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  • 1.
    Battelier, Baptiste
    et al.
    Université de Bordeaux, France.
    Zelan, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Exploring the foundations of the physical universe with space tests of the equivalence principle2021Ingår i: Experimental astronomy, ISSN 0922-6435, E-ISSN 1572-9508, Vol. 51, nr 3, s. 1695-1736Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the scientific motivation for future space tests of the equivalence principle, and in particular the universality of free fall, at the 10− 17 level or better. Two possible mission scenarios, one based on quantum technologies, the other on electrostatic accelerometers, that could reach that goal are briefly discussed. This publication is a White Paper written in the context of the Voyage 2050 ESA Call for White Papers. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 2.
    Bergstrand, Sten
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Ralf, Schmid
    German Geodetic Research Institute, Germany.
    Activities of the IERS Working Group on Site Survey and Co-location2016Ingår i: International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2016 General Meeting Proceedings: "New Horizons with VGOS" / [ed] Dirk Behrend, Karen D. Baver, and Kyla L. Armstrong, Greenbelt, MD: National Aeronautics and Space Administration , 2016, s. 113-117Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Working Group on Site Survey and Co-location is to improve local measurements at space geodesy sites. We appointed dedicated Points of Contact (POC) with the four different services of IERS as well as the NASA Space Geodesy Project in order to improve the efficiency of internal communication within the working group. Following the REFAG2014 conference, the POCs agreed on a common and general terminology on local ties that clarifies the communication regarding site surveying and co-location issues between and within the IERS services. We give brief introductions to the different observation techniques and mention some contemporary issues related to site surveying and co-location.

  • 3.
    Corpolongo, A.
    et al.
    University of Cincinnati, USA.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Abbey, W.
    California Institution of Technology, USA.
    SHERLOC Raman Mineral Class Detections of the Mars 2020 Crater Floor Campaign2023Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 128, nr 3, artikel-id e2022JE007455Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The goals of NASA's Mars 2020 mission include searching for evidence of ancient life on Mars, studying the geology of Jezero crater, understanding Mars' current and past climate, and preparing for human exploration of Mars. During the mission's first science campaign, the Perseverance rover's SHERLOC deep UV Raman and fluorescence instrument collected microscale, two-dimensional Raman and fluorescence images on 10 natural (unabraded) and abraded targets on two different Jezero crater floor units: Séítah and Máaz. We report SHERLOC Raman measurements collected during the Crater Floor Campaign and discuss their implications regarding the origin and history of Séítah and Máaz. The data support the conclusion that Séítah and Máaz are mineralogically distinct igneous units with complex aqueous alteration histories and suggest that the Jezero crater floor once hosted an environment capable of supporting microbial life and preserving evidence of that life, if it existed. 

  • 4.
    Demidova, S. I.
    et al.
    Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russia.
    Whitehouse, M. J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Merle, R.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nemchin, A. A.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden; Curtin University, Australia.
    Kenny, G. G.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Brandstätter, F.
    Natural History Museum, Austria.
    Ntaflos, T.
    Vienna University, Austria.
    Dobryden, Illia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    A micrometeorite from a stony asteroid identified in Luna 16 soil2022Ingår i: Nature Astronomy, E-ISSN 2397-3366, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 560-567Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the intense cratering history of the Moon, very few traces of meteoritic material have been identified in the more than 380 kg of samples returned to Earth by the Apollo and Luna missions. Here we show that an ~200-µm-sized fragment collected by the Luna 16 mission has extra-lunar origins and probably originates from an LL chondrite with similar properties to near-Earth stony asteroids. The fragment has not experienced temperatures higher than 400 °C since its protolith formed early in the history of the Solar System. It arrived on the Moon, either as a micrometeorite or as the result of the break-up of a bigger impact, no earlier than 3.4 Gyr ago and possibly around 1 Gyr ago, an age that would be consistent with impact ages inferred from basaltic fragments in the Luna 16 sample and of a known dynamic upheaval in the Flora asteroid family, which is thought to be the source of L and LL chondrite meteorites. These results highlight the importance of extra-lunar fragments in constraining the impact history of the Earth–Moon system and suggest that material from LL chondrite asteroids may be an important component. © 2022, The Author(s)

