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  • 1.
    Bergstrand, Sten
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Ralf, Schmid
    German Geodetic Research Institute, Germany.
    Activities of the IERS Working Group on Site Survey and Co-location2016Ingår i: International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2016 General Meeting Proceedings: "New Horizons with VGOS" / [ed] Dirk Behrend, Karen D. Baver, and Kyla L. Armstrong, Greenbelt, MD: National Aeronautics and Space Administration , 2016, s. 113-117Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Working Group on Site Survey and Co-location is to improve local measurements at space geodesy sites. We appointed dedicated Points of Contact (POC) with the four different services of IERS as well as the NASA Space Geodesy Project in order to improve the efficiency of internal communication within the working group. Following the REFAG2014 conference, the POCs agreed on a common and general terminology on local ties that clarifies the communication regarding site surveying and co-location issues between and within the IERS services. We give brief introductions to the different observation techniques and mention some contemporary issues related to site surveying and co-location.

  • 2.
    Coppel, L.G.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Andersson, M.
    Edström, P.
    Determination of quantum efficiency in fluorescing turbid media2011Ingår i: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, nr 17, s. 2784-2792Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Coppel, L.G.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Andersson, M.
    Edström, P.
    Kinnunen, J.
    Limitations in the efficiency of fluorescent whitening agents in uncoated paper2011Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, nr 3, s. 319-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Coppel, L.G.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Andersson, M.
    Norberg, O.
    Lindberg, S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Impact of illumination spectral power distribution on radiance factor of fluorescing materials2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Coppel, L.G.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Neuman, M.
    Edström, P.
    Extension of the Stokes equation for layered constructions to fluorescent turbid media2012Ingår i: Optical Society of America. Journal A: Optics, Image Science, and Vision, ISSN 1084-7529, E-ISSN 1520-8532, nr 4, s. 574-578Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Coppel, L.G.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Neuman, M.
    Edström, P.
    Lateral light scattering in paper: MTF simulation and measurement2011Ingår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, nr 25, s. 25181-25187Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Dupuis, Pascal
    et al.
    University of Toulouse, France.
    Silalahi, Zivion O.
    University of Toulouse, France; Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia; PLN Perusahaan Listrik Negara, Indonesia.
    Svensson, Ingemar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Brundin, Johannes
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Sinisuka, Ngapuli I.
    Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia.
    Zissis, Georges
    University of Toulouse, France.
    Performance changes of energy saving lamps under lumen maintenance and switching stress test2016Ingår i: 2016 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, 2016, artikel-id 7731893Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    White LED lamp are gaining a lot of popularity both on the residential and street lighting markets. Those devices are advertised with a very long lifetime compared to conventional incandescent lamps. A measurement campaign including accelerated ageing and stress test is ongoing in Sweden; parts of the data are joined to data obtained in France. The aim of this paper is to report and analyze which factors can be correlated to LED performance changes. A few commercial lamps were bought anonymously in retail stores; each type comprised 12 samples. A first group undergo long-term lumen maintenance test; the second was stressed by frequent switching (50 000 cycles, 30 seconds on/30 second off); the third and the fourth by frequent cycling (3 000 cycles, 30 minutes on/30 minutes off) at 25 °C and 75°C respectively. The assesment are made based on the change of the lumen, lamp efficiency, Correlated Color Temperature and Color Rendering index of the produced light before and after the test.

  • 8.
    Duvefelt, Kenneth
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Carl Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Skedung, Lisa
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Model for contact between finger and sinusoidal plane to evaluate adhesion and deformation component of friction2016Ingår i: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 96, s. 389-394Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main parameters affecting finger friction, friction-induced vibrations in the finger, and consequently tactility is surface topography. Recently Skedung et al. performed finger friction measurements on fine controlled surfaces. These surfaces were sinusoidal with wavelengths from 0.27 to 8.8 μm and amplitudes from 0.007 to 6 μm. Building on those tests an analytical model for the contact was developed to explain the differences in friction coefficient. The contact was modelled as trapezoids in a circular pattern pressed against a sinusoidal plane. Results showed that the calculated contact area and therefore friction coefficient corresponded well with the measurements. This model can be used to see how the different surface parameters influence friction.

  • 9.
    Eneborg, Alexander
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Yta, process och formulering. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Improvement and Characterization of Aqueous Graphene Dispersions2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grafen har många otroliga egenskaper som gör det till en bra kandidat för ny teknologi. I dagsläget är det fortfarande dyrt och komplicerat att producera stora ark med grafen, men det finns många applikationer där det inte är nödvändigt och mindre grafenflagor istället kan användas. Ett användbart sätt att hanteradessa grafenflagor är i en dispersion, speciellt en vattenbaserad dispersion har många fördelar. En sådan stabil dispersion av funktionaliserade grafenflagor har producerats, förbättrats och karaktäriserats idetta projekt. Ett vattenbaserat system utvecklat i två tidigare M.Sc. projekt, där det ena bestämde ett bra kommersiellt grafenpulver och det andra en bra stabilisator, användes som en startpunkt med huvudsyftet att öka andelen grafen från pulvret som dispergeras. Den metod som används för att producera dessa dispersioner kan beskrivas som sonikering av grafenpulver i en lösning av vatten och stabilisator följt av centrifugering för att avlägsna icke-dispergerade grafenflagor. Experiment utfördes för att utvärdera möjligheten att dispergera dem tidigare icke-dispergerade grafenflagorna, kombinera stabilisatorn med flera tensider, optimera centrifugeringshastighet och tid, raffinera sonikeringsprocessen med förlängd exponeringstid och kylning, smalna av stabilisatorns storleksfördelning med ultrafiltrering och avlägsnande av överflödig icke-bunden stabilisator genom ultrafiltrering. Prover karekteriserades med UV-vis, SEM, TGA, Elektroforetisk ljusspridning, och Laserdiffraktionsspektroskopi. Det uptäcktes att inlösningsgraden av grafen var starkt beroende av sonikeringstid och centrifugeringsparametrar. Ökningen i grafenkoncentration från sonikeringstid visade att majoriteten,om inte alla, av de tidigare icke-inlösta grafenflagorna kunde dispergeras. I en industriell miljö så kunde alla icke-inlösta grafenflagor helt enkelt tillsättas i nästa omgång av processen. Att minska centrifugeringshastigeten och tiden ökade grafen koncentrationen till mer än det dubbla jämfört med de tidigare använda parametrarna, och den ökningen kommer helt från större grafenflagor. Således har dettidigare problemet med låg inlösningsgrad visats bero på för lite sonikering och för mycketcentrifugering. Partikelstorleksanalysen visade en liten minskning av flakstorleken vid längre sonikeringstider, dock visade SEM analysen av dem proverna att alla bildade jämna filmer utan synbara skillnader mellan proverna. Reningsprocessen via ultrafiltrering utfördes på uppskalade prover till tre olika nivåer, 0 %, 50 % och 95 %, för totalt tre 100 ml dispersioner. Alla dessa tre dispersioner visade sig vara högst stabila, utan minskning i grafen koncentration under 5 veckor och en zeta potential under-50 mV. TGA resultaten förstärkte UV-vis resultaten och visade att reningsprocessen fungerade som den skulle.

