisation has been evaluated together with method development or method adaption in order to meet the requirements for high-value lignin products.

  • 18.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Absolute molar mass of lignins by size exclusion chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy2000In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 120-127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Characterization of the Molar Masses of Hemicelluloses from Wood and Pulps Employing Size Exclusion Chromatography and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry2001In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 894-905Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Enhancement of the Quality of MALDI Mass Spectra of Highly Acidic Oligosaccharides by Using a Nafion-Coated Probe2001In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 405-410Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Persson, E.
    Simultaneous determination or uronic acid and neutral monosaccharide structural elements in wood and pulp2001In: 11th International Symposium on Wood and Pulping Chemistry, 2001, Vol. 1, p. 207-210Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Klockare, Lisa
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Björklund Jansson, Marianne
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Quantification of different fibres in recycled pulp using NIR analysis2006In: Paper recycling technology, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23. Kaombe, D.K.
    et al.
    Lenes, M.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Toven, K.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Glomm, W.R.
    Turbiscan as a tool for studying the phase separation tendency of pyrolysis oil2013In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Krüger, Harald
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Stephan, Thomas
    University of Chicago, US.
    Engrand, Cécile
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Briois, Christelle
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Merouane, Sihane
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Baklouti, Donia
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Fischer, Henning
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Fray, Nicolas
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Hornung, Klaus
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Lehto, Harry
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Orthous-Daunay, Francois-Régis
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Rynö, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Schulz, Rita
    ESA European Space Agency, Netherlands.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Thirkell, Laurent
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Trieloff, Mario
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    COSIMA-Rosetta calibration for in situ characterization of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko cometary inorganic compounds2015In: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, E-ISSN 1873-5088, Vol. 117, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer (COSIMA) is a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) instrument on board the Rosetta space mission. COSIMA has been designed to measure the composition of cometary dust particles. It has a mass resolution m/Δm of 1400 at mass 100 u, thus enabling the discrimination of inorganic mass peaks from organic ones in the mass spectra. We have evaluated the identification capabilities of the reference model of COSIMA for inorganic compounds using a suite of terrestrial minerals that are relevant for cometary science. Ground calibration demonstrated that the performances of the flight model were similar to that of the reference model. The list of minerals used in this study was chosen based on the mineralogy of meteorites, interplanetary dust particles and Stardust samples. It contains anhydrous and hydrous ferromagnesian silicates, refractory silicates and oxides (present in meteoritic Ca-Al-rich inclusions), carbonates, and Fe-Ni sulfides. From the analyses of these minerals, we have calculated relative sensitivity factors for a suite of major and minor elements in order to provide a basis for element quantification for the possible identification of major mineral classes present in the cometary particles.

  • 25.
    Labandeira, Conrad C.
    et al.
    Capital Normal University, China; National Museum of Natural History, US; University of Maryland, US.
    Yang, Qiang
    Capital Normal University, China; Sun Yat-sen University, China; Shijiazhuang University of Economics, China.
    Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.
    National Museum of Natural History, US; University of Puerto Rico, US.
    Hotton, Carol L.
    National Museum of Natural History, US; National Library of Medicine, US.
    Monteiro, Antónia
    Yale University, US; National University of Singapore, Singapore; Yale-NUS College, Singapore.
    Wang, Yong-Jie
    Capital Normal University, China.
    Goreva, Yulia
    National Museum of Natural History, US; NASA, US.
    Shih, ChunKun
    Capital Normal University, China; National Museum of Natural History, US.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. National Museum of Natural History, US; Carnegie Institution of Washington, US.
    Rose, Tim R.
    National Museum of Natural History, US.
    Dilcher, David L.
    Indiana University, US.
    Ren, Dong
    Capital Normal University, China.
    The evolutionary convergence of mid-mesozoic lacewings and cenozoic butterflies2016In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 283, no 1824, article id 20152893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mid-Mesozoic kalligrammatid lacewings (Neuroptera) entered the fossil record 165 million years ago (Ma) and disappeared 45 Ma later. Extant papilionoid butterflies (Lepidoptera) probably originated 80–70 Ma, long after kalligrammatids became extinct. Although poor preservation of kalligrammatid fossils previously prevented their detailed morphological and ecological characterization, we examine new, well-preserved, kalligrammatid fossils from Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous sites in northeastern China to unravel a surprising array of similar morphological and ecological features in these two, unrelated clades. We used polarized light and epifluorescence photography, SEM imaging, energy dispersive spectrometry and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to examine kalligrammatid fossils and their environment. We mapped the evolution of specific traits onto a kalligrammatid phylogeny and discovered that these extinct lacewings convergently evolved wing eyespots that possibly contained melanin, and wing scales, elongate tubular proboscides, similar feeding styles, and seed–plant associations, similar to butterflies. Long-proboscid kalligrammatid lacewings lived in ecosystems with gymnosperm–insect relationships and likely accessed bennettitalean pollination drops and pollen. This system later was replaced by mid-Cretaceous angiosperms and their insect pollinators.

