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  • 1.
    Abdelraheem, Mohamed Ahmed
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Alizadeh, Javad
    Alkhzaimi, Hoda A.
    Aref, Mohammad Reza
    Bagheri, Nasour
    Gauravaram, Praveen
    Improved Linear Cryptanalysis of reduced-round SIMON-32 and SIMON-482015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyse two variants of SIMON family of light-weight block ciphers against linear cryptanalysis and present the best linear cryptanalytic results on these variants of reduced-round SIMON to date. We propose a time-memory trade-off method that finds differential/linear trails for any permutation allowing low Hamming weight differential/linear trails. Our method combines low Hamming weight trails found by the correlation matrix representing the target permutation with heavy Hamming weight trails found using a Mixed Integer Programming model representing the target differential/linear trail. Our method enables us to find a 17-round linear approximation for SIMON-48 which is the best current linear approximation for SIMON-48. Using only the correlation matrix method, we are able to find a 14-round linear approximation for SIMON-32 which is also the current best linear approximation for SIMON-32. The presented linear approximations allow us to mount a 23-round key recovery attack on SIMON-32 and a 24-round Key recovery attack on SIMON-48/96 which are the current best results on SIMON-32 and SIMON-48. In addition we have an attack on 24 rounds of SIMON-32 with marginal complexity.

  • 2.
    Abdelraheem, Mohamed Ahmed
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Andersson, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    Lunds university, Sweden.
    Searchable Encrypted Relational Databases:Risks and Countermeasures2017In: Data Privacy Management, Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Technology: ESORICS 2017 International Workshops, DPM 2017 and CBT 2017, Oslo, Norway, September 14-15, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro et al., Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature , 2017, Vol. 10436, p. 70-85Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We point out the risks of protecting relational databases viaSearchable Symmetric Encryption (SSE) schemes by proposing an infer-ence attack exploiting the structural properties of relational databases.We show that record-injection attacks mounted on relational databaseshave worse consequences than their file-injection counterparts on un-structured databases. Moreover, we discuss some techniques to reducethe effectiveness of inference attacks exploiting the access pattern leak-age existing in SSE schemes. To the best of our knowledge, this is thefirst work that investigates the security of relational databases protectedby SSE schemes.

  • 3.
    Abdelraheem, Mohammed Ahmed
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Lindström, Malin
    Nordahl, Christian
    Executing Boolean Queries on an EncryptedBitmap Index2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a simple and efficient searchable symmetric

    encryption scheme based on a Bitmap index that evaluates

    Boolean queries. Our scheme provides a practical

    solution in settings where communications and computations

    are very constrained as it offers a suitable tradeoff

    between privacy and performance.

  • 4.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Hidell, Markus
    Ngai, Edith
    Internet of Things for Smart Cities: Interoperability and Open Data2016In: IEEE Internet Computing, ISSN 1089-7801, E-ISSN 1941-0131, p. 52-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) for smart cities needs accessible open data and open systems, so that industries and citizens can develop new services and applications. As an example, the authors provide a case study of the GreenIoT platform in Uppsala, Sweden.

  • 5.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Hurtig, Per
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Are MIRCC and Rate-based Congestion Control in ICN READY for Variable Link Capacity?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information-centric networking~(ICN) has been introduced as a potential future networking architecture. ICN promises an architecture that makes information independent from location, application, storage, and transportation. Still, it is not without challenges. Notably, there are several outstanding issues regarding congestion control: Since ICN is more or less oblivious to the location of information, it opens up for a single application flow to have several sources, something which blurs the notion of transport flows, and makes it very difficult to employ traditional end-to-end congestion control schemes in these networks. Instead, ICN networks often make use of hop-by-hop congestion control schemes. However, these schemes are also tainted with problems, e.g., several of the proposed ICN congestion controls assume fixed link capacities that are known beforehand. Since this seldom is the case, this paper evaluates the consequences in terms of latency, throughput, and link usage, variable link capacities have on a hop-by-hop congestion control scheme, such as the one employed by the Multipath-aware ICN Rate-based Congestion Control~(MIRCC). The evaluation was carried out in the OMNeT++ simulator, and demonstrates how seemingly small variations in link capacity significantly deteriorate both latency and throughput, and often result in inefficient network link usage.