  • 10.
    Fallqvist, Björn
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fielden, Matthew L.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Kroon, Martin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gad, Annica K. B.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Experimental and computational assessment of F-actin influence in regulating cellular stiffness and relaxation behaviour of fibroblasts2016Ingår i: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 59, s. 168-184Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In biomechanics, a complete understanding of the structures and mechanisms that regulate cellular stiffness at a molecular level remain elusive. In this paper, we have elucidated the role of filamentous actin (F-actin) in regulating elastic and viscous properties of the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Specifically, we performed colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) on BjhTERT fibroblast cells incubated with Latrunculin B (LatB), which results in depolymerisation of F-actin, or DMSO control. We found that the treatment with LatB not only reduced cellular stiffness, but also greatly increased the relaxation rate for the cytoplasm in the peripheral region and in the vicinity of the nucleus. We thus conclude that F-actin is a major determinant in not only providing elastic stiffness to the cell, but also in regulating its viscous behaviour. To further investigate the interdependence of different cytoskeletal networks and cell shape, we provided a computational model in a finite element framework. The computational model is based on a split strain energy function of separate cellular constituents, here assumed to be cytoskeletal components, for which a composite strain energy function was defined. We found a significant influence of cell geometry on the predicted mechanical response. Importantly, the relaxation behaviour of the cell can be characterised by a material model with two time constants that have previously been found to predict mechanical behaviour of actin and intermediate filament networks. By merely tuning two effective stiffness parameters, the model predicts experimental results in cells with a partly depolymerised actin cytoskeleton as well as in untreated control. This indicates that actin and intermediate filament networks are instrumental in providing elastic stiffness in response to applied forces, as well as governing the relaxation behaviour over shorter and longer time-scales, respectively.

  • 11.
    Fray, Nicolas
    et al.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Bardyn, Anaïs
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Cottin, Hervé
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Altwegg, Kathrin
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Baklouti, Donia
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Briois, Christelle
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Colangeli, Luigi
    ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Engrand, Cécile
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Saclay, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Fischer, Henning
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Glasmachers, Albrecht
    University of Wuppertal, Germany.
    Grün, Eberhard
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany.
    Haerendel, Gerhard
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Henkel, Hartmut
    Von Hoerner und Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Höfner, Herwig
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Hornung, Klaus
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Jessberger, Elmar K.
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Koch, Andreas
    Von Hoerner und Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Krüger, Harald
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Langevin, Yves
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Lehto, Harry
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Lehto, Kirsi
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Le Roy, Léna
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Merouane, Sihane
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Modica, Paola
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Orthous-Daunay, François-Régis
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Paquette, John
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Raulin, François
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Rynö, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Schulz, Rita
    ESA European Space Agency, Netherlands.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Steiger, Wolfgang
    RC Seibersdorf Research GmbH Business Field Aerospace Technology, Austria.
    Stenzel, Oliver
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Stephan, Thomas
    University of Chicago, US.
    Thirkell, Laurent
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Thomas, Roger
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Torkar, Klaus
    Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria.
    Varmuza, Kurt
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Wanczek, Karl-Peter
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Zaprudin, Boris
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kissel, Jochen
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    High-molecular-weight organic matter in the particles of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko2016Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 538, nr 7623, s. 72-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of solid carbonaceous matter in cometary dust was established by the detection of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen in particles from comet 1P/Halley1, 2. Such matter is generally thought to have originated in the interstellar medium3, but it might have formed in the solar nebula—the cloud of gas and dust that was left over after the Sun formed4. This solid carbonaceous material cannot be observed from Earth, so it has eluded unambiguous characterization5. Many gaseous organic molecules, however, have been observed6, 7, 8, 9; they come mostly from the sublimation of ices at the surface or in the subsurface of cometary nuclei8. These ices could have been formed from material inherited from the interstellar medium that suffered little processing in the solar nebula10. Here we report the in situ detection of solid organic matter in the dust particles emitted by comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko; the carbon in this organic material is bound in very large macromolecular compounds, analogous to the insoluble organic matter found in the carbonaceous chondrite meteorites11, 12. The organic matter in meteorites might have formed in the interstellar medium and/or the solar nebula, but was almost certainly modified in the meteorites’ parent bodies11. We conclude that the observed cometary carbonaceous solid matter could have the same origin as the meteoritic insoluble organic matter, but suffered less modification before and/or after being incorporated into the comet.

  • 12.
    Goetz, W.
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Brinckerhoff, W. B.
    NASA, US.
    Arevalo, R.
    NASA, US.
    Freissinet, C.
    NASA, US.
    Getty, S.
    NASA, US.
    Glavin, D. P.
    NASA, US.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Buch, A.
    Ecole Centrale Paris, France.
    Stalport, F.
    Ecole Centrale Paris, France.
    Grubisic, A.
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Li, X.
    NASA, US.
    Pinnick, V.
    NASA, US.
    Danell, R.
    NASA, US.
    Van Amerom, F. H. W.
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France; Danell Consulting, US.
    Goesmann, F.
    Mini-Mass Consulting, US.
    Steininger, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Grand, N.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Raulin, F.
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France, France.
    Szopa, C.
    LATMOS, France.
    Meierhenrich, U.
    University of Nice, France.
    Brucato, J. R.
    INAF Astrophysical Observatory of Arcetri, Italy; University of Bremen, Germany.
    MOMA: The challenge to search for organics and biosignatures on Mars2016Ingår i: International Journal of Astrobiology, ISSN 1473-5504, E-ISSN 1475-3006, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 239-250Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes strategies to search for, detect, and identify organic material on the surface and subsurface of Mars. The strategies described include those applied by landed missions in the past and those that will be applied in the future. The value and role of ESA's ExoMars rover and of her key science instrument Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) are critically assessed.