  • 26.
    Li, Jing
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Huang, Hui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fielden, Matthew
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ecco, Luiz
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Schellbach, Carsten
    Enthone GmbH, Germany.
    Delmas, Grégory
    Arkema Coating Resins, France.
    Claesson, Per Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Towards the mechanism of electrochemical activity and self-healing of 1 wt% PTSA doped polyaniline in alkyd composite polymer coating: Combined AFM-based studies2016In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 6, no 23, p. 19111-19127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A composite solvent-borne alkyd coating with 1 wt% p-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) doped polyaniline (PANI) was prepared. The mechanisms of electrochemical activity and self-healing properties of the composite coating were investigated by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), intermodulation AFM (ImAFM), electrochemical controlled (EC)-AFM combined with cyclic voltammetry (CV), Kelvin force microscopy (KFM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as open-circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The ImAFM demonstrates the multiphase structure of the composite coating and a high compatibility between the doped PANI and alkyd matrix. The CV and EC-AFM results reveal a high electrochemical activity of the doped PANI in the composite coating as well as reversible redox reactions between the emeraldine salt (ES) and leuco emeraldine base (LB) forms. The Volta potential mapping of KFM demonstrates a strong self-healing ability of the doped PANI in air conditions. The good electrochemical connection between the fine network of PANI in the composite coating and metal surface underneath enable the occurrence of reversible redox reaction between the ES/LB forms of doped PANI and a concomitant release of dopant anions both in air and in 3 wt% NaCl solution as demonstrated by OCP and EIS results. These therefore lead to the strong passivation and self-healing effect of the composite coated on the carbon steel surface.

  • 27.
    Lindgren, Johan
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Carney, Ryan M.
    Brown University, US.
    Cincotta, Aude
    Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences; Belgium; University of Namur, Belgium.
    Uvdal, Per
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hutcheson, Steven W.
    University of Maryland, US.
    Gustafsson, Ola
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lefèvre, Ulysse
    Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Belgium; Liège University, Belgium.
    Escuillié, Francois
    Eldonia, France.
    Heimdal, Jimmy
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Engdahl, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gren, Johan A.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wakamatsu, Kazumasa
    Fujita Health University, Japan.
    Yans, Johan
    University of Namur, Belgium.
    Godefroit, Pascal
    Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Belgium.
    Molecular composition and ultrastructure of Jurassic paravian feathers2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 13520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feathers are amongst the most complex epidermal structures known, and they have a well-documented evolutionary trajectory across non-avian dinosaurs and basal birds. Moreover, melanosome-like microbodies preserved in association with fossil plumage have been used to reconstruct original colour, behaviour and physiology. However, these putative ancient melanosomes might alternatively represent microorganismal residues, a conflicting interpretation compounded by a lack of unambiguous chemical data. We therefore used sensitive molecular imaging, supported by multiple independent analytical tests, to demonstrate that the filamentous epidermal appendages in a new specimen of the Jurassic paravian Anchiornis comprise remnant eumelanosomes and fibril-like microstructures, preserved as endogenous eumelanin and authigenic calcium phosphate. These results provide novel insights into the early evolution of feathers at the sub-cellular level, and unequivocally determine that melanosomes can be preserved in fossil feathers.

