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  • 1.
    Bergstrand, Sten
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Ralf, Schmid
    German Geodetic Research Institute, Germany.
    Activities of the IERS Working Group on Site Survey and Co-location2016In: International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2016 General Meeting Proceedings: "New Horizons with VGOS" / [ed] Dirk Behrend, Karen D. Baver, and Kyla L. Armstrong, Greenbelt, MD: National Aeronautics and Space Administration , 2016, p. 113-117Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Working Group on Site Survey and Co-location is to improve local measurements at space geodesy sites. We appointed dedicated Points of Contact (POC) with the four different services of IERS as well as the NASA Space Geodesy Project in order to improve the efficiency of internal communication within the working group. Following the REFAG2014 conference, the POCs agreed on a common and general terminology on local ties that clarifies the communication regarding site surveying and co-location issues between and within the IERS services. We give brief introductions to the different observation techniques and mention some contemporary issues related to site surveying and co-location.

  • 2.
    Fray, Nicolas
    et al.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Bardyn, Anaïs
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Cottin, Hervé
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Altwegg, Kathrin
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Baklouti, Donia
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Briois, Christelle
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Colangeli, Luigi
    ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Engrand, Cécile
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Saclay, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Fischer, Henning
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Glasmachers, Albrecht
    University of Wuppertal, Germany.
    Grün, Eberhard
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany.
    Haerendel, Gerhard
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Henkel, Hartmut
    Von Hoerner und Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Höfner, Herwig
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Hornung, Klaus
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Jessberger, Elmar K.
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Koch, Andreas
    Von Hoerner und Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Krüger, Harald
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Langevin, Yves
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Lehto, Harry
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Lehto, Kirsi
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Le Roy, Léna
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Merouane, Sihane
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Modica, Paola
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Orthous-Daunay, François-Régis
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Paquette, John
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Raulin, François
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Rynö, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Schulz, Rita
    ESA European Space Agency, Netherlands.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Steiger, Wolfgang
    RC Seibersdorf Research GmbH Business Field Aerospace Technology, Austria.
    Stenzel, Oliver
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Stephan, Thomas
    University of Chicago, US.
    Thirkell, Laurent
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Thomas, Roger
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Torkar, Klaus
    Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria.
    Varmuza, Kurt
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Wanczek, Karl-Peter
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Zaprudin, Boris
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kissel, Jochen
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    High-molecular-weight organic matter in the particles of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko2016In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 538, no 7623, p. 72-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of solid carbonaceous matter in cometary dust was established by the detection of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen in particles from comet 1P/Halley1, 2. Such matter is generally thought to have originated in the interstellar medium3, but it might have formed in the solar nebula—the cloud of gas and dust that was left over after the Sun formed4. This solid carbonaceous material cannot be observed from Earth, so it has eluded unambiguous characterization5. Many gaseous organic molecules, however, have been observed6, 7, 8, 9; they come mostly from the sublimation of ices at the surface or in the subsurface of cometary nuclei8. These ices could have been formed from material inherited from the interstellar medium that suffered little processing in the solar nebula10. Here we report the in situ detection of solid organic matter in the dust particles emitted by comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko; the carbon in this organic material is bound in very large macromolecular compounds, analogous to the insoluble organic matter found in the carbonaceous chondrite meteorites11, 12. The organic matter in meteorites might have formed in the interstellar medium and/or the solar nebula, but was almost certainly modified in the meteorites’ parent bodies11. We conclude that the observed cometary carbonaceous solid matter could have the same origin as the meteoritic insoluble organic matter, but suffered less modification before and/or after being incorporated into the comet.

  • 3.
    Goetz, W.
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Brinckerhoff, W. B.
    NASA, US.
    Arevalo, R.
    NASA, US.
    Freissinet, C.
    NASA, US.
    Getty, S.
    NASA, US.
    Glavin, D. P.
    NASA, US.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Buch, A.
    Ecole Centrale Paris, France.
    Stalport, F.
    Ecole Centrale Paris, France.
    Grubisic, A.
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Li, X.
    NASA, US.
    Pinnick, V.
    NASA, US.
    Danell, R.
    NASA, US.
    Van Amerom, F. H. W.
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France; Danell Consulting, US.
    Goesmann, F.
    Mini-Mass Consulting, US.
    Steininger, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Grand, N.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Raulin, F.
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France, France.
    Szopa, C.
    LATMOS, France.
    Meierhenrich, U.
    University of Nice, France.
    Brucato, J. R.
    INAF Astrophysical Observatory of Arcetri, Italy; University of Bremen, Germany.
    MOMA: The challenge to search for organics and biosignatures on Mars2016In: International Journal of Astrobiology, ISSN 1473-5504, E-ISSN 1475-3006, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 239-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes strategies to search for, detect, and identify organic material on the surface and subsurface of Mars. The strategies described include those applied by landed missions in the past and those that will be applied in the future. The value and role of ESA's ExoMars rover and of her key science instrument Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) are critically assessed.