  • 13.
    Heydari, Golrokh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sedighi Moghaddam, Maziar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Fielden, Matthew
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Haapanen, Janne
    TUT Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Mäkelä, Jyrki M.
    TUT Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetting hysteresis induced by temperature changes: Supercooled water on hydrophobic surfaces2016Ingår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 468, s. 21-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The state and stability of supercooled water on (super)hydrophobic surfaces is crucial for low temperature applications and it will affect anti-icing and de-icing properties. Surface characteristics such as topography and chemistry are expected to affect wetting hysteresis during temperature cycling experiments, and also the freezing delay of supercooled water. We utilized stochastically rough wood surfaces that were further modified to render them hydrophobic or superhydrophobic. Liquid flame spraying (LFS) was utilized to create a multi-scale roughness by depositing titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The coating was subsequently made non-polar by applying a thin plasma polymer layer. As flat reference samples modified silica surfaces with similar chemistries were utilized. With these substrates we test the hypothesis that superhydrophobic surfaces also should retard ice formation. Wetting hysteresis was evaluated using contact angle measurements during a freeze-thaw cycle from room temperature to freezing occurrence at -7 °C, and then back to room temperature. Further, the delay in freezing of supercooled water droplets was studied at temperatures of -4 °C and -7 °C. The hysteresis in contact angle observed during a cooling-heating cycle is found to be small on flat hydrophobic surfaces. However, significant changes in contact angles during a cooling-heating cycle are observed on the rough surfaces, with a higher contact angle observed on cooling compared to during the subsequent heating. Condensation and subsequent frost formation at sub-zero temperatures induce the hysteresis. The freezing delay data show that the flat surface is more efficient in enhancing the freezing delay than the rougher surfaces, which can be rationalized considering heterogeneous nucleation theory. Thus, our data suggests that molecular flat surfaces, rather than rough superhydrophobic surfaces, are beneficial for retarding ice formation under conditions that allow condensation and frost formation to occur.

  • 14.
    Hilchenbach, M.
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Kissel, J.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Langevin, Y.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Briois, C.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Hoerner, H. V.
    Von Hoerner & Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Koch, A.
    Von Hoerner & Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Schulz, R.
    ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Silén, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Altwegg, K.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Colangeli, L.
    ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Cottin, H.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Engrand, C.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Saclay, France.
    Fischer, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Glasmachers, A.
    University of Wuppertal, Germany.
    Grün, E.
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany.
    Haerendel, G.
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Henkel, H.
    Von Hoerner & Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Höfner, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Hornung, K.
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Jessberger, E. K.
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Lehto, H.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Lehto, K.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Raulin, F.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Roy, L. L.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Rynö, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Steiger, W.
    RC Seibersdorf Research GmbH Business Field Aerospace Technology, Austria.
    Stephan, T.
    University of Chicago, US.
    Thirkell, L.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Thomas, R.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Torkar, K.
    Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria.
    Varmuza, K.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Wanczek, K. -P
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Altobelli, N.
    ESAC European Space Astronomy Centre, Spain.
    Baklouti, D.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Bardyn, A.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Fray, N.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Krüger, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Ligier, N.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Lin, Z.
    NCU National Central University, Taiwan.
    Martin, P.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Merouane, S.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Orthous-Daunay, F. R.
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Paquette, J.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Revillet, C.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Stenzel, O.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Zaprudin, B.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO: CLOSE-UP on DUST PARTICLE FRAGMENTS2016Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 816, nr 2, artikel-id L32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser instrument on board ESA's Rosetta mission has collected dust particles in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. During the early-orbit phase of the Rosetta mission, particles and particle agglomerates have been imaged and analyzed in the inner coma at distances between 100 km and 10 km off the cometary nucleus and at more than 3 AU from the Sun. We identified 585 particles of more than 14 μm in size. The particles are collected at low impact speeds and constitute a sample of the dust particles in the inner coma impacting and fragmenting on the targets. The sizes of the particles range from 14 μm up to sub-millimeter sizes and the differential dust flux size distribution is fitted with a power law exponent of -3.1. After impact, the larger particles tend to stick together, spread out or consist of single or a group of clumps, and the flocculent morphology of the fragmented particles is revealed. The elemental composition of the dust particles is heterogeneous and the particles could contain typical silicates like olivine and pyroxenes, as well as iron sulfides. The sodium to iron elemental ratio is enriched with regard to abundances in CI carbonaceous chondrites by a factor from ∼1.5 to ∼15. No clear evidence for organic matter has been identified. The composition and morphology of the collected dust particles appear to be similar to that of interplanetary dust particles.

  • 15.
    Hjalmarsson, Nicklas
    et al.
    KTH The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Atkin, Rob
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Is the boundary layer of an ionic liquid equally lubricating at higher temperature?2016Ingår i: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 18, nr 13, s. 9232-9239Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic force microscopy has been used to study the effect of temperature on normal forces and friction for the room temperature ionic liquid (IL) ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), confined between mica and a silica colloid probe at 25 °C, 50 °C, and 80 °C. Force curves revealed a strong fluid dynamic influence at room temperature, which was greatly reduced at elevated temperatures due to the reduced liquid viscosity. A fluid dynamic analysis reveals that bulk viscosity is manifested at large separation but that EAN displays a nonzero slip, indicating a region of different viscosity near the surface. At high temperatures, the reduction in fluid dynamic force reveals step-like force curves, similar to those found at room temperature using much lower scan rates. The ionic liquid boundary layer remains adsorbed to the solid surface even at high temperature, which provides a mechanism for lubrication when fluid dynamic lubrication is strongly reduced. The friction data reveals a decrease in absolute friction force with increasing temperature, which is associated with increased thermal motion and reduced viscosity of the near surface layers but, consistent with the normal force data, boundary layer lubrication was unaffected. The implications for ILs as lubricants are discussed in terms of the behaviour of this well characterised system.

  • 16.
    Iacomussi, P
    et al.
    INRIM, Italy.
    Rossi, G
    INRIM, Italy.
    Blatter, P
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Reber, J
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Chain, C
    Cerema, France.
    Muzet, V
    Cerema, France.
    Dubard, J
    LNE, France.
    Van Tang, C
    LNE, France.
    Jouanin, A
    OPTIS, France.
    Kubarsepp, T
    Metrosert, Estonia.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Manocheri, F
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Zehntner, P
    Zehntner GmbH, Switzerland.
    Metrology of Road Surface for Smart Lighting2017Ingår i: PROCEEDINGSOF THE LUX EUROPA 2017 European Lighting Conference: Lighting for modern society / [ed] Matej B. Kobav, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, Ljubljana, 2017, s. 103-107, artikel-id OM17Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge of the luminance coefficient q or of the reduced luminance coefficient r of road surface is an unavoidable requirement for designing road lighting installations able to assure adequate road luminance for visual conditions, energy consumption and traffic safety according to standard requirements. Unfortunately q available data refers to measurements made during the seventies with no traceability or measurement uncertainty. In the last 40 years the road surfaces pavements evolved as well the road lighting sources and luminaires. EMPIR project SURFACE will provide validated, optimised and reliable geometrical conditions for the measurement of q as well as reference data representative of current road pavements and future needs, as support of the European Standardisation process, CIE and European Metrology infrastructure.