  • 28.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hansson, Erik
    Inspecta.
    Analysis of irradiated concrete: Microscopic and mechanical tests on concrete from a nuclear power plant containment structure2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drilled concrete cores from the centralpart of the containment structure of reactor 2 in Oskarshamn weretested in the present study. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy wereapplied.The microscopy analyses performed have not documented any changes in the properties of the concrete that can be interpreted as beingdue to the specific environment to which the samples havebeen exposed. The parameters that havebeen studied includecrack patterns that could indicate volume changes inthe aggregate or cement pasteand indications of alkali silica reaction. The observed differences in the concrete surface compared to the inner part of the concrete are such that they couldoccur in concrete exposed to a normal indoor environment. There are no crack patterns to indicatethat the radiation has caused a volume increase inthe aggregate or drying shrinkage in the cement paste. Thereareno changesin the crack patterns, porosity or polarization properties that may indicate reduced mechanical strength. The damage seen in the surface of sample 5 is likely to have beencaused by a local mechanical impact and thisdamage is superficial andlocal. The mechanical properties of the concrete were evaluated by uniaxial compression tests on cylinders machined from drilled cores. Full-field strain measurement was performed on the surface of the cylinders during the compression test. Optical full-field deformation measurement was conducted usinga measurement technique based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) with a stereoscopic camera set-up, consisting of two CCDcameras. The basic idea behind DIC is to measure the deformation of the specimen duringtesting by tracking the deformation of a surface speckle pattern in a series of digital images acquired during loading. That there is some variation in strain between the various segments is natural, since the local stiffness depends on aggregate sizeand location. The general picture is that the strain distribution is relatively uniform along the length of the cylinder,which indicates that the tested cylinders do not exhibit any degradation of mechanical properties. There is also no significant difference between the cylinders taken towards the insideof the structure, compared with thosetaken towards the outside.The overall conclusion is that the tests carried out do not indicate any degradation of the mechanical properties, and that the properties in general are equivalent for the cores taken towards the inside and the outside of the structure.

  • 29.
    Moghaddam, Maziar Sedighi
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Van den Bulcke, J.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Wålinder, M. E. P.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    J., Van Acker
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    X-ray computed tomography on chemically modified wood2016In: Proceedings of the 12th meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE): Wood science and engineering - a key factor on the transition to Bioeconomy / [ed] Bruno Andersons and Arnis Kokorevics, Riga: Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry , 2016, p. 184-190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping and visualization of structural changes due to the modification of wood would increase the understanding of chemical modification processes and facilitate optimization of the process parameters. The 2D and 3D microstructure of acetylated and furfurylated softwood and hardwood were visualized using X-ray computed tomography and some anatomical features were investigated such as total porosity, cell wall thickness and maximum opening of tracheid lumens. The wetting properties of chemically modified samples were related to the microstructural properties. Significant changes in the wood structure were observed for furfurylated sapwood samples mainly indicated by a change in tracheid shape and filling of tracheids by furan polymer, whereas no microstructural changes were noted for acetylated samples. Furfurylation significantly decreased the porosity of the sample in both earlywood and latewood regions; whereas for acetylated samples the total porosity of modified and unmodified samples was rather similar. This is in line with results of wetting showing that furfurylation reduced both swelling and capillary uptake in contrast to acetylation which reduced mostly swelling.

  • 30.
    Moghaddam, Maziar Sedighi
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Van den Bulcke, J.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Wålinder, M. E. P.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Van Acker, J.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    X-ray computed tomography on chemically modified wood2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping and visualization of structural changes due to the modification of wood would increase the understanding of chemical modification processes and facilitate optimization of the process parameters. The 2D and 3D microstructure of acetylated and furfurylated softwood and hardwood were visualized using X-ray computed tomography and some anatomical features were investigated such as total porosity, cell wall thickness and maximum opening of tracheid lumens. The wetting properties of chemically modified samples were related to the microstructural properties. Significant changes in the wood structure were observed for furfurylated sapwood samples mainly indicated by a change in tracheid shape and filling of tracheids by furan polymer, whereas no microstructural changes were noted for acetylated samples. Furfurylation significantly decreased the porosity of the sample in both earlywood and latewood regions; whereas for acetylated samples the total porosity of modified and unmodified samples was rather similar. This is in line with results of wetting showing that furfurylation reduced both swelling and capillary uptake in contrast to acetylation which reduced mostly swelling.