  • 6.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Lindgren, Anders
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Wu, Yanqiu
    Demo: Experimental Feasibility Study of CCN-lite on Contiki Motes for IoT Data Streams2016In: ICN 2016: 3rd ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Köckemann, Uwe
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Run-Time Assurance for the E-care@home System2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Al Nahas, Beshr
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Landsiedel, Olaf
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Network Bootstrapping and Leader Election in Low-power Wireless Networks2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (ACM SenSys 2017), November 5-8, 2017, Delft, The Netherlands, ACM Press, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Al Nahas, Beshr
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Landsiedel, Olaf
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Network-wide Consensus Utilizing the Capture Eect in Low-power Wireless Networks2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (ACM SenSys 2017), November 5-8, 2017, Delft, The Netherlands, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many protocols in low-power wireless networks require a root nodeor a leader to bootstrap and maintain its operation. For example,Chaos and Glossy networks need an initiator to synchronize andinitiate the communications rounds. Commonly, these protocolsuse a xed, compile-time dened node as the leader. In this work,we tackle the challenge of dynamically bootstrapping the networkand electing a leader in low-power wireless scenarios, and we focuson Chaos-style networks

  • 10. Arafailova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Flener, Pierre
    Francisco Rodríguez, María Andreína
    Pearson, Justin
    Simonis, Helmut
    Systematic Derivation of Bounds and Glue Constraints for Time-Series Constraints2016In: International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2016), Springer Publishing Company, 2016, p. 13-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integer time series are often subject to constraints on the aggregation of the integer features of all occurrences of some pattern within the series. For example, the number of inflexions may be constrained, or the sum of the peak maxima, or the minimum of the peak widths. It is currently unknown how to maintain domain consistency efficiently on such constraints. We propose parametric ways of systematically deriving glue constraints, which are a particular kind of implied constraints, as well as aggregation bounds that can be added to the decomposition of time-series constraints [5]. We evaluate the beneficial propagation impact of the derived implied constraints and bounds, both alone and together.

  • 11. Arafailova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    Douence, Rémi
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Flener, Pierre
    Francisco Rodríguez, María Andreína
    Pearson, Justin
    Simonis, Helmut
    Global Constraint Catalog Volume II: Time-Series Constraints2016Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    First this report presents a restricted set of finite transducers used to synthesise structural time-series constraints described by means of a multi-layered function composition scheme. Second it provides the corresponding synthesised catalogue of structural time-series constraints where each constraint is explicitly described in terms of automata with accumulators.

  • 12.
    Aronsson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Ranjbar, Zohreh
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Kapacitet på rangerbangården Hallsberg: resultat från projektet PRAGGE22016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver dels en metod att bedöma rangerbangårdens förmåga att hantera tågbildning och dels en pilotstudie som gjorts i Hallsberg i projektet PRAGGE2. Metoden, kallad PRAGGE-metoden, bygger på att en optimerande programvara utvecklad i tidigare projekt, kallad RanPlan, används för att undersöka det extra arbete som olika bangårdsutformningar ger upphov till. Extraarbete mäts som ett nyckeltal, ER (extra valldrag), som är en funktion av antalet vagnar som får hanteras flera gånger över rangervallen. Ju högre ER-värde desto arbetsammare är det för bangården att skapa de avgående tågen. Inom ramen för denna studie har riktningsgruppens antal spår samt längder undersökts, U-gruppens betydelse för Hallsbergs rangerbangård har belysts med speciellt fokus på den nuvarande situationen med det ibland förekommande tågkön in till infartsgruppen. Vidare har en enklare undersökning av ett ev. spårbehov för s.k. ”block-swaps” (byte av ett fåtal större vagnsgrupper mellan tåg) gjorts samt även ett försök att påbörja en kategorisering eller kapacitetsbeskrivning av en rangerbangård.