  • 4.
    Hilchenbach, M.
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Kissel, J.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Langevin, Y.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Briois, C.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Hoerner, H. V.
    Von Hoerner & Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Koch, A.
    Von Hoerner & Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Schulz, R.
    ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Silén, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Altwegg, K.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Colangeli, L.
    ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Cottin, H.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Engrand, C.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Saclay, France.
    Fischer, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Glasmachers, A.
    University of Wuppertal, Germany.
    Grün, E.
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany.
    Haerendel, G.
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Henkel, H.
    Von Hoerner & Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Höfner, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Hornung, K.
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Jessberger, E. K.
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Lehto, H.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Lehto, K.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Raulin, F.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Roy, L. L.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Rynö, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Steiger, W.
    RC Seibersdorf Research GmbH Business Field Aerospace Technology, Austria.
    Stephan, T.
    University of Chicago, US.
    Thirkell, L.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Thomas, R.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Torkar, K.
    Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria.
    Varmuza, K.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Wanczek, K. -P
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Altobelli, N.
    ESAC European Space Astronomy Centre, Spain.
    Baklouti, D.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Bardyn, A.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Fray, N.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Krüger, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Ligier, N.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Lin, Z.
    NCU National Central University, Taiwan.
    Martin, P.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Merouane, S.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Orthous-Daunay, F. R.
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Paquette, J.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Revillet, C.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Stenzel, O.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Zaprudin, B.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO: CLOSE-UP on DUST PARTICLE FRAGMENTS2016In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 816, no 2, article id L32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser instrument on board ESA's Rosetta mission has collected dust particles in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. During the early-orbit phase of the Rosetta mission, particles and particle agglomerates have been imaged and analyzed in the inner coma at distances between 100 km and 10 km off the cometary nucleus and at more than 3 AU from the Sun. We identified 585 particles of more than 14 μm in size. The particles are collected at low impact speeds and constitute a sample of the dust particles in the inner coma impacting and fragmenting on the targets. The sizes of the particles range from 14 μm up to sub-millimeter sizes and the differential dust flux size distribution is fitted with a power law exponent of -3.1. After impact, the larger particles tend to stick together, spread out or consist of single or a group of clumps, and the flocculent morphology of the fragmented particles is revealed. The elemental composition of the dust particles is heterogeneous and the particles could contain typical silicates like olivine and pyroxenes, as well as iron sulfides. The sodium to iron elemental ratio is enriched with regard to abundances in CI carbonaceous chondrites by a factor from ∼1.5 to ∼15. No clear evidence for organic matter has been identified. The composition and morphology of the collected dust particles appear to be similar to that of interplanetary dust particles.

  • 5.
    Krüger, Harald
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Stephan, Thomas
    University of Chicago, US.
    Engrand, Cécile
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Briois, Christelle
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Merouane, Sihane
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Baklouti, Donia
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Fischer, Henning
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Fray, Nicolas
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Hornung, Klaus
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Lehto, Harry
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Orthous-Daunay, Francois-Régis
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Rynö, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Schulz, Rita
    ESA European Space Agency, Netherlands.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Thirkell, Laurent
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Trieloff, Mario
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    COSIMA-Rosetta calibration for in situ characterization of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko cometary inorganic compounds2015In: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, E-ISSN 1873-5088, Vol. 117, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer (COSIMA) is a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) instrument on board the Rosetta space mission. COSIMA has been designed to measure the composition of cometary dust particles. It has a mass resolution m/Δm of 1400 at mass 100 u, thus enabling the discrimination of inorganic mass peaks from organic ones in the mass spectra. We have evaluated the identification capabilities of the reference model of COSIMA for inorganic compounds using a suite of terrestrial minerals that are relevant for cometary science. Ground calibration demonstrated that the performances of the flight model were similar to that of the reference model. The list of minerals used in this study was chosen based on the mineralogy of meteorites, interplanetary dust particles and Stardust samples. It contains anhydrous and hydrous ferromagnesian silicates, refractory silicates and oxides (present in meteoritic Ca-Al-rich inclusions), carbonates, and Fe-Ni sulfides. From the analyses of these minerals, we have calculated relative sensitivity factors for a suite of major and minor elements in order to provide a basis for element quantification for the possible identification of major mineral classes present in the cometary particles.

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