  • 31.
    Nilsson Påledal, Sören
    et al.
    Tekniska verken i Linköping AB, Sweden.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Moestedt, Jan
    Tekniska verken i Linköping AB, Sweden.
    Engelbrektsson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Stensen, Katarina
    Tekniska verken i Linköping AB, Sweden.
    Characterisation and treatment of VOCs in process water from upgrading facilities for compressed biogas (CBG)2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 145, p. 424-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compression and upgrading of biogas to vehicle fuel generates process water, which to varying degrees contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from the biogas. The compostion of this process water has not yet been studied and scientifically published and there is currently an uncertainty regarding content of VOCs and how the process water should be managed to minimise the impact on health and the environment. The aim of the study was to give an overview about general levels of VOCs in the process water. Characterisation of process water from amine and water scrubbers at plants digesting waste, sewage sludge or agricultural residues showed that both the average concentration and composition of particular VOCs varied depending on the substrate used at the biogas plant, but the divergence was high and the differences for total concentrations from the different substrate groups were only significant for samples from plants using waste compared to residues from agriculture. The characterisation also showed that the content of VOCs varied greatly between different sampling points for same main substrate and between sampling occasions at the same sampling point, indicating that site-specific conditions are important for the results which also indicates that a number of analyses at different times are required in order to make an more exact characterisation with low uncertainty.Inhibition of VOCs in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process was studied in biomethane potential tests, but no inhibition was observed during addition of synthetic process water at concentrations of 11.6 mg and 238 mg VOC/L.

  • 32.
    Näykki, Teemu
    et al.
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Virtanen, Atte
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Kaukonen, Lari
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Väisänen, Tero
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Leito, Ivo
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Application of the Nordtest method for “real-time” uncertainty estimation of on-line field measurement2015In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 187, no 10, article id 630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Field sensor measurements are becoming more common for environmental monitoring. Solutions for enhancing reliability, i.e. knowledge of the measurement uncertainty of field measurements, are urgently needed. Real-time estimations of measurement uncertainty for field measurement have not previously been published, and in this paper, a novel approach to the automated turbidity measuring system with an application for “real-time” uncertainty estimation is outlined based on the Nordtest handbook’s measurement uncertainty estimation principles. The term real-time is written in quotation marks, since the calculation of the uncertainty is carried out using a set of past measurement results. There are two main requirements for the estimation of real-time measurement uncertainty of online field measurement described in this paper: (1) setting up an automated measuring system that can be (preferably remotely) controlled which measures the samples (water to be investigated as well as synthetic control samples) the way the user has programmed it and stores the results in a database, (2) setting up automated data processing (software) where the measurement uncertainty is calculated from the data produced by the automated measuring system. When control samples with a known value or concentration are measured regularly, any instrumental drift can be detected. An additional benefit is that small drift can be taken into account (in real-time) as a bias value in the measurement uncertainty calculation, and if the drift is high, the measurement results of the control samples can be used for real-time recalibration of the measuring device. The procedure described in this paper is not restricted to turbidity measurements, but it will enable measurement uncertainty estimation for any kind of automated measuring system that performs sequential measurements of routine samples and control samples/reference materials in a similar way as described in this paper.