  • 13.
    Aronsson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Ranjbar, Zohreh
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Kapacitetsanalys av tre olika utbyggnadsalternativ av Sävenäs rangerbangård: resultat från pilotstudien av Sävenäs i projektet PRAGGE22016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande rapport redovisar arbetet med en av två piloter i projektet PRAGGE2, undersökning av tre bangårdsalternativ för rustningen/ombyggnaden av Sävenäs rangerbangård i Göteborg. I detta arbete har en metod utvecklad under det första PRAGGE-projektet använts för att studera tre olika utvecklingsalternativ av rangerbangården i Sävenäs, framtagna av Sweco i separat projekt. PRAGGE-metoden bygger på att mäta det extra arbete i termer av att mäta det antal gånger en vagn rangeras extra på bangården på grund av trängsel, väsentligen för få spår att bygga avgående tåg på. Metoden utgår från den i utfallsdata definierade tidtabellen och bokningen och skapar en rangerplan med minimalt antal extra rangerade vagnar över vall. Green Cargo har för PRAGGE2 ställt data från 2014 års trafik till vårt förfogande. Resultatet från pilotstudien är att en av bangårdsutformningarna från Swecos tre framtagna alternativ inte bedöms ha tillräcklig kapacitet medan de två andra har utvärderats vidare. Den ena av dem bedömdes dock inte få plats på den yta som anses kunna ställas till förfogande varvid enbart ett alternativ återstår. Erfarenheten från piloten är att PRAGGE-metoden fungerar som en kvantitativ utvärderingsmetod för att bedöma kapaciteten på föreslagen grov utformning av rangerbangården och som kompletterar de kvalitativa utvärderingsmetoder som också används.

  • 14.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Safety in Vehicle Platooning: A Systematic Literature Review2016In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle platooning has been studied for several decades, with objectives such as improved traffic throughput on existing infrastructure or reduced energy consumption. All the time, it has been apparent that safety is an important issue. However, there are no comprehensive analyses of what is needed to achieve safety in platooning, but only scattered pieces of information. This paper investigates, through a systematic literature review, what is known about safety for platooning, including what analysis methods have been used, what hazards and failures have been identified, and solution elements that have been proposed to improve safety. Based on this, a gap analysis is performed to identify outstanding questions that need to be addressed in future research. These include dealing with a business ecosystem of actors that cooperate and compete around platooning, refining safety analysis methods to make them suitable for systems-of-systems, dealing with variability in vehicles, and finding solutions to various human factors issues.

  • 15.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Törngren, Martin
    Notes On Agile and Safety-Critical Development2016In: Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, ISSN 0163-5948, E-ISSN 1943-5843, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile approaches have been highly influential to the software engineering practices in many organizations, and are increasingly being applied in larger companies, and for developing systems outside the pure software domain. To understand more about the current state of agile, its applications to safety-critical systems, and the consequences on innovation and large organizations, a seminar was organized in Stockholm in 2014. This paper gives an overview of the topics discussed at that seminar, a summary of the main results and suggestions for future work as input to a research agenda for agile development of safety-critical software.

  • 16.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Smite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, no January, p. 88-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting sourcing options for software assets and components is an important process that helps companies to gain and keep their competitive advantage. The sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to further refine, extend and validate a solution presented in our previous work. The refinement includes a set of decision-making activities, which are described in the form of a process-line that can be used by decision-makers to build their specific decision-making process. We conducted five case studies in three companies to validate the coverage of the set of decision-making activities. The solution in our previous work was validated in two cases in the first two companies. In the validation, it was observed that no activity in the proposed set was perceived to be missing, although not all activities were conducted and the activities that were conducted were not executed in a specific order. Therefore, the refinement of the solution into a process-line approach increases the flexibility and hence it is better in capturing the differences in the decision-making processes observed in the case studies. The applicability of the process-line was then validated in three case studies in a third company

