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  • 1.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Mossberg, Axel
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Gard, Eric
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Investigating machine learning for fire sciences: literature review and examples2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a review of current literature on artificial intelligence (AI) and more specifically machine learning (ML) is presented. ML is illustrated by two case studies where artificial neural networks are used for regression analysis of 110 spalling experiments and 81 Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) models of tunnel fires. Tunnel fires are often assessed by fire safety engineers using time-consuming simulation tools where a trained model has the potential to significantly reduce time and cost of these assessments.

    A regression model based on a neural net is used to study small scale spalling experiments and similar accuracy compared to least-square fits are obtained. The result is a function based on 14 determining experimental parameters of spalling and result in, spalling times and depths. It is a relatively small effort to get started and set up models, comparably to regular curve fitting. In this first case study the training times are short, it is thus possible to establish how the model performs on average.

    The 81 tunnel fire simulations are trained using a similar neural net however it takes considerable time to organize data, creating input, target data of the desired format and training. Here, it is also crucial to normalize the data in order to have it in a suitable format when training. 

    It should be noted that ML is often an iterative process in such a way that it may be difficult to know what settings will work before starting the process. It is equally important to illustrate and get to know the data, e.g., if there are large differences or orders of magnitude differences in the data. A normalization procedure is most often practical and will give better predictions.

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  • 2.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. SAFER, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. SAFER, Sweden.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Current gaps, challenges and opportunities in the field of road vehicle automation2014In: Proceedings of FISITA 2014 World Automotive Congress, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to identify current research gaps, challenges, and opportunities in the field of vehicle automation. The study is based on a literature review. The review shows that the current research focuses mainly on improvements in sensing, actuation, and navigation systems. However, this study acknowledges a range of challenges in other areas that need to be addressed to facilitate possible benefits that vehicle automation may bring. In particular, the following challenges are highlighted: 1) understanding the transfer of control between the vehicle and the driver, and vice versa, 2) defining behavior of automated vehicles in relation to other road users (e.g., pedestrians), 3) identifying how to communicate the system reliability information to the drivers, and 4) clarifying the impact on societal values, i.e. what driver behaviors that will be considered as appropriate, or even acceptable. The work presented here is a part of the ongoing project Boundary Conditions for Vehicle Automation, co-financed by the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA) and carried out by SAFER-Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre at Chalmers.

  • 3.
    Kaline P., Furlan
    Hamburg University, Germany.
    Diaz, Ana (Contributor)
    Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland.
    Holler, Mirko (Contributor)
    Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland.
    Krekeler, Tobias (Contributor)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Ritter, Martin (Contributor)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Petrov, Alexander Yu. (Contributor)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany; ITMO University, Russia.
    Eich, Manfred (Contributor)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Blick, Robert (Contributor)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Schneider, Gerold A. (Contributor)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Greving, Imke (Contributor)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Zierold, Robert (Contributor)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Janßen, Rolf (Contributor)
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Photonic materials for high-temperature applications: Synthesis and characterization by X-ray ptychographic tomography2018In: Applied Materials Today, ISSN 2352-9407, Vol. 13, p. 359-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photonic materials for high-temperature applications need to withstand temperatures usually higher than 1000 °C, whilst keeping their function. When exposed to high temperatures, such nanostructured materials are prone to detrimental morphological changes, however the structure evolution pathway of photonic materials and its correlation with the loss of material's function is not yet fully understood. Here we use high-resolution ptychographic X-ray computed tomography (PXCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the structural changes in mullite inverse opal photonic crystals produced by a very-low-temperature (95 °C) atomic layer deposition (ALD) super-cycle process. The 3D structural changes caused by the high-temperature exposure were quantified and associated with the distinct structural features of the ceramic photonic crystals. Other than observed in photonic crystals produced via powder colloidal suspensions or sol-gel infiltration, at high temperatures of 1400 °C we detected a mass transport direction from the nano pores to the shells. We relate these different structure evolution pathways to the presence of hollow vertexes in our ALD-based inverse opal photonic crystals. Although the periodically ordered structure is distorted after sintering, the mullite inverse opal photonic crystal presents a photonic stopgap even after heat treatment at 1400 °C for 100 h.