  • 17.
    Jiang, Zhiheng
    et al.
    BIPM Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, France.
    Zhang, Victor S.
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Huang, Yi Jiun
    TL National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory, Taiwan.
    Achkar, Joseph
    Observatoire de Paris, France.
    Piester, Dirk
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Lin, Shinn Yan Calvin
    TL National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory, Taiwan.
    Wu, Wenjun
    NTSC National Time Service Center, China.
    Naumov, Andrey
    Main Metrological Center for State Service of Time and Frequency, Russia.
    Yang, Sunghoon
    KRISS: Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, South Korea.
    Nawrocki, Jerzy
    AOS Space Research Center, Poland.
    Sesia, Ilaria
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Schlunegger, Christian
    Metas Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Yang, Zhiqiang
    NIM National Institute of Metrology, China.
    Fujieda, Miho
    NICT National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan.
    Czubla, Albin
    Central Office of Measures, Poland.
    Esteban, Hector
    Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada, Spain.
    Rieck, Carsten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Whibberley, Peter B.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Use of software-defined radio receivers in two-way satellite time and frequency transfers for UTC computation2018Ingår i: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 55, nr 5, s. 685-698Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) is a primary technique for the generation of coordinated universal time (UTC). About 20 timing laboratories around the world continuously operate TWSTFT using satellite time and ranging equipment (SATRE19) modems for remote time and frequency comparisons in this context. The precision of the SATRE TWSTFT as observed today is limited by an apparent daily variation pattern (diurnal) in the TWSTFT results. The observed peak-to-peak variation have been found as high as 2 ns in some cases. Investigations into the origins of the diurnals have so far provided no complete understanding about the cause of the diurnals. One major contributor to the diurnals, however, could be related to properties of the receive part in the modem. In 2014 and 2015, it was demonstrated that bypassing the receive part and the use of software-defined radio (SDR) receivers in TWSTFT ground stations (SDR TWSTFT) instead could considerably reduce both the diurnals and the measurement noise. In 2016, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) and the Consultative Committee for Time and Frequency (CCTF) working group (WG) on TWSTFT launched a pilot study on the application of SDR receivers in the TWSTFT network for UTC computation. The first results of the pilot study were reported to the CCTF WG on TWSTFT annual meeting in May 2017, demonstrating that SDR TWSTFT shows superior performance compared to that of SATRE TWSTFT for practically all links between participating stations. In particular, for continental TWSTFT links, in which the strongest diurnals appear, the use of SDR TWSTFT results in a significant suppression of the diurnals by a factor of between two and three. For the very long inter-continental links, e.g. the Europe-to-USA links where the diurnals are less pronounced, SDR TWSTFT achieved a smaller but still significant gain of 30%. These findings are supported by an evaluation of some of the links with an alternate technique based on GPS signals (GPS IPPP) as reported in this paper. Stimulated by these results, the WG on TWSTFT prepared a recommendation for the 21st CCTF meeting, which proposed the introduction of SDR TWSTFT in UTC generation. With CCTF approval of the recommendation, a roadmap was developed for the implementation of SDR TWSTFT in UTC generation. In accordance with the roadmap, most of the stations that participated in the pilot study have updated the SDR TWSTFT settings to facilitate the use of SDR TWSTFT data in UTC generation. In addition, the BIPM conducted a final evaluation to validate the long-term stability of SDR TWSTFT links, made test runs using the BIPM standard software for the calculation of UTC, now including SDR TWSTFT data, and started to calculate SDR TWSTFT time links as backup from October 2017. The use of SDR TWSTFT in UTC generation will begin in 2018.

  • 18.
    Kaline P., Furlan
    Hamburg University, Germany.
    Diaz, Ana (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland.
    Holler, Mirko (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland.
    Krekeler, Tobias (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Ritter, Martin (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Petrov, Alexander Yu. (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany; ITMO University, Russia.
    Eich, Manfred (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Blick, Robert (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Schneider, Gerold A. (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Greving, Imke (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Zierold, Robert (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Janßen, Rolf (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Photonic materials for high-temperature applications: Synthesis and characterization by X-ray ptychographic tomography2018Ingår i: Applied Materials Today, ISSN 2352-9407, Vol. 13, s. 359-369Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Photonic materials for high-temperature applications need to withstand temperatures usually higher than 1000 °C, whilst keeping their function. When exposed to high temperatures, such nanostructured materials are prone to detrimental morphological changes, however the structure evolution pathway of photonic materials and its correlation with the loss of material's function is not yet fully understood. Here we use high-resolution ptychographic X-ray computed tomography (PXCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the structural changes in mullite inverse opal photonic crystals produced by a very-low-temperature (95 °C) atomic layer deposition (ALD) super-cycle process. The 3D structural changes caused by the high-temperature exposure were quantified and associated with the distinct structural features of the ceramic photonic crystals. Other than observed in photonic crystals produced via powder colloidal suspensions or sol-gel infiltration, at high temperatures of 1400 °C we detected a mass transport direction from the nano pores to the shells. We relate these different structure evolution pathways to the presence of hollow vertexes in our ALD-based inverse opal photonic crystals. Although the periodically ordered structure is distorted after sintering, the mullite inverse opal photonic crystal presents a photonic stopgap even after heat treatment at 1400 °C for 100 h.

  • 19.
    Krüger, Harald
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Stephan, Thomas
    University of Chicago, US.
    Engrand, Cécile
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Briois, Christelle
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Merouane, Sihane
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Baklouti, Donia
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Fischer, Henning
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Fray, Nicolas
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Hornung, Klaus
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Lehto, Harry
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Orthous-Daunay, Francois-Régis
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Rynö, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Schulz, Rita
    ESA European Space Agency, Netherlands.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Thirkell, Laurent
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Trieloff, Mario
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    COSIMA-Rosetta calibration for in situ characterization of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko cometary inorganic compounds2015Ingår i: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, E-ISSN 1873-5088, Vol. 117, s. 35-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer (COSIMA) is a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) instrument on board the Rosetta space mission. COSIMA has been designed to measure the composition of cometary dust particles. It has a mass resolution m/Δm of 1400 at mass 100 u, thus enabling the discrimination of inorganic mass peaks from organic ones in the mass spectra. We have evaluated the identification capabilities of the reference model of COSIMA for inorganic compounds using a suite of terrestrial minerals that are relevant for cometary science. Ground calibration demonstrated that the performances of the flight model were similar to that of the reference model. The list of minerals used in this study was chosen based on the mineralogy of meteorites, interplanetary dust particles and Stardust samples. It contains anhydrous and hydrous ferromagnesian silicates, refractory silicates and oxides (present in meteoritic Ca-Al-rich inclusions), carbonates, and Fe-Ni sulfides. From the analyses of these minerals, we have calculated relative sensitivity factors for a suite of major and minor elements in order to provide a basis for element quantification for the possible identification of major mineral classes present in the cometary particles.