  • 17. Birgersson, Marcus
    et al.
    Hansson, Gustav
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Data Integration Using Machine Learning2016In: 2016 IEEE 20th International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Workshop (EDOCW), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, enterprise integration and cross-enterprise collaboration is becoming evermore important. The Internet of things, digitization and globalization are pushing continuous growth in the integration market. However, setting up integration systems today is still largely a manual endeavor. Most probably, future integration will need to leverage more automation in order to keep up with demand. This paper presents a first version of a system that uses tools from artificial intelligence and machine learning to ease the integration of information systems, aiming to automate parts of it. Three models are presented and evaluated for precision and recall using data from real, past, integration projects. The results show that it is possible to obtain F0.5 scores in the order of 80% for models trained on a particular kind of data, and in the order of 60%-70% for less specific models trained on a several kinds of data. Such models would be valuable enablers for integration brokers to keep up with demand, and obtain a competitive advantage. Future work includes fusing the results from the different models, and enabling continuous learning from an operational production system.

  • 18.
    Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Aligning Requirements and Testing - Working Together Toward the Same Goal2017In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 20-23, article id 7819382Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The proper alignment of requirements engineering and testing (RET) can be key to software's success. Three practices can provide effective RET alignment: using test cases as requirements, harvesting trace links, and reducing distances between requirements engineers and testers. The Web extra https://youtu.be/M65ZKxfxqME is an audio podcast of author Elizabeth Bjarnason reading the the Requirements column she cowrote with Markus Borg.

  • 19.
    Bjurling, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    DOIT WP4 report on planning and optimization2017Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Bjurling, Björn
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    DOIT WP4 Final Report on Planning and Optimization2018Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Bjurling, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Kreuger, Per
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Marsh, Ian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Data Readiness for BADA: BADA main study 1, FFI/Vinnova grant 2015-006772017Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Lennerstad, Iben
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ros, Rasmus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    Lund University, Sweden.
    On using active learning and self-training when mining performance discussions on stack overflow2017In: EASE'17 Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2017, p. 308-313Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abundant data is the key to successful machine learning. However, supervised learning requires annotated data that are often hard to obtain. In a classification task with limited resources, Active Learning (AL) promises to guide annotators to examples that bring the most value for a classifier. AL can be successfully combined with self-training, i.e., extending a training set with the unlabelled examples for which a classifier is the most certain. We report our experiences on using AL in a systematic manner to train an SVM classifier for Stack Overflow posts discussing performance of software components. We show that the training examples deemed as the most valuable to the classifier are also the most difficult for humans to annotate. Despite carefully evolved annotation criteria, we report low inter-rater agreement, but we also propose mitigation strategies. Finally, based on one annotator's work, we show that self-training can improve the classification accuracy. We conclude the paper by discussing implication for future text miners aspiring to use AL and self-training.

  • 23.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Olsson, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Svensson, John
    Boliden, Sweden.
    From LiDAR to Underground Maps via 5G - Business Models Enabling a System-of-Systems Approach to Mapping the Kankberg Mine2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With ever-increasing productivity targets in mining operations, there is a growing interest in mining automation. The PIMM project addresses the fundamental challenge of network communication by constructing a pilot 5G network in the underground mine Kankberg. In this report, we discuss how such a 5G network could constitute the essential infrastructure to organize existing systems in Kankberg into a system-of-systems (SoS). In this report, we analyze a scenario in which LiDAR equipped vehicles operating in the mine are connected to existing mine mapping and positioning solutions. The approach is motivated by the approaching era of remote controlled, or even autonomous, vehicles in mining operations. The proposed SoS could ensure continuously updated maps of Kankberg, rendered in unprecedented detail, supporting both productivity and safety in the underground mine. We present four different SoS solutions from an organizational point of view, discussing how development and operations of the constituent systems could be distributed among Boliden and external stakeholders, e.g., the vehicle suppliers, the hauling company, and the developers of the mapping software. The four scenarios are compared from both technical and business perspectives, and based on trade-off discussions and SWOT analyses. We conclude our report by recommending continued research along two future paths, namely a closer cooperation with the vehicle suppliers, and further feasibility studies regarding establishing a Kankberg software ecosystem.

