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  • 1.
    Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Aligning Requirements and Testing: Working Together toward the Same Goal2017In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 20-23, article id 7819382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proper alignment of requirements engineering and testing (RET) can be key to software's success. Three practices can provide effective RET alignment: using test cases as requirements, harvesting trace links, and reducing distances between requirements engineers and testers. The Web extra https://youtu.be/M65ZKxfxqME is an audio podcast of author Elizabeth Bjarnason reading the the Requirements column she cowrote with Markus Borg. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 2.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Shah, Syed
    iZettle, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Selecting Software Component Sourcing Options: Detailed Survey Description and Analysis2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them fromexternal sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: 1) developing software in-house, 2) outsourcing development, 3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and 4) integrating open source software components. Unfortunately, there is little available research on howorganizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking.

  • 3.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Olsson, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Assar, Saïd
    IMT Business School, Sweden.
    Digitalization of Swedish Government Agencies: Detailed Census Description and Analysis2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering is at the core of the digitalization of society. Ill-informed decisions can have major consequences, as made evident in the 2017 government crisis in Sweden, originating in a data breach caused by an outsourcing deal made by the Swedish Transport Agency. Many Government Agencies (GovAgs) in Sweden are rapidly undergoing a digital transition, thus it is important to overview how widespread, and mature, software development is in this part of the public sector. We present a software development census of Swedish GovAgs, complemented by document analysis and a survey. We show that 39.2% of the GovAgs develop software internally, some matching the number of developers in large companies. Our findings suggest that the development largely resembles private sector counterparts, and that established best practices are implemented. Still, we identify improvement potential in the areas of strategic sourcing, openness, collaboration across GovAgs, and quality requirements. The Swedish Government has announced the establishment of a new digitalization agency next year, and our hope is that the software engineering community will contribute its expertise with a clear voice.

  • 4. Chen, Lei
    et al.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    CHOREM: Choreographing services for emergency managemen2016In: ITS World Congress 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Bohlin, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Adaptive Run-time Response Time Control in PLC-based Real-Time Systems using Reinforcement Learning2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Timing requirements such as constraints on response time are key characteristics of real-time systems and violations of these requirements might cause a total failure, particularly in hard real-time systems. Runtime monitoring of the system properties is of great importance to check the system status and mitigate such failures. Thus, a runtime control to preserve the system properties could improve the robustness of the system with respect to timing violations. Common control approaches may require a precise analytical model of the system which is difficult to be provided at design time. Reinforcement learning is a promising technique to provide adaptive model-free control when the environment is stochastic, and the control problem could be formulated as a Markov Decision Process. In this paper, we propose an adaptive runtime control using reinforcement learning for real-time programs based on Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), to meet the response time requirements. We demonstrate through multiple experiments that our approach could control the response time efficiently to satisfy the timing requirements.

  • 6.
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Bohlin, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Learning-based Response Time Analysis in Real-Time Embedded Systems: A Simulation-based Approach2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Response time analysis is an essential task to verify the behavior of real-time systems. Several response time analysis methods have been proposed to address this challenge, particularly for real-time systems with different levels of complexity. Static analysis is a popular approach in this context, but its practical applicability is limited due to the high complexity of the industrial real-time systems, as well as many unpredictable run-time events in these systems. In this work-in-progress paper, we propose a simulation-based response time analysis approach using reinforcement learning to find the execution scenarios leading to the worst-case response time. The approach learns how to provide a practical estimation of the worst-case response time through simulating the program without performing static analysis. Our initial study suggests that the proposed approach could be applicable in the simulation environments of the industrial real-time control systems to provide a practical estimation of the execution scenarios leading to the worst-case response time.

  • 7.
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Bohlin, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Learning-Based Self-Adaptive Assurance of Timing Properties in a Real-Time Embedded System2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing an adaptive runtime assurance technique to meet the performance requirements of a real-time system without the need for a precise model could be a challenge. Adaptive performance assurance based on monitoring the status of timing properties can bring more robustness to the underlying platform. At the same time, the results or the achieved policy of this adaptive procedure could be used as feedback to update the initial model, and consequently for producing proper test cases. Reinforcement-learning has been considered as a promising adaptive technique for assuring the satisfaction of the performance properties of software-intensive systems in recent years. In this work-in-progress paper, we propose an adaptive runtime timing assurance procedure based on reinforcement learning to satisfy the performance requirements in terms of response time. The timing control problem is formulated as a Markov Decision Process and the details of applying the proposed learning-based timing assurance technique are described.

  • 8.
    Henriksson, Jens
    et al.
    Semcon, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Automotive Safety and Machine Learning: Initial Results from a Study on How to Adapt the ISO 26262 Safety Standard2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning (ML) applications generate a continuous stream of success stories from various domains. ML enables many novel applications, also in safety-critical contexts. However, the functional safety standards such as ISO 26262 did not evolve to cover ML. We conduct an exploratory study on which parts of ISO 26262 represent the most critical gaps between safety engineering and ML development. While this paper only reports the first steps toward a larger research endeavor, we report three adaptations that are critically needed to allow ISO 26262 compliant engineering, and related suggestions on how to evolve the standard.

  • 9.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Levin, Daniel
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Lind, Kenneth
    HiMinds Göteborg AB, Sweden.
    Magazinius, Ana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Contrasting Big Bang with Continuous Integration Through Defect Reports2018In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous integration promises earlier defect detection, quality improvements and more customer value delivered faster. But what evidence is there? In this longitudinal case study we examined the development of software for the advanced safety and driver support component of a Swedish vehicle manufacturer in two consecutive projects, where the first was developed in a big bang fashion, typical to a traditional waterfall process, while the second project utilized continuous integration. By contrasting the two projects, we evaluated the introduction of continuous integration and supplement earlier claims based on interview studies with a quantitative analysis of defect reports.

  • 10.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Hansson, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University.
    Thane, Henrik
    Safety Integrity AB.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University.
    Inadequate Risk Analysis Might Jeopardize The Functional Safety of Modern Systems2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early 90s, researchers began to focus on security as an important property to address in combination with safety. Over the years, researchers have proposed approaches to harmonize activities within the safety and security disciplines. Despite the academic efforts to identify interdependencies and to propose combined approaches for safety and security, there is still a lack of integration between safety and security practices in the industrial context, as they have separate standards and independent processes often addressed and assessed by different organizational teams and authorities. Specifically, security concerns are generally not covered in any detail in safety standards potentially resulting in successfully safety-certified systems that still are open for security threats from e.g., malicious intents from internal and external personnel and hackers that may jeopardize safety. In recent years security has again received an increasing attention of being an important issue also in safety assurance, as the open interconnected nature of emerging systems makes them susceptible to security threats at a much higher degree than existing more confined products.This article presents initial ideas on how to extend safety work to include aspects of security during the context establishment and initial risk assessment procedures. The ambition of our proposal is to improve safety and increase efficiency and effectiveness of the safety work within the frames of the current safety standards, i.e., raised security awareness in compliance with the current safety standards. We believe that our proposal is useful to raise the security awareness in industrial contexts, although it is not a complete harmonization of safety and security disciplines, as it merely provides applicable guidance to increase security awareness in a safety context.

1 - 10 of 10
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