  • 20.
    Larsson, Emanuel
    Hamburg University of Technology,Germany.
    De Carlo, Francesco (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Lilleodden, Erica (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Institute of Advanced Ceramics, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073, Germany.
    Storm, Malte (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Wilde, Fabian (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Kaixiong, Hu (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Müller, Martin (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Greving, Imke (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Nanoporous gold: a hierarchical and multiscale 3D test pattern for characterizing X-ray nano-tomography systems2019Ingår i: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, ISSN 0909-0495, E-ISSN 1600-5775, Vol. 26, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) is a well established technique, available at various synchrotron beamlines around the world as well as by laboratory benchtop devices. One of the major TXM challenges, due to its nanometre-scale resolution, is the overall instrument stability during the acquisition of the series of tomographic projections. The ability to correct for vertical and horizontal distortions of each projection image during acquisition is necessary in order to achieve the effective 3D spatial resolution. The effectiveness of such an image alignment is also heavily influenced by the absorption properties and strong contrast of specific features in the scanned sample. Here it is shown that nanoporous gold (NPG) can be used as an ideal 3D test pattern for evaluating and optimizing the performance of a TXM instrument for hard X-rays at a synchrotron beamline. Unique features of NPG, such as hierarchical structures at multiple length scales and high absorbing capabilities, makes it an ideal choice for characterization, which involves a combination of a rapid-alignment algorithm applied on the acquired projections followed by the extraction of a set of both 2D- and 3D-descriptive image parameters. This protocol can be used for comparing the efficiency of TXM instruments at different synchrotron beamlines in the world or benchtop devices, based on a reference library of scanned NPG samples, containing information about the estimated horizontal and vertical alignment values, 2D qualitative parameters and quantitative 3D parameters. The possibility to tailor the ligament sizes of NPG to match the achievable resolution in combination with the high electron density of gold makes NPG an ideal 3D test pattern for evaluating the status and performance of a given synchrotron-based or benchtop-based TXM setup.

  • 21.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Safer battery systems in electrified vehicles – an electrified bus perspective2016Ingår i: Eurotransport, ISSN 1478–8217, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 50-53Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries offer great energy and power densities accompanied with long battery life time. However, if a mechanical fault occurs or the batteries over-heat, the flammable electrolyte of the Li-ion battery may pose a  risk. For Eurotransport, colleagues  from  the SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP) and Chalmers University of Technology explore further, identifying the risks involved with electric buses.

  • 22.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, nr 1, artikel-id 10018Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium-ion battery fires generate intense heat and considerable amounts of gas and smoke. Although the emission of toxic gases can be a larger threat than the heat, the knowledge of such emissions is limited. This paper presents quantitative measurements of heat release and fluoride gas emissions during battery fires for seven different types of commercial lithium-ion batteries. The results have been validated using two independent measurement techniques and show that large amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) may be generated, ranging between 20 and 200 mg/Wh of nominal battery energy capacity. In addition, 15-22 mg/Wh of another potentially toxic gas, phosphoryl fluoride (POF3), was measured in some of the fire tests. Gas emissions when using water mist as extinguishing agent were also investigated. Fluoride gas emission can pose a serious toxic threat and the results are crucial findings for risk assessment and management, especially for large Li-ion battery packs.

  • 23.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Are electric vehicles safer than combustion engine vehicles?2017Ingår i: Systems Perspectives on Electromobility 2017 / [ed] Björn Sandén, Pontus Wallgren, Gothenburg: Chalmers University of Technology , 2017, s. 34-48Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lithium-Ion Battery Aspects on Fires in Electrified Vehicles on the Basis of Experimental Abuse Tests2016Ingår i: Batteries, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 2, nr 9, s. 1-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety issues concerning the use of large lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in electrified vehicles are discussed based on the abuse test results of Li-ion cells together with safety devices for cells. The presented abuse tests are: overcharge, short circuit, propane fire test and external heating test (oven). It was found that in a fire, cells with higher state of charge (SOC) gave a higher heat release rate (HRR), while the total heat release (THR) had a lower correlation with SOC. One fire test resulted in a hazardous projectile from a cylindrical cell. In the fire tests, toxic gas emissions of hydrogen fluoride (HF) were measured for 100%, 50% and 0% SOC.

  • 25.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bertilsson, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Furlani, Maurizio
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Albinsson, Ingvar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gas explosions and thermal runaways during external heating abuse of commercial lithium-ion graphite-LiCoO2 cells at different levels of ageing2018Ingår i: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 03787753, Vol. 373, s. 220-231Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial 6.8 Ah lithium-ion cells with different ageing/status have been abused by external heating in an oven. Prior to the abuse test, selected cells were aged either by C/2 cycling up to 300 cycles or stored at 60 °C. Gas emissions were measured by FTIR and three separate vents were identified, two well before the thermal runaway while the third occurred simultaneously with the thermal runaway releasing heavy smoke and gas. Emissions of toxic carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) were detected in the third vent, regardless if there was a fire or not. All abused cells went into thermal runaway and emitted smoke and gas, the working cells also released flames as well as sparks. The dead cells were however less reactive but still underwent thermal runaway. For about half of the working cells, for all levels of cycle ageing, ignition of the accumulated battery released gases occurred about 15 s after the thermal runaway resulting in a gas explosion. The thermal runaway temperature, about 190 °C, varied somewhat for the different cell ageing/status where a weak local minimum was found for cells cycled between 100 and 200 times.

  • 26.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lithium-ion Batteries used in Electrified Vehicles – General Risk Assessment and Construction Guidelines from a Fire and Gas Release Perspective2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a general and broad risk assessment and construction guidelines for lithium-ion battery systems used in electrified vehicles, from the perspectives of fire and gas release. General types of Li-ion battery systems and electrified vehicles, ranging from light to heavy-duty vehicles, are included. The findings in the report are based on results obtained in the project “Safer battery systems in electrified vehicles – develop knowledge, design and requirements to secure a broad introduction of electrified vehicles”, conducted between the years 2012-2017 and lead by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. The guidelines focus on both how to design the battery system and on how to integrate and place the battery in the vehicle in order to increase the safety in terms or fire and gas release.

  • 27.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rytinki, Antti
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Istaq
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Sweden.
    Albinsson, Ingvar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and Safety Shut-Down2017Ingår i: Batteries, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn)–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the battery operation by stopping its air supply, thus offering an additional protection against severe battery damage in the case of, e.g., an accidental short circuit. This method may also reduce the electrical hazard in a larger battery system since, by stopping the air supply, the voltage can be brought to zero while maintaining the energy capacity of the battery. Measurements of Overdischarge currents and current cut-off by suffocation have been performed to assess the safety of this type of Zn–air battery. The time to get to zero battery voltage is shown to mainly be determined by the volume of air trapped in the cell.