  • 24. Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Adnan Tariq, Muhammad
    Varga, Stefan
    Using cyber defense exercises to obtain additional data for attacker profiling2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to be able to successfully defend an IT system it is useful to have an accurate appreciation of the cyber threat that goes beyond stereotypes. To effectively counter potentially decisive and skilled attackers it is necessary to understand, or at least model, their behavior. Although the real motives for untraceable anonymous attackers will remain a mystery, a thorough understanding of their observable actions can still help to create well-founded attacker profiles that can be used to design effective countermeasures and in other ways enhance cyber defense efforts. In recent work empirically founded attacker profiles, so-called attacker personas, have been used to assess the overall threat situation for an organization. In this paper we elaborate on 1) the use of attacker personas as a technique for attacker profiling, 2) the design of tailor-made cyber defense exercises for the purpose of obtaining the necessary empirical data for the construction of such attacker personas, and 3) how attacker personas can be used for enhancing the situational awareness within the cyber domain. The paper concludes by discussing the possibilities and limitations of using cyber defense exercises for data gathering, and what can and cannot be studied in such exercises.

  • 25. Carlson, Jan
    et al.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Petersen, Kai
    A Context Model for Architectural Decision Support2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing  efficient  and  effective  decision  making support  includes  identifying  means  to  reduce  repeated  manual work  and  providing  possibilities  to  take  advantage  of  the  experience  gained  in  previous  decision  situations.  For  this  to  be possible,  there  is  a  need  to  explicitly  model  the  context  of  a decision  case,  for  example  to  determine  how  much  the  evidence from one decision case can be trusted in another, similar context. In earlier work, context has been recognized as important when transferring  and  understanding  outcomes  between  cases.  The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, we describe different ways   of   utilizing   context   in   an   envisioned   decision   support system.  Thereby,  we  distinguish  between  internal  and  external context  usage,  possibilities  of  context  representation,  and  context  inheritance.  Second,  we  present  a  systematically  developed context  model  comprised  of  five  types  of  context  information, namely organization, product, stakeholder, development method &  technology,  and  market  &  business.  Third,  we  exemplary illustrate the relation of the context information to architectural decision  making  using  existing  literature.

  • 26.
    Corcoran, Diarmuid
    et al.
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Andimeh, Loghman
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Ermedahl, Andreas
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Kreuger, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Schulte, Christian
    KTH Royal Institut of Sweden, Sweden.
    Data driven selection of DRX for energy efficient 5G RAN2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of connected mobile devices is increasing rapidly with more than 10 billion expected by 2022. Their total aggregate energy consumption poses a significant concern to society. The current 3gpp (3rd Generation Partnership Project) LTE/LTE-Advanced standard incorporates an energy saving technique called discontinuous reception (DRX). It is expected that 5G will use an evolved variant of this scheme. In general, the single selection of DRX parameters per device is non trivial. This paper describes how to improve energy efficiency of mobile devices by selecting DRX based on the traffic profile per device. Our particular approach uses a two phase data-driven strategy which tunes the selection of DRX parameters based on a smart fast energy model. The first phase involves the off-line selection of viable DRX combinations for a particular traffic mix. The second phase involves an on-line selection of DRX from this viable list. The method attempts to guarantee that latency is not worse than a chosen threshold. Alternatively, longer battery life for a device can be traded against increased latency. We built a lab prototype of the system to verify that the technique works and scales on a real LTE system. We also designed a sophisticated traffic generator based on actual user data traces. Complementary method verification has been made by exhaustive off-line simulations on recorded LTE network data. Our approach shows significant device energy savings, which has the aggregated potential over billions of devices to make a real contribution to green, energy efficient networks.