  • 33.
    Pereira, Paulo
    et al.
    Portuguese Institute of Blood and Transplantation, Portugal.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Westgard, James O.
    University of Wisconsin, US.
    Encarnação, Pedro
    Catholic University of Portugal, Portugal.
    Measurement uncertainty as a tool for evaluating the ‘grey zone’ to reduce the false negatives in immunochemical screening of blood donors for infectious diseases2016In: Accreditation and Quality Assurance, ISSN 0949-1775, E-ISSN 1432-0517, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of misclassifying infected individuals as healthy constitutes a crucial challenge when screening blood donors by means of immunoassays. This risk is especially challenging when the numerical results are close to the clinical decision level, i.e. in the ‘grey zone’. The concept of using measurement uncertainty for evaluating the ‘grey zone’ has previously not been systematically applied in this context. This article explains methods, models and empirical (top-down) approaches for the calculation of measurement uncertainty using results from a blood bank according to the internationally accepted GUM principles, focusing on uncertainty sources in the analytical phase. Of the different approaches available, the intralaboratory empirical approaches are emphasised since modelling (bottom-up) approaches are impracticable due to the lack of reliable model equations for immunoassays. Different methods are applied to estimate the measurement uncertainty for the Abbott Prism® HCV immunoassay. The expanded uncertainty obtained at the clinical decision level from the intralaboratory empirical approach was 36 %. The estimated uncertainty was used to set acceptance and rejection zones following the procedure set in the Eurachem guideline, emphasising the need to minimise the occurrence of false negatives.

  • 34.
    Regnell Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Rönnols, Jerk
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Lignin Bimodality: Fact or Artefact?2018In: 15th European workshop on lignocellulosics and pulp: Proceedings for oral presentations, 2018, p. 97-100Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) of lignin poses many challenges. In numerous studies chromatograms of lignin show a bimodal molar mass distribution. Is this a true characteristic of lignin, is it caused by molecular associations or aggregations, or could it could be an artefact from using column combinations with porosities that do not match properly? To improve resolution and enable separation over a larger molar mass range, multiple columns with different porosities are often connected in series. If the porosities do not match properly, the result appears as a shoulder or bimodality in the chromatogram. To understand whether the bimodal distribution is a sample characteristic or an analyze artefact, we have used different columns, column combination and samples to see when the results is a bimodal distribution and when only one peak is formed. Results show that the bimodality of lignin can be an artifact originating from column mismatch. Using single porosity columns with a low molar mass cut-off should be avoided since it can cause false bimodality.

  • 35.
    Sederholm, Bror
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB, Corrosion protection of building structures.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB, Corrosion protection of building structures.
    Boubitsas, Dimitrios
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Luping, Tang
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ny provningsmetodik för bestämning av bindemedlets korrosionsskyddande förmåga i betong2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport omfattar slutrapporteringen av forskningsprojektet - Ny provningsmetodik för bedömning av bindemedlets korrosionsskyddande förmåga i betong – Underlag till LCA och livslängdsbedömning. I rapporten redovisas resultat från elektrokemiska undersökningar utförda på laboratorium och korrosionsprovningar i fält. Undersökningarna har genomförts av Swerea KIMAB, RISE CBI Betonginstitutet (väst och öst) samt Chalmers. Projektets mål har varit att genom en nationell samling av expertis ta fram en ny provningsmetodik som på ett enkelt och tillämpbart sätt ska utvärdera olika bindemedels korrosionsskyddande förmåga i betong. I denna undersökning har framför allt tiden till initiering av korrosion (gropfrätning) från det att kloriderna har nått stålytan och tills gropfrätning har initieras på stålytan undersökts. Tre olika accelererade elektrokemiska mätmetoder har använts och jämförts:

     Potentiostatisk mätmetod

     Potentiodynamisk mätmetod

     Galvanostatisk mätmetod

    Den framtagna provningsmetodiken med framställning av provkroppar har visat sig fungera väl. För att minska spridningen är det emellertid viktigt att använda en homogen och rengjord stålyta utan glödskal. Glödskalet avlägsnas lämpligast genom slipning eftersom betning kan bygga upp ett passivskikt på stålytan. För att undvika att betongrester fastnar på stålytan ska släta provstänger användas.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att resultaten från laboratorie- och fältmätningarna samt analyser av bindemedlens korrosionskänslighet genom TG- och XRD-analyser visade att denna kombination av mätningar ger ett bra verktyg att bedöma den korrosionsskyddande förmågan hos olika bindemedel. En sammanställning av rangordningen för bindemedlens korrosionsskyddande förmåga redovisas i tabellen nedan.