  • 4.
    Larsson, Emanuel
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    De Carlo, Francesco (Contributor)
    Lilleodden, Erica (Contributor)
    Institute of Advanced Ceramics, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073, Germany.
    Storm, Malte (Contributor)
    Wilde, Fabian (Contributor)
    Kaixiong, Hu (Contributor)
    Müller, Martin (Contributor)
    Greving, Imke (Contributor)
    Nanoporous gold: a hierarchical and multiscale 3D test pattern for characterizing X-ray nano-tomography systems2019In: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, ISSN 0909-0495, E-ISSN 1600-5775, Vol. 26, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) is a well established technique, available at various synchrotron beamlines around the world as well as by laboratory benchtop devices. One of the major TXM challenges, due to its nanometre-scale resolution, is the overall instrument stability during the acquisition of the series of tomographic projections. The ability to correct for vertical and horizontal distortions of each projection image during acquisition is necessary in order to achieve the effective 3D spatial resolution. The effectiveness of such an image alignment is also heavily influenced by the absorption properties and strong contrast of specific features in the scanned sample. Here it is shown that nanoporous gold (NPG) can be used as an ideal 3D test pattern for evaluating and optimizing the performance of a TXM instrument for hard X-rays at a synchrotron beamline. Unique features of NPG, such as hierarchical structures at multiple length scales and high absorbing capabilities, makes it an ideal choice for characterization, which involves a combination of a rapid-alignment algorithm applied on the acquired projections followed by the extraction of a set of both 2D- and 3D-descriptive image parameters. This protocol can be used for comparing the efficiency of TXM instruments at different synchrotron beamlines in the world or benchtop devices, based on a reference library of scanned NPG samples, containing information about the estimated horizontal and vertical alignment values, 2D qualitative parameters and quantitative 3D parameters. The possibility to tailor the ligament sizes of NPG to match the achievable resolution in combination with the high electron density of gold makes NPG an ideal 3D test pattern for evaluating the status and performance of a given synchrotron-based or benchtop-based TXM setup.

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  • 5. Larsson, Tony
    et al.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Grante, Christian
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Cooperative Partly Automated and Coordinated Vehicles and Transports2014In: 2014 National Workshop on Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Simbelis, Vygandas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kosmack Vaara, Elsa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ferreira, Pedro
    IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Laaksolahti, Jarmo
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Höök, Kristina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Delete by Haiku: Poetry from Old SMS Messages2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2017, p. 460-460Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work draws on repurposing practices to inform design for deletion and handling of digital waste -- a way of letting go -- in graceful and aesthetically appealing ways.

    Delete by Haiku is a mobile phone application that explores how deleting old text messages can become an enjoyable and creative practice by turning messages into haiku poetry. Through the application users interactively repurpose selected old text messages on their mobile phone into a haiku poem aided by a haiku-generating algorithm. By repeatedly pinching the selected messages they break apart into words that tumble down in a Tetris like manner. Gradually words are deleted until the remaining words find their position and form a haiku.

    The video presents a walkthrough of how to interact with the application to select messages in various ways, how to apply "themes" to gain some control over the generation process, and eventually share created poems with others through social media.

  • 7.
    Ulan, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Söderman, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Ahlström, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    AI-baserad säkerhet på byggarbetsplatser2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    AI-baserad säkerhet på byggarbetsplatser har varit ett ett-årigt projekt som genomförts för att förbättra säkerheten på anläggnings- och byggarbetsplatser genom användning av AI-teknologi. Projektet har varit ett samarbete mellan RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, NCC, Ramirent, Skanska och Viscando. Målet var att identifiera och analysera risker på arbetsplatserna med hjälp av sensorer och AI-modeller för att kunna förutsäga farliga situationer och utveckla lösningar för att förbättra säkerheten. Genom observationer, intervjuer och datainsamling med 3D-sensorer analyserades beteendemönster och riskområden på utvalda byggarbetsplatser. Resultaten användes sedan för att  kommunicera och utveckla konkreta lösningar för att minska riskerna. Rapporten ger en översikt av metodologin, datainsamlings- och analysprocessen samt betonar vikten av att förstå både teknologins möjligheter och begränsningar för att skapa en säkrare arbetsmiljö på byggarbetsplatser. 

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