  • 27. Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Wallin, Peter
    Fröberg, Joakim
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Analysis of the information needs of an autonomous hauler in a quarry site2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous and intelligent construction equipment is an emergent area of research, which shares many characteristics with on-road autonomous vehicles, but also have fundamental differences. Construction vehicles usually perform repetitive tasks in confined sites, such as quarries, and cooperate with other vehicles to complete common missions. A quarry can be viewed as a system-of-systems and the vehicles are individual systems within the site system. Therefore it is important to analyze the site system, i.e. included vehicles, surrounding systems, and system context, before the introduction of autonomous vehicles. It is necessary to map the needed infrastructure, and the needed input information from on-board sensors and off-board information suppliers, before designing the vehicle electronics system. This paper describes how we identified sensory and input signal needs for an autonomous articulated hauler in a scenario at a quarry site. Different architectural alternatives are evaluated and a set-up for a quarry site is suggested.

  • 28.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Inria Lille, France.
    Elsts, Atis
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Al Nahas, Beshr
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Oikonomou, George
    University of Bristol, UK.
    TSCH and 6TiSCH for Contiki: Challenges, Design and Evaluation2017In: Proceedings of the Conference Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS), 2017, IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchronized communication has recently emerged as a prime option for low-power critical applications. Solutions such as Glossy or Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) have demonstrated end-to-end reliability upwards of 99.99%. In this context, the IETF Working Group 6TiSCH is currently standardizing the mechanisms to use TSCH in low-power IPv6 scenarios. This paper identifies a number of challenges when it comes to implementing the 6TiSCH stack. It shows how these challenges can be addressed with practical solutions for locking, queuing, scheduling and other aspects. With this implementation as an enabler, we present an experimental validation and comparison with state-of-the-art MAC protocols. We conduct fine-grained energy profiling, showing the impact of link-layer security on packet transmission. We evaluate distributed time synchronization in a 340-node testbed, and demonstrate that tight synchronization (hundreds of microseconds) can be achieved at very low cost (0.3% duty cycle, 0.008% channel utilization). We finally compare TSCH against traditional MAC layers: low-power listening (LPL) and CSMA, in terms of reliability, latency and energy. We show that with proper scheduling, TSCH achieves by far the highest reliability, and outperforms LPL in both energy and latency. Synchronized communication has recently emerged as a prime option for low-power critical applications. Solutions such as Glossy or Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) have demonstrated end-to-end reliability upwards of 99.99%. In this context, the IETF Working Group 6TiSCH is currently standardizing the mechanisms to use TSCH in low-power IPv6 scenarios. This paper identifies a number of challenges when it comes to implementing the 6TiSCH stack. It shows how these challenges can be addressed with practical solutions for locking, queuing, scheduling and other aspects. With this implementation as an enabler, we present an experimental validation and comparison with state-of-the-art MAC protocols. We conduct fine-grained energy profiling, showing the impact of link-layer security on packet transmission. We evaluate distributed time synchronization in a 340-node testbed, and demonstrate that tight synchronization (hundreds of microseconds) can be achieved at very low cost (0.3% duty cycle, 0.008% channel utilization). We finally compare TSCH against traditional MAC layers: low-power listening (LPL) and CSMA, in terms of reliability, latency and energy. We showthat with proper scheduling, TSCH achieves by far the highest reliability, and outperforms LPL in both energy and latency

  • 29.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Watteyne, Thomas
    Handziski, Vlado
    Vilajosana, Xavier
    Hamn, Oliver
    Bacceli, Emmanuel
    Wolisz, Adam
    Industrial Wireless IP-based Cyber Physical Systems2016In: Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 104, p. 1025-1038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial control systems have traditionally been built around dedicated wired solutions. The requirements of flexibility, mobility, and cost have created a strong push toward wireless solutions, preferably solutions requiring low power. Simultaneously, the increased need for interoperability and integration with the wider Internet made a transition to IP-based communication unavoidable. Following these trends, we survey 6TiSCH, the emerging family of standards for IP-based industrial communication over low-power and lossy networks. We describe the state of the standardization work, the major issues being discussed, and open questions recently identified. Based on extensive first-hand experience, we discuss challenges in implementation of this new wave of standards. Lessons learned are highlighted from four popular open-source implementations of these standards: OpenWSN, Contiki, RIOT, and TinyOS. We outline major requirements, present insights from early interoperability testing and performance evaluations, and provide guidelines for chip manufacturers and implementers.