    Den korrosionsskyddande förmågan hos de undersökta bindemedlen rangordnas från en sammanvägning av de olika provningsmetoderna:

     bra < 1,5 och

     1,5 ≥mindre bra ≤2,5 och

     dåligt > 2,5.

    Som rangordningen visar i tabellen så har bindemedel med slagg och portlandcement med hög C 3A en bra korrosionsskyddande förmåga. Detta beror till största delen på kapaciteten att bilda Friedels salt från monosulfat under härdningsprocessen. Bindemedel som har en låg korrosionsskyddande förmåga har ett lågt C3A-innehåll och en inblandning av flygaska och/eller silika. Det medför dessutom en utspädningseffekt på förmågan att bilda Friedels salt.

  • 36.
    Stålbrand, Henrik
    et al.
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Jon
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Andersson, Alexandra
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Per
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Anderson, Lars
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Tjerneld, Folke
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Teleman, Anita
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Palm, M.
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Zacchi, G.
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Isolation, Characterization, and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Acetyl-Galactoglucomannan from Spruce (Picea abies)2004In: Hemicelluloses: Science and Technology, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2004, chapter 5, p. 66-78Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Allowable bias when monitoring reference change values2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 75, no 7, p. 537-538Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Full method validation in Clinical chemistry2017In: Accreditation and Quality Assurance, ISSN 0949-1775, E-ISSN 1432-0517, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 235-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical chemistry is subject to the same principles and standards used in all branches of metrology in chemistry for validation of measurement methods. The use of measuring systems in clinical chemistry is, however, of exceptionally high volume, diverse and involves many laboratories and systems. Samples for measuring the same measurand from a certain patient are likely to encounter several measuring systems over time in the process of diagnosis and treatment of his/her diseases. Several challenges regarding method validation across several laboratories are therefore evident, but rarely addressed in current standards and accreditation practices. The purpose of this is paper to address some of these challenges, making a case that appropriate conventional method validation performed by the manufacturers fulfils only a part of the investigation needed to show that they are fit for purpose in different healthcare circumstances. Method validation across several laboratories using verified commercially available measuring systems can only be performed by the laboratories—users themselves in their own circumstances, and need to be emphasised more by the laboratories themselves and accreditation authorities alike.

  • 39.
    Thiel, V.
    et al.
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Ragazzi, E.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Seyfullah, L. J.
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Schmidt, A. R.
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Microbe-like inclusions in tree resins and implications for the fossil record of protists in amber2016In: Geobiology, ISSN 1472-4677, E-ISSN 1472-4669, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 364-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past two decades, a plethora of fossil micro-organisms have been described from various Triassic to Miocene ambers. However, in addition to entrapped microbes, ambers commonly contain microscopic inclusions that sometimes resemble amoebae, ciliates, microfungi, and unicellular algae in size and shape, but do not provide further diagnostic features thereof. For a better assessment of the actual fossil record of unicellular eukaryotes in amber, we studied equivalent inclusions in modern resin of the Araucariaceae; this conifer family comprises important amber-producers in Earth history. Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), we investigated the chemical nature of the inclusion matter and the resin matrix. Whereas the matrix, as expected, showed a more hydrocarbon/aromatic-dominated composition, the inclusions contain abundant salt ions and polar organics. However, the absence of signals characteristic for cellular biomass, namely distinctive proteinaceous amino acids and lipid moieties, indicates that the inclusions do not contain microbial cellular matter but salts and hydrophilic organic substances that probably derived from the plant itself. Rather than representing protists or their remains, these microbe-like inclusions, for which we propose the term 'pseudoinclusions', consist of compounds that are immiscible with the terpenoid resin matrix and were probably secreted in small amounts together with the actual resin by the plant tissue. Consequently, reports of protists from amber that are only based on the similarity of the overall shape and size to extant taxa, but do not provide relevant features at light-microscopical and ultrastructural level, cannot be accepted as unambiguous fossil evidence for these particular groups.