  • 5.
    Fray, Nicolas
    et al.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Bardyn, Anaïs
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Cottin, Hervé
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Altwegg, Kathrin
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Baklouti, Donia
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Briois, Christelle
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Colangeli, Luigi
    ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre, The Netherlands.
    Engrand, Cécile
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Saclay, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Fischer, Henning
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Glasmachers, Albrecht
    University of Wuppertal, Germany.
    Grün, Eberhard
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany.
    Haerendel, Gerhard
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Henkel, Hartmut
    Von Hoerner und Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Höfner, Herwig
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Hornung, Klaus
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Jessberger, Elmar K.
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Koch, Andreas
    Von Hoerner und Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Krüger, Harald
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Langevin, Yves
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Lehto, Harry
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Lehto, Kirsi
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Le Roy, Léna
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Merouane, Sihane
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Modica, Paola
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Orthous-Daunay, François-Régis
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Paquette, John
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Raulin, François
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Rynö, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Schulz, Rita
    ESA European Space Agency, The Netherlands.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Steiger, Wolfgang
    RC Seibersdorf Research GmbH Business Field Aerospace Technology, Austria.
    Stenzel, Oliver
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Stephan, Thomas
    University of Chicago, USA.
    Thirkell, Laurent
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Thomas, Roger
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Torkar, Klaus
    Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria.
    Varmuza, Kurt
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Wanczek, Karl-Peter
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Zaprudin, Boris
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kissel, Jochen
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    High-molecular-weight organic matter in the particles of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko2016Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 538, nr 7623, s. 72-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of solid carbonaceous matter in cometary dust was established by the detection of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen in particles from comet 1P/Halley1, 2. Such matter is generally thought to have originated in the interstellar medium3, but it might have formed in the solar nebula—the cloud of gas and dust that was left over after the Sun formed4. This solid carbonaceous material cannot be observed from Earth, so it has eluded unambiguous characterization5. Many gaseous organic molecules, however, have been observed6, 7, 8, 9; they come mostly from the sublimation of ices at the surface or in the subsurface of cometary nuclei8. These ices could have been formed from material inherited from the interstellar medium that suffered little processing in the solar nebula10. Here we report the in situ detection of solid organic matter in the dust particles emitted by comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko; the carbon in this organic material is bound in very large macromolecular compounds, analogous to the insoluble organic matter found in the carbonaceous chondrite meteorites11, 12. The organic matter in meteorites might have formed in the interstellar medium and/or the solar nebula, but was almost certainly modified in the meteorites’ parent bodies11. We conclude that the observed cometary carbonaceous solid matter could have the same origin as the meteoritic insoluble organic matter, but suffered less modification before and/or after being incorporated into the comet.