  • 30.
    Elsts, Atis
    et al.
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Competition: Adaptive Time-Slotted Channel Hopping2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks, ACM Press, 2017, p. 274-275Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) from the IEEE 802.15.4-2015 standard uses channel hopping to combat interference and frequency-selective fading. It has attracted large attention from the research community due to its properties: high reliability in terms of packet delivery rates, and increased predictability in terms of energy consumption and latency, as compared to commonly used low-power CSMA MAC protocols.

    This work makes use of the Contiki OS implementation of the TSCH protocol. We extend the standardized TSCH protocol with adaptive channel selection, adaptive time synchronization, and adaptive guard time selection to improve its energy efficiency and reliability properties.

  • 31.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Finne, Niclas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Scaling RPL to Dense and Large Networks with Constrained Memory2018In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks (EWSN 2018), February 14-16, 2018, Madrid, Spain, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Militär kompetens i de tänkande maskinernas tidsålder2016In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, p. 68-76Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in Artificial Intelligence have spawned a prolific debate about the future of employment and labour in a world where even intellectual work can be performed by algorithms and robots rather than humans. This article discusses the impact of this development on military professions, and on the very concept of military professionalism. Considering military capability to be built from physical, conceptual, and moral factors, it is observed that with increasing automation of the first and second factors, the human contribution will increasingly be in the third, moral, realm. It is also argued that such a human contribution can still tip the scales, even in a high-­tech conflict. Reasoning by analogies, it is claimed that ‘man or machine’ is a false dichotomy, that the challenge is, rather, to find the best combination of the two and that this holds true also in highly intellectual aspects of warfighting, such as intelligence analysis. The article is concluded with some reflections on the challenge of creating innovative military organizations that are tolerant to new divisions of labour between man and machine.

  • 33.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Towards Preference Elicitation for Trade-Offs between Non-Functional Properties2016In: 2016 IEEE 20th International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the design and evolution of software intensive systems, it is desirable to make informed decisions as early as possible in the life cycle. To do this, it is both necessary to be able to predict properties of these future systems and to know how one would like to prioritize among those properties. This paper addresses the latter problem of how to make trade-offs between non-functional properties of software intensive systems. An approach based on the elicitation of utility functions from stake-holders and subsequent checks for consistency among these functions is proposed. A sample GUI is presented, along with some examples. Limitations are discussed and several avenues for future work, including empirical validation, are proposed.

  • 34.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Buschle, Markus
    Experimental Evidence on Decision-Making in Availability Service Level Agreements2016In: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, ISSN 1932-4537, E-ISSN 1932-4537, Vol. 13, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As more enterprises buy information technology services, studying their underpinning contracts becomes more important. With cloud computing and outsourcing, these service level agreements (SLAs) are now often the only link between the business and the supporting IT services. This paper presents an experimental economics investigation of decision-making with regard to availability SLAs, among enterprise IT professionals. The method and the ecologically valid subjects make the study unique to date among IT service SLA studies. The experiment consisted of pairwise choices under uncertainty, and subjects (N=46) were incentivized by payments based on one of their choices, randomly selected. The research question investigated in this paper is: Do enterprise IT professionals maximize expected value when procuring availability SLAs, as would be optimal from the business point of view? The main result is that enterprise IT professionals fail to maximize expected value. Whereas some subjects do maximize expected value, others are risk-seeking, risk-averse, or exhibit nonmonotonic preferences. The nonmonotonic behavior in particular is an interesting observation, which has no obvious explanation in the literature. For a subset of the subjects (N=29), a few further hypotheses related to associations between general attitude to risk or professional experience on the one hand, and behavior in SLAs on the other hand, were investigated. No support for these associations was found. The results should be interpreted with caution, due to the limited number of subjects. However, given the prominence of SLAs in modern IT service management, the results are interesting and call for further research, as they indicate that current professional decision-making regarding SLAs can be improved. In particular, if general attitude to risk and professional experience do not impact decision-making with regard to SLAs, more extensive use of decision-support systems might be called for in order to facilitate proper risk management.