  • 28.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    New models for calculating maximum gas temperatures in large tunnel fires2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this report focuses on estimating maximum gas temperatures at ceiling level during large tunnel fires. Gas temperature is an important parameter to consider when designing the fire resistance of a tunnel structure. Earlier work by the authors has established correlations between excess ceiling gas temperature and effective tunnel height, ventilation rate, and heat release rate. The maximum possible excess gas temperature was set as 1350°C, independent of the tunnel structure and local combustion conditions. As a result of this research, two models have been developed to better estimate possible excess maximum gas temperatures for large tunnel fires in tunnels with differing lining materials and structure types (e.g. rock, concrete). These have been validated using both model- and full-scale tests. Comparisons of predicted and measured temperatures show that both models correlate well with the test data. However, Model I is better and more optimal, due to the fact that it is more conservative and easier to use. The fire duration and flame volume are found to be related to gas temperature development. In reality, the models could also be used to estimate temperatures in a fully developed compartment fire.

  • 29.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Nord, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Characterization of visual and IR reflectivity for soft car targets2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and Automated Driving (AD) vehicles rely heavily on optical sensors. Extensive testing of optical sensors is required and typically performed at test tracks like AstaZero. Soft surrogate targets are used for safety reasons, but the optical characteristics of surrogate targets may differ considerably from that of real vehicles. During tests the quality of the soft surrogate targets deteriorates due to repeated impacts and reassembly of the targets, and there is a need for methods to secure the quality of the soft surrogate targets over time.

    RISE has conducted a project together with Volvo Cars and Veoneer to develop and validate accurate and repeatable measurement methods of the optical characteristics of 3D soft car targets. The goal is to support international standardisation (ISO) with standard methods enabling future verification and calibration of optical characteristics of active safety 3D soft car targets.

    The poster presents results from optical measurements on soft car targets and real cars, performed in the project. One target was subjected to 100 rear-end collisions during which the reflectivity was measured.

  • 30.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Nord, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Spetz, Jörgen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    CHARACTERIZATION OF REFLECTIVITY AND GEOMETRY FOR SOFT CAR TARGETS2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 29th Session of the CIE, Wien, 2019, Vol. 1, s. 1753-1767, artikel-id PO181Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on results from a study of characteristics for 3D soft surrogate vehicle targets. Such targets are used extensively for testing and verification of optical sensor systems for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems and Automated Driving. However, the influence of wear-and-tear on the vehicle target is not well known. Consequently, no clear requirement exists on how many collisions a soft target can be exposed to before it no longer performs well.

    Important characteristics for optical sensor systems are surface reflectance in the relevant wavelength range and geometry of the soft target. We report on measurements of spectral reflectivity and geometry performed before, during and after an accelerated ageing campaign involving 100 rear-end collisions at 50 km/h. The reflectivity was found to change very little while the geometry was strongly affected.

  • 31.
    Liu, Xiaoyan
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yun, Sang Ho
    Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Frictional behavior of micro-patterned silicon surface2015Ingår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 456, s. 76-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A micro-patterned silicon surface, consisting of depressions with walls having a tilt angle of 30°, was created by photolithography followed by etching. The friction forces in single asperity contact acting between such a surface and an AFM tip was measured in air. This allowed elucidation of the validity of some common friction rules for this particular situation where a small tip traces a surface having roughness features that are significantly larger than the tip itself. The rules that was compared with our data were Amontons' first rule of friction stating that the friction force should be proportional to the load; Amontons' third rule stating that the friction force should be independent of sliding speed, and Euler's rule providing a relation between slope angle and friction coefficient. We found that both nanoscale surface heterogeneities and the μm-sized depressions affect friction forces, and considerable reproducible variations were found along a particular scan line. Nevertheless Amontons' first rule described average friction forces well. Amontons' third rule and Euler's rule were found to be less applicable to our system.

  • 32.
    Lobov, Gleb S.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Marinins, Aleksandrs
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Etcheverry, Sebastian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Vasileva, Elena
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Thylén, Lars
    Hewlett-Packard Enterprise Laboratories, USA; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Direct birefringence and transmission modulation via dynamic alignment of P3HT nanofibers in an advanced opto-fluidic component2017Ingår i: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 52-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) nanofibers are semiconducting high-aspect ratio nanostructures with anisotropic absorption and birefringence properties found at different regions of the optical spectrum. In addition, P3HT nanofibers possess an ability to be aligned by an external electric field, while being dispersed in a liquid. In this manuscript we show that such collective ordering of nanofibers, similar to liquid crystal material, significantly changes the properties of transmitted light. With a specially fabricated opto-fluidic component, we monitored the phase and transmission modulation of light propagating through the solution of P3HT nanofibers, being placed in the electric field with strength up to 0.1 V/μm. This report describes a technique for light modulation, which can be implemented in optical fiber-based devices or on-chip integrated components.

  • 33.
    Lobov, Gleb S.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Marinins, Aleksandrs
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Max
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Toprak, Muhammet Sadaka
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Thylen, Lars
    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, US; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Electric field induced optical anisotropy of P3HT nanofibers in a liquid solution2015Ingår i: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 5, nr 11, s. 2642-2647Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The nanofiber morphology of regioregular Poly-3- hexylthiophene (P3HT) is a 1D crystalline structure organized by π - π stacking of the backbone chains. In this study, we report the impact of electric field on the orientation and optical properties of P3HT nanofibers dispersed in liquid solution. We demonstrate that alternating electric field aligns nanofibers, whereas static electric field forces them to migrate towards the cathode. The alignment of nanofibers introduces anisotropic optical properties, which can be dynamically manipulated until the solvent has evaporated. Time resolved spectroscopic measurements revealed that the electro-optical response time decreases significantly with the magnitude of applied electric field. Thus, for electric field 1.3 V ·μm-1 the response time was measured as low as 20 ms, while for 0.65 V ·μm-1 it was 110-150 ms. Observed phenomenon is the first mention of P3HT supramolecules associated with electrooptical effect. Proposed method provides real time control over the orientation of nanofibers, which is a starting point for a novel practical implementation. With further development P3HT nanofibers can be used individually as an anisotropic solution or as an active component in a guest-host system.

  • 34.
    Lobov, Gleb S.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Marinins, Aleksandrs
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Min
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Thylén, Lars
    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, US; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Size impact of ordered P3HT nanofibers on optical anisotropy2016Ingår i: Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 1022-1352, E-ISSN 1521-3935, Vol. 217, nr 9, s. 1089-1095Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) nanofibers are 1D crystalline structures with semiconductor properties. When P3HT nanofibers are dispersed in nonconducting solvent, they react to external alternate electric field by aligning along the field lines. This can be used to create layers of ordered nanofibers and is referred to as alternating current poling method. P3HT nanofibers with three different size distributions are fabricated, using self-assembly mechanism in marginal solvents, and used for the alignment studies. Anisotropic absorption of oriented 2 μm long nanofibers exponentially increases with the magnitude of applied field to a certain asymptotic limit at 0.8 V μm-1, while 100-500 nm long nanofibers respond to electric field negligibly. Effective optical birefringence of oriented 2 μm long nanofibers is calculated, based on the phase shift at 633 nm and the average layer thickness, to be 0.41. These results combined with further studies on real-time control over orientation of P3HT nanofibers in liquid solution or host system are promising in terms of exploiting them in electroabsorptive and electrorefractive applications.