  • 6.
    Fries, M. D.
    et al.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, USA.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Aileen Yingst, R.
    Planetary Science Institute, USA.
    The SHERLOC Calibration Target on the Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover: Design, Operations, Outreach, and Future Human Exploration Functions2022Ingår i: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 218, nr 6, artikel-id 46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals (SHERLOC) is a robotic arm-mounted instrument onboard NASA’s Perseverance rover. SHERLOC combines imaging via two cameras with both Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate geological materials at the rover’s Jezero crater field site. SHERLOC requires in situ calibration to monitor the health and performance of the instrument. These calibration data are critically important to ensure the veracity of data interpretation, especially considering the extreme martian environmental conditions where the instrument operates. The SHERLOC Calibration Target (SCT) is located at the front of the rover and is exposed to the same atmospheric conditions as the instrument. The SCT includes 10 individual targets designed to meet all instrument calibration requirements. An additional calibration target is mounted inside the instrument’s dust cover. The targets include polymers, rock, synthetic material, and optical pattern targets. Their primary function is calibration of parameters within the SHERLOC instrument so that the data can be interpreted correctly. The SCT was also designed to take advantage of opportunities for supplemental science investigations and includes targets intended for public engagement. The exposure of materials to martian atmospheric conditions allows for opportunistic science on extravehicular suit (i.e., “spacesuit”) materials. These samples will be used in an extended study to produce direct measurements of the expected service lifetimes of these materials on the martian surface, thus helping NASA facilitate human exploration of the planet. Other targets include a martian meteorite and the first geocache target to reside on another planet, both of which increase the outreach and potential of the mission to foster interest in, and enthusiasm for, planetary exploration. During the first 200 sols (martian days) of operation on Mars, the SCT has been analyzed three times and has proven to be vital in the calibration of the instrument and in assisting the SHERLOC team with interpretation of in situ data. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 7.
    Goetz, W.
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Brinckerhoff, W. B.
    NASA, US.
    Arevalo, R.
    NASA, US.
    Freissinet, C.
    NASA, US.
    Getty, S.
    NASA, US.
    Glavin, D. P.
    NASA, US.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Buch, A.
    Ecole Centrale Paris, France.
    Stalport, F.
    Ecole Centrale Paris, France.
    Grubisic, A.
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Li, X.
    NASA, US.
    Pinnick, V.
    NASA, US.
    Danell, R.
    NASA, US.
    Van Amerom, F. H. W.
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France; Danell Consulting, US.
    Goesmann, F.
    Mini-Mass Consulting, US.
    Steininger, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Grand, N.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Raulin, F.
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France, France.
    Szopa, C.
    LATMOS, France.
    Meierhenrich, U.
    University of Nice, France.
    Brucato, J. R.
    INAF Astrophysical Observatory of Arcetri, Italy; University of Bremen, Germany.
    MOMA: The challenge to search for organics and biosignatures on Mars2016Ingår i: International Journal of Astrobiology, ISSN 1473-5504, E-ISSN 1475-3006, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 239-250Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes strategies to search for, detect, and identify organic material on the surface and subsurface of Mars. The strategies described include those applied by landed missions in the past and those that will be applied in the future. The value and role of ESA's ExoMars rover and of her key science instrument Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) are critically assessed.

  • 8.
    Hilchenbach, M.
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Kissel, J.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Langevin, Y.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Briois, C.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Hoerner, H. V.
    Von Hoerner & Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Koch, A.
    Von Hoerner & Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Schulz, R.
    ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Silén, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Altwegg, K.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Colangeli, L.
    ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Cottin, H.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Engrand, C.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Saclay, France.
    Fischer, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Glasmachers, A.
    University of Wuppertal, Germany.
    Grün, E.
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany.
    Haerendel, G.
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Henkel, H.
    Von Hoerner & Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Höfner, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Hornung, K.
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Jessberger, E. K.
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Lehto, H.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Lehto, K.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Raulin, F.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Roy, L. L.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Rynö, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Steiger, W.
    RC Seibersdorf Research GmbH Business Field Aerospace Technology, Austria.
    Stephan, T.
    University of Chicago, US.
    Thirkell, L.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Thomas, R.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Torkar, K.
    Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria.
    Varmuza, K.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Wanczek, K. -P
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Altobelli, N.
    ESAC European Space Astronomy Centre, Spain.
    Baklouti, D.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Bardyn, A.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Fray, N.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Krüger, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Ligier, N.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Lin, Z.
    NCU National Central University, Taiwan.
    Martin, P.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Merouane, S.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Orthous-Daunay, F. R.
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Paquette, J.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Revillet, C.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Stenzel, O.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Zaprudin, B.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO: CLOSE-UP on DUST PARTICLE FRAGMENTS2016Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 816, nr 2, artikel-id L32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser instrument on board ESA's Rosetta mission has collected dust particles in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. During the early-orbit phase of the Rosetta mission, particles and particle agglomerates have been imaged and analyzed in the inner coma at distances between 100 km and 10 km off the cometary nucleus and at more than 3 AU from the Sun. We identified 585 particles of more than 14 μm in size. The particles are collected at low impact speeds and constitute a sample of the dust particles in the inner coma impacting and fragmenting on the targets. The sizes of the particles range from 14 μm up to sub-millimeter sizes and the differential dust flux size distribution is fitted with a power law exponent of -3.1. After impact, the larger particles tend to stick together, spread out or consist of single or a group of clumps, and the flocculent morphology of the fragmented particles is revealed. The elemental composition of the dust particles is heterogeneous and the particles could contain typical silicates like olivine and pyroxenes, as well as iron sulfides. The sodium to iron elemental ratio is enriched with regard to abundances in CI carbonaceous chondrites by a factor from ∼1.5 to ∼15. No clear evidence for organic matter has been identified. The composition and morphology of the collected dust particles appear to be similar to that of interplanetary dust particles.