  • 40. Thiel, V.
    et al.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS): Principles and practice in the biogeosciences2014In: Principles and practice of analytical techniques in Geosciences / [ed] Kliti Grice, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014, no 4, p. 122-170Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) provides chemical information on the outermost molecular layers of sample surfaces without solvent extraction. In TOF-SIMS, a pulsed beam of high-energy ions (primary ions) is scanned over a selected analysis area on the sample. During the primary ion bombardment, neutral and charged particles (secondary ions) are released from the outermost molecular layers of the sample surface. Analysis of the secondary ions in a TOF analyser yields a mass spectral data set that allows the retrospective production of(1) ion images showing the spatial signal intensity distribution from selected ions over the analysis area; (2) mass spectra from the total analysis area; or (3) mass spectra from user-defined regions of interest inside the analysis area. In the so-called static SIMS regime, the primary ions are provided in very short pulses and the analysis is completed before the incoming primary ions damage a significant fraction of the surface. Static TOF-SIMS is therefore capable of providing molecularly specific secondary ions, and thus mass spectra with detailed organic information, which is not possible with other (‘dynamic’) SIMS techniques. In this chapter, we describe the principles of static TOF-SIMS instrumentation and data evaluation, review a number of relevant applications, and discuss the potential of this technique in the biogeosciences, with a focus on organic biomarker applications.

  • 41.
    Van Der Veen, Adriaan M. H.
    et al.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Brown, Andrew S.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Li, Jianrong
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Murugan, Arul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Heinonen, Martti
    MIKES Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Finland.
    Haloua, Frédérique
    LNE Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais, France.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Measurement requirements for biogas specifications2015In: 17th International Congress of Metrology, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of biogas and biomethane urgently requires that these non-conventional energy gases can be transmitted through natural gas grids and refuelling stations. The European Standardization Organisation CEN is developing specifications for green gas which supplement the specifications for natural gas. The specifications for green gas address a range of parameters not commonly covered in natural gas, such as the contents of impurities (e.g., siloxanes, ammonia, halogenated hydrocarbons, and hydrogen chloride), dust content and particles. In a collaboration between 12 European metrology institutes and 3 university groups, robust and reliable methods are developed to support these draft specifications and to enable conformity assessment. The project also deals with issues related to density, calorific value, moisture content, and the sampling of biogas. This paper gives an overview of the state-ofthe-art in green gas testing, as well as an outlook what methods need be developed.

  • 42.
    Wu, Yaoxing
    et al.
    Virginia Tech, US.
    Cox, Steven S.
    Virginia Tech, US.
    Xu, Ying
    University of Texas at Austin, US.
    Liang, Yirui
    University of Texas at Austin, US.
    Won, Doyun
    National Research Council Canada, Canada.
    Liu, Xiaoyu
    United States Environmental Protection Agency, US.
    Clausen, Per A.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Benning, Jennifer L.
    South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, US.
    Zhang, Yinping
    Tsinghua University, China.
    Little, John C.
    Virginia Tech, US.
    A reference method for measuring emissions of SVOCs in small chambers2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 95, p. 126-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are indoor air pollutants that may have significant adverse effects on human health. Although emissions of volatile chemicals from building materials and consumer products are usually characterized in small chambers, few chamber studies have been conducted for SVOCs due to the challenges associated with analysis and the lack of validation procedures. There is an urgent need for a reliable and accurate chamber test method to verify these measurements. A reference method employing a specially-designed chamber has been developed and is undergoing extensive evaluation. A pilot inter-laboratory study (ILS) has been conducted with six laboratories performing chamber tests under identical conditions for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Results from this study showed inter-laboratory variations of 24% for DEHP emission rates, with closer agreement observed among intra-laboratory measurements for most of the participating laboratories. A mechanistic emission model fits well to the measured concentration profiles, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed reference method to independently assess laboratory performance and validate SVOC emission tests.

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