  • 35.
    Lobov, Gleb S.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Marinins, Alexandrs
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Min
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Thylén, Lars
    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, US; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dynamic manipulation of optical anisotropy of suspended Poly-3-hexylthiophene nanofibers2016Ingår i: Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN 2162-7568, E-ISSN 2195-1071, Vol. 4, nr 10, s. 1651-1656Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) nanofibers are 1D crystalline semiconducting nanostructures, which are known for their application in photovoltaics. Due to the internal arrangement, P3HT nanofibers possess optical anisotropy, which can be enhanced on a macroscale if nanofibers are aligned. Alternating electric field, applied to a solution with dispersed nanofibers, causes their alignment and serves as a method to produce solid layers with ordered nanofibers. The transmission ellipsometry measurements demonstrate the dichroic absorption and birefringence of ordered nanofibers in a wide spectral range of 400–1700 nm. Moreover, the length of nanofibers has a crucial impact on their degree of alignment. Using electric birefringence technique, it is shown that external electric field applied to the solution with P3HT nanofibers can cause direct birefringence modulation. Dynamic alignment of dispersed nanofibers changes the refractive index of the solution and, therefore, the polarization of transmitted light. A reversible reorientation of nanofibers is organized by using a quadrupole configuration of poling electrodes. With further development, the described method can be used in the area of active optical fiber components, lab-on-chip or sensors. It also reveals the potential of 1D conducting polymeric structures as objects whose highly anisotropic properties can be implemented in electro-optical applications.​.

  • 36. Malmberg, F.
    et al.
    Lindblad, J.
    Östlund, C.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Almgren, K.M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Gamstedt, E.K.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Measurement of fibrefibre contact in three-dimensional images of fibrous materials obtained from X-ray synchrotron microtomography2011Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, nr 1, s. 143-148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 37.
    Molinder, Roger
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Characteristics of Particles in Pyrolysis Oil2016Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 30, nr 11, s. 9456-9462Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Particles filtered out of pyrolysis oil produced through fast pyrolysis of stem wood, willow, reed canary grass, bark, and forest residue were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy with the aim of identifying particle categories and discussing transport mechanisms of particles and inorganics into the oil. Particles filtered out of both the condensed and the aerosol fractions of the oil displayed three types of morphology: (i) char-like structures (1-15 μm), (ii) spheres (100 nm to 1 μm), and (iii) irregularly shaped residue (50-500 nm). The char-like structures were identified as char. The spheres and irregularly shaped residue shared morphology and composition with tar balls and organic particles with inorganic inclusions. These particles could have formed either during the fast pyrolysis stage or through precipitation from the oil during storage. All particles consisted mainly of C and O but also small amounts of inorganics. The particles from the aerosol fraction of the oil had higher inorganics content than the particles from the condensed fraction. The results were discussed, and suggested transport mechanisms of inorganics into particles were presented.

  • 38. Neuman, M.
    et al.
    Coppel, L.G.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Edström, P.
    Angle resolved color of bulk scattering media2011Ingår i: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, nr 36, s. 6555-6563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 39. Neuman, M.
    et al.
    Coppel, L.G.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Edström, P.
    Point spreading in turbid media with anisotropic single scattering2011Ingår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, nr 3, s. 1915-1920Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Zelan, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport.
    Det nya internationella måttsystemet: – tid för ett nytt måttsystem2017Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag kan alla måttenheter härledas från SI-systemets sju basenheter (meter, kilogram, sekund, kelvin, candela, ampere, mol). Genom nya forskningsframsteg planeras nu en reformering av SI-systemet. Förändringen förväntas att bli beslutad 2018, och forskare på alla länders olika Nationella Metrologiinstitut jobbar nu med förberedelserna för att införa det nya SI-systemet.

  • 41.
    Raaholt, Birgitta
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Isaksson, Sven
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Fhager, Andreas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hamnerius, Yngve
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Continuous tubular microwave heating of homogeneous foods: evaluation of heating uniformity2016Ingår i: The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, ISSN 0832-7823, Vol. 50, nr 1, s. 43-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot-scale process for continuous in-flow microwave processing of foods, designed and implemented at SP Food and Bioscience, was evaluated for heat treatment of a homogeneous model food for high-temperature short-time (HTST) conditions, at constant total input microwave power, at 2450 MHz. The microwave system has three consecutive cavities, one excited by the TM020 microwave mode that heats primarily in the tube centre, and two TM120 mode cavities that heat primarily in the tube periphery. The temperature uniformity of the homogeneous model food after microwave heating is here evaluated in terms of spatial distribution, for different set-ups of input microwave power in each cavity and for different order of the placement of the cavities, while maintaining the total input microwave power. The microwave heating uniformity is evaluated, based on measured and calculated radial temperature profiles. Combined TM020 and TM120 heating was found to result in more uniform heating by means of spatial temperature uniformity over the tube cross section. Furthermore, appropriately selected microwave power distribution between the centre and periphery heating cavities results in a stable heating profile in the studied food, that differs only about 10 °C or less between highest and lowest average values directly after microwave heating.

  • 42. Rasheed, Faiza
    et al.
    Newson, William R
    Plivelic, Tomas S
    Kuktaite, Ramune
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, Eva
    Structural architecture and solubility of native and modified gliadin and glutenin proteins: non-crystalline molecular and atomic organization2014Ingår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, nr 4, s. 2051-2060Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Rugeland, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo. KTH, Laserfysik.
    Tarasenko, Oleksandr
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Margulis, Walter
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo. KTH, Laserfysik.
    Nanosecond monolithic Mach-Zehnder fiber switch2012Ingår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 20, nr 28, s. 29309-29318Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An electrically controlled high-speed all-fiber switch is investigated. It is based on a monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a Gemini fiber. The fiber is provided with internal electrodes for active control of the phase using high-voltage electrical pulses. The demonstrated switching speed is 20 ns. The monolithic design guarantees that the off- and on-states are attained simultaneously for a broad range of wavelengths (50 nm). The interferometer can be switched-off using a second electrode, providing a 15 ns long optical pulse.