  • 9.
    Hornung, Klaus
    et al.
    Universität der Bundeswehr München, Germany.
    Mellado, Eva Maria
    Universität der Bundeswehr München, Germany.
    Stenzel, Oliver J.
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Langevin, Yves
    Université Paris Sud, France.
    Merouane, Sihane
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Fray, Nicolas
    Univ Paris Est Creteil, France; Université Paris Cité, France.
    Fischer, Henning
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Paquette, John
    NASA, USA.
    Baklouti, Donia
    Université Paris Sud, France.
    Bardyn, Anais
    Univ Paris Est Creteil, France; Université Paris Cité, France.
    Engrand, Cecile
    Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, France.
    Cottin, Herve'
    Univ Paris Est Creteil, France; Université Paris Cité, France.
    Thirkell, Laurent
    Université d’Orléans, France.
    Briois, Christelle
    Université d’Orléans, France.
    Rynö, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Silen, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Schulz, Rita
    European Space Agency, Netherlands.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Lehto, Harry
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Varmuza, Kurt
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Koch, Andreas
    von Hoerner und Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Kissel, Jochen
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    On structural properties of Comet 67/P dust particles collected in situ by ROSETTA/COSIMA from observations of electrical fragmentation2023Ingår i: Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 236, artikel-id 105747Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During ESA’s Rosetta science mission, the COSIMA instrument collected dust particles in the coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during two years near the comet’s nucleus. The largest particles are about 1 m m in size. The collection process involved a low velocity impact on porous gold-black surfaces, often resulting in breakup, from which information on structural properties has previously been derived (Langevin et al., 2016). However, some of the particles were collected with little damage, but fragmented due to charging during subsequent secondary ion mass spectrometry. This report shows that the details of this electrical fragmentation support the concept of the existence of stable units with sizes of tens of ÎŒ m within the incoming cometary dust particles prior to collection, possibly representing remnants of the early accretion processes.

  • 10.
    Jakubek, Ryan S.
    et al.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, USA.
    Bhartia, Rohit
    Photon Systems Incorporated, USA.
    Uckert, Kyle
    California Institution of Technology, USA.
    Asher, Sanford A.
    University of Pittsburgh, USA.
    Czaja, Andrew D.
    University of Cincinnati, USA.
    Fries, Marc D.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, USA.
    Hand, Kevin
    California Institution of Technology, USA.
    Haney, Nikole C.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, USA.
    Razzell Hollis, Joseph
    The Natural History Museum, UK.
    Minitti, Michelle
    Framework, USA.
    Sharma, Shiv K.
    University of Hawaii, USA.
    Sharma, Sunanda
    California Institution of Technology, USA.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Calibration of Raman Bandwidths on the Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals (SHERLOC) Deep Ultraviolet Raman and Fluorescence Instrument Aboard the Perseverance Rover2023Ingår i: Applied Spectroscopy, ISSN 0003-7028, E-ISSN 1943-3530Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we derive a simple method for calibrating Raman bandwidths for the Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals (SHERLOC) instrument onboard NASA’s Perseverance rover. Raman bandwidths and shapes reported by an instrument contain contributions from both the intrinsic Raman band (IRB) and instrumental artifacts. To directly correlate bandwidth to sample properties and to compare bandwidths across instruments, the IRB width needs to be separated from instrumental effects. Here, we use the ubiquitous bandwidth calibration method of modeling the observed Raman bands as a convolution of a Lorentzian IRB and a Gaussian instrument slit function. Using calibration target data, we calculate that SHERLOC has a slit function width of 34.1 cm–1. With a measure of the instrument slit function, we can deconvolve the IRB from the observed band, providing the width of the Raman band unobscured by instrumental artifact. We present the correlation between observed Raman bandwidth and intrinsic Raman bandwidth in table form for the quick estimation of SHERLOC Raman intrinsic bandwidths. We discuss the limitations of using this model to calibrate Raman bandwidth and derive a quantitative method for calculating the errors associated with the calibration. We demonstrate the utility of this method of bandwidth calibration by examining the intrinsic bandwidths of SHERLOC sulfate spectra and by modeling the SHERLOC spectrum of olivine. 

  • 11.
    Kminek, G
    et al.
    European Space Agency, Norway.
    Benardini, J. N.
    NASA, USA.
    Brenker, F. E.
    Goethe University, Germany.
    Brooks, T.
    UK Health Security Agency, UK.
    Burton, A. S.
    NASA, USA.
    Dhaniyala, S.
    Clarkson University, USA.
    Dworkin, J. P.
    NASA, USA.
    Fortman, J. L.
    Engineering Biology Research Consortium, USA.
    Glamoclija, M.
    Rutgers University, USA.
    Grady, M. M.
    The Open University, UK.
    Graham, H. V.
    NASA, USA.
    Haruyama, J.
    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan.
    Kieft, T. L.
    New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, USA.
    Koopmans, M.
    Erasmus University Medical Centre, Netherlands.
    McCubbin, F. M.
    NASA, USA.
    Meyer, M. A.
    NASA, USA.
    Mustin, C.
    Centre National d'Études Spatiales, France.
    Onstott, T. C.
    Princeton University, USA.
    Pearce, N.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Pratt, L. M.
    Indiana University Bloomington, USA.
    Sephton, M. A.
    Imperial College London, United Kingdom.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Sugahara, H.
    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan.
    Suzuki, S.
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Suzuki, Y.
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Van Zuilen, M.
    Université de Paris, France; European Institute for Marine Studies, France.
    Viso, M.
    Conseiller Scientifique, France.
    COSPAR Sample Safety Assessment Framework (SSAF)2022Ingår i: Astrobiology, ISSN 1531-1074, E-ISSN 1557-8070, Vol. 22, nr S1, s. S186-S216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Sample Safety Assessment Framework (SSAF) has been developed by a COSPAR appointed Working Group. The objective of the sample safety assessment would be to evaluate whether samples returned from Mars could be harmful for Earth's systems (e.g., environment, biosphere, geochemical cycles). During the Working Group's deliberations, it became clear that a comprehensive assessment to predict the effects of introducing life in new environments or ecologies is difficult and practically impossible, even for terrestrial life and certainly more so for unknown extraterrestrial life. To manage expectations, the scope of the SSAF was adjusted to evaluate only whether the presence of martian life can be excluded in samples returned from Mars. If the presence of martian life cannot be excluded, a Hold & Critical Review must be established to evaluate the risk management measures and decide on the next steps. The SSAF starts from a positive hypothesis (there is martian life in the samples), which is complementary to the null-hypothesis (there is no martian life in the samples) typically used for science. Testing the positive hypothesis includes four elements: (1) Bayesian statistics, (2) subsampling strategy, (3) test sequence, and (4) decision criteria. The test sequence capability covers self-replicating and non-self-replicating biology and biologically active molecules. Most of the investigations associated with the SSAF would need to be carried out within biological containment. The SSAF is described in sufficient detail to support planning activities for a Sample Receiving Facility (SRF) and for preparing science announcements, while at the same time acknowledging that further work is required before a detailed Sample Safety Assessment Protocol (SSAP) can be developed. The three major open issues to be addressed to optimize and implement the SSAF are (1) setting a value for the level of assurance to effectively exclude the presence of martian life in the samples, (2) carrying out an analogue test program, and (3) acquiring relevant contamination knowledge from all Mars Sample Return (MSR) flight and ground elements. Although the SSAF was developed specifically for assessing samples from Mars in the context of the currently planned NASA-ESA MSR Campaign, this framework and the basic safety approach are applicable to any other Mars sample return mission concept, with minor adjustments in the execution part related to the specific nature of the samples to be returned. The SSAF is also considered a sound basis for other COSPAR Planetary Protection Category V, restricted Earth return missions beyond Mars. It is anticipated that the SSAF will be subject to future review by the various MSR stakeholders. © Gerhard Kminek et al., 2022; 