  • 44.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Effective diffusivity in lattices of impermeable superballs2018Ingår i: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics: Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics, ISSN 1063-651X, E-ISSN 1095-3787, Vol. 98, nr 5, artikel-id 052908Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Granular materials constitute a broad class of two-phase media with discrete, solid par-ticles i.e. granules surrounded by a continuous void phase. They have properties that arekey for e.g. separation and chromatography columns, cathode materials for batteries, andpharmaceutical coatings for controlled release. Controlling mass transport properties suchas effective diffusivity is crucial for these applications and the subject of targeted designand optimization. The prototypical granule is a sphere, but current manufacturingtechniques allow for more complicated shapes to be produced in a highly controlled manner,including ellipsoids, cubes, and cubes with rounded edges and corners. The impactof shape for self-assembly, phase transitions, crystallization, and random close packing hasalso been studied for these shapes

  • 45.
    Röding, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. University of South Australia, Australia.
    Del Castillo, L. A.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Nydén, M.
    University College London, Australia.
    Follink, B.
    University of South Australia, Australia; Monash University, Australia.
    Microstructure of a granular amorphous silica ceramic synthesized by spark plasma sintering2016Ingår i: Journal of Microscopy, ISSN 0022-2720, E-ISSN 1365-2818, Vol. 264, nr 3, s. 298-303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the microstructure of a granular amorphous silica ceramic material synthesized by spark plasma sintering. Using monodisperse spherical silica particles as precursor, spark plasma sintering yields a dense granular material with distinct granule boundaries. We use selective etching to obtain nanoscopic pores along the granule borders. We interrogate this highly interesting material structure by combining scanning electron microscopy, X-ray computed nanotomography and simulations based on random close packed spherical particles. We determine the degree of anisotropy caused by the uni-axial force applied during sintering, and our analysis shows that our synthesis method provides a means to avoid significant granule growth and to fabricate a material with well-controlled microstructure.

  • 46.
    Röding, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svensson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Functional regression-based fluid permeability prediction in monodisperse sphere packings from isotropic two-point correlation functions2017Ingår i: Computational materials science, ISSN 0927-0256, E-ISSN 1879-0801, Vol. 134, s. 126-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study fluid permeability in random sphere packings consisting of impermeable monodisperse hard spheres. Several different pseudo-potential models are used to obtain varying degrees of microstructural heterogeneity. Systematically varying solid volume fraction and degree of heterogeneity, virtual screening of more than 10,000 material structures is performed, simulating fluid flow using a lattice Boltzmann framework and computing the permeability. We develop a well-performing functional regression model for permeability prediction based on using isotropic two-point correlation functions as microstructural descriptors. The performance is good over a large range of solid volume fractions and degrees of heterogeneity, and to our knowledge this is the first attempt at using two-point correlation functions as functional predictors in a nonparametric statistics/machine learning context for permeability prediction.

  • 47.
    Saxholm, Sari
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. VTT MIKES, Finland.
    Högström, Richard
    VTT MIKES, Finland.
    Sarraf, Christophe
    ENSAM Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Arts et Mietiers, France.
    Sutton, Gavin J.M.
    NPL Management Limited, UK.
    Wynands, Robert
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Jönsson, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Durgut, Yasin
    TUBITAK Turkiye Bilimsel Ve Teknolojik Arastirma Kurumu, Turkey.
    Peruzzi, Andrea
    VSL, The Netherlands.
    Fateev, Alexander A.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Liverts, Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Adolfse, C.
    Minerva Meettechniek, The Netherlands.
    Oster, A.
    Wartsilä, Finland.
    Development of measurement and calibration techniques for dynamic pressures and temperatures (DynPT): Background and objectives of the 17IND07 DynPT project in the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR)2018Ingår i: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Institute of Physics Publishing , 2018, Vol. 1065, nr 16Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This project has five specific objectives: To provide traceability for dynamic pressure and temperature through development of measurement standards and validated calibration procedures; To quantify the effects of influencing quantities on the response of dynamic pressure and temperature sensors, in order to determine the appropriate calibration procedures and measurement uncertainties for industrial measurements; To develop new measurement methods and sensors for measuring dynamic pressure and temperature in demanding industrial applications, and to demonstrate the improved accuracy and reliability obtained with those; To validate all of the methods and sensors developed in this project through demonstrations in selected industrial applications; and To ensure by close engagement with industry, that the developed calibration and measurement techniques and technology are adopted by them. The challenge is that in many industrial applications pressure and temperature measurements are performed under dynamically changing conditions. The aim of this project is to improve the accuracy and reliability of pressure and temperature measurements in these challenging conditions. A European joint research project named Development of measurement and calibration techniques for dynamic pressures and temperatures (shortname DynPT) started in the summer 2018.

  • 48.
    Sepman, Alexey
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Ögren, Yngve
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Optical techniques for characterizing the biomass particle flow fluctuations in lab- and pilot-scale thermochemical systems2017Ingår i: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 313, s. 129-134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The work demonstrates the performance of the optical extinction technique for real-time diagnostics of the fluctuations in biomass particle flows. The online measurements of fluctuations of density were used to determine the biomass particle mass flow fluctuations. Biomass flows were produced using laboratory biomass particle feeder (mass flux up to 10 g/min) and the hopper-screw feeding system of the pilot-scale entrained flow rector, mass flux up to 500 g/min, located at SP ETC in Piteå. The experiments showed that the time-averaged extinction appeared to be linearly related to the real particle mass flow. The relatively fast variations in biomass feeding rates measured using the extinction technique were confirmed by fast balance measurements (in laboratory feeder experiments) and by real-time tunable diode laser CO and H2O concentrations measured in the reactor core of the entrained flow gasifier.

  • 49.
    Sjöström, J.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Anisotropic Curvature and Damage of Unbonded Post-tensioned Concrete Slabs During Fire Testing2017Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 1333-1351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two furnace tests, using two different fire exposures, on unbonded post-tensioned concrete slabs (1700 × 1200 mm) are reported. Local curvature is measured along two lines approximately in the middle of the slabs both parallel (longitudinal) and orthogonal (transverse) to the prestressing direction. More pronounced curvature in the transverse direction is accompanied by the formation of cracks running predominantly in the longitudinal direction. While the transverse curvature relaxes back to the original state after the cooling phase the curvature in the longitudinal direction ultimately exhibits upward deflection due to the hogging moment caused by the prestress in the tendons acting on a cross section with temperature reduced mechanical properties at the fire exposed side. The effect on crack formation due to the prestressing can additionally be detected by ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements in the different directions through the depth of the slab, where a reduction of 5–25% is observed in the transverse direction compared to the longitudinal direction. The phenomenological mechanical behaviour of the slabs is captured in a finite element model which describes the evolution of stress in the prestressing tendons. This model additionally suggests that the curvature in the transverse direction is independent of the prestressing in the longitudinal direction. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  • 50.
    Skedung, Lisa
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Buraczewska-Norin, Izabela
    Omega Pharma Nordic, Sweden.
    Dawood, Nagum
    Omega Pharma Nordic, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringstad, Lovisa
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Tactile friction of topical formulations2016Ingår i: Skin research and technology, ISSN 0909-752X, E-ISSN 1600-0846, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 46-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Methods: Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. Results: The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. Conclusion: The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations.

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