  • 12.
    Krüger, Harald
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Stephan, Thomas
    University of Chicago, US.
    Engrand, Cécile
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Briois, Christelle
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Merouane, Sihane
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Baklouti, Donia
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Fischer, Henning
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Fray, Nicolas
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Hornung, Klaus
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Lehto, Harry
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Orthous-Daunay, Francois-Régis
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Rynö, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Schulz, Rita
    ESA European Space Agency, Netherlands.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Thirkell, Laurent
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Trieloff, Mario
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    COSIMA-Rosetta calibration for in situ characterization of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko cometary inorganic compounds2015Ingår i: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, E-ISSN 1873-5088, Vol. 117, s. 35-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer (COSIMA) is a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) instrument on board the Rosetta space mission. COSIMA has been designed to measure the composition of cometary dust particles. It has a mass resolution m/Δm of 1400 at mass 100 u, thus enabling the discrimination of inorganic mass peaks from organic ones in the mass spectra. We have evaluated the identification capabilities of the reference model of COSIMA for inorganic compounds using a suite of terrestrial minerals that are relevant for cometary science. Ground calibration demonstrated that the performances of the flight model were similar to that of the reference model. The list of minerals used in this study was chosen based on the mineralogy of meteorites, interplanetary dust particles and Stardust samples. It contains anhydrous and hydrous ferromagnesian silicates, refractory silicates and oxides (present in meteoritic Ca-Al-rich inclusions), carbonates, and Fe-Ni sulfides. From the analyses of these minerals, we have calculated relative sensitivity factors for a suite of major and minor elements in order to provide a basis for element quantification for the possible identification of major mineral classes present in the cometary particles.

  • 13.
    Paquette, J A
    et al.
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Fray, N
    Université de Paris, France.
    Bardyn, A
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, USA.
    Engrand, C
    Université Paris-Saclay, France.
    O'd Alexander, C M
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, USA.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Cottin, H
    Université de Paris, France.
    Merouane, S
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Isnard, R
    Université de Paris, France; Institut de Science et d'Ingénierie Supramoléculaires, France.
    Stenzel, O J
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Fischer, H
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Rynö, J
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Kissel, J
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Hilchenbach, M
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    D/H in the refractory organics of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko measured by Rosetta/COSIMA2021Ingår i: monthly notices of the royal astronomical society, Vol. 504, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The D/H ratio is a clue to the origin and evolution of hydrogen-bearing chemical species in Solar system materials. D/H has been observed in the coma of many comets, but most such measurements have been for gaseous water. We present the first in situ measurements of the D/H ratios in the organic refractory component of cometary dust particles collected at very low impact speeds in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P) by the COSIMA instrument onboard Rosetta. The values measured by COSIMA are spatial averages over an approximately 35 × 50 µm2 area. The average D/H ratio for the 25 measured particles is (1.57 ± 0.54) × 10−3, about an order of magnitude higher than the Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW), but more than an order of magnitude lower than the values measured in gas-phase organics in solar-like protostellar regions and hot cores. This relatively high averaged value suggests that refractory carbonaceous matter in comet 67P is less processed than the most primitive insoluble organic matter (IOM) in meteorites, which has a D/H ratio in the range of about 1 to 7 × 10−4. The cometary particles measured in situ also have a higher H/C ratio than the IOM. We deduce that the measured D/H in cometary refractory organics is an inheritance from the presolar molecular cloud from which the Solar system formed. The high D/H ratios observed in the cometary particles challenges models in which high D/H ratios result solely from processes that operated in the protosolar disc.

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