  • 35.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Characterization of trade-off preferences between non-functional properties2018In: Information Systems, ISSN 0306-4379, E-ISSN 1873-6076, Vol. 74, p. 86-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient design and evolution of complex software intensive systems rely on the ability to make informed decisions as early as possible in the life cycle. Such informed decisions should take both the intended functional and non-functional properties into account. Especially regarding the latter, it is both necessary to be able to predict properties and to prioritize them according to well-defined criteria. In this paper we focus on the latter problem, that is to say how to make trade-offs between non-functional properties of software intensive systems. We provide an approach based on the elicitation of utility functions from stake-holders and subsequent checks for consistency among these functions. The approach is exploitable through an easy-to-use GUI, which is also presented. Moreover, we describe the setup and the outcome of our two-fold validation based on exploratory elicitations with students and practitioners

  • 36.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Cohen, Mika
    Sigholm, Johan
    What can we learn from enterprise architecture models? An experiment comparing models and documents for capability development2016In: Journal of Software and Systems Modeling (online), ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture (EA) has been established as a discipline to cope with the complex interactions of business operations and technology. Models, i.e., formal descriptions in terms of diagrams and views, are at the heart of the approach. Though it is widely thought that such architecture models can contribute to improved understanding and decision making, this proposition has not rigorously been tested. This article describes an experiment conducted with a real EA model and corresponding real traditional documents, investigating whether the model or the documents lead to better and faster understanding. Understanding is interesting to study, as it is a prerequisite to other EA uses. The subjects (N=98">N=98N=98 ) were officer cadets, and the experiment was carried out using a comprehensive description of military Close Air Support capability either (1) in the form of a MODAF model or (2) in the form of traditional documents. Based on the results, the model seems to lead to better, though not faster, understanding.

  • 37. Funcke, Alexander
    et al.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Partial participation towards collective action: To stifle or instigate2016In: Rationality and Society, ISSN 1043-4631, E-ISSN 1461-7358, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 453-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we extend the Granovetter threshold model with partial participation towards a collective action. That is, agents may partake by conducting an action that is less costly than the ultimate collective action, but costly enough to signal a commitment to the cause. We show that it is not just the exact distribution of thresholds, but also the distribution of available actions that determines whether a collective action will be achieved. We suggest and prove propositions for how both an inventive “activist” and a “dictator” may strategically change the signaling value of existing actions, or introduce new ones, in order to either instigate or stifle collective action. Applying the theory to revolutions, we argue that new technology can play a role beyond that of communication and synchronization, viz. that of adding modes of partial, less arduous, participation.

  • 38.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Teknisk slutrapport för FLTP: Framtidens LeveransTågplaneProcess2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Slutrapporten sammanfattar arbetet som gjorts i projektet FLTP-Framtidens LeveransTågplaneProcess. FLTP har utförts av RISE SICS AB på uppdrag av Trafikverket under åren 2014-2016. Syftet med projektet har varit att undersöka planeringsmetoder för att ta fram leveransåtagande i en tänkt framtida långtidsprocess när Successiv Planering är fullt genomfört. Projektet har tagit fram ett planeringskoncept där alla kördagars individuella trafiksituation beaktas, och matematiska modeller och heuristiker som kan stödja den föreslagna planeringsmetoden har utformats och testats. Rapporten presenterar övergripande de metoder, resultat och slutsatser som projektet levererat, och ger också sammanhang till projektets övriga publikationer. Slutrapporten presenterar även i stora drag de mål som projektet satte upp, samt till vilken grad dessa har uppfyllts.

  • 39.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Bohlin, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Towards a comprehensive model for track allocation and roll-time scheduling at marshalling yards2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers multi-stage train formation with mixed usage tracks at a marshalling yard without departure yard. A novel integer programming model for scheduling shunting tasks as well as allocating arrival yard tracks and classification bowl tracks is presented. By taking a comprehensive view of the marshalling yard operations, more effective schedules can be found, and a variety of characteristics can be optimised, including shunting work effort, number or cost of tracks, and shunting task start times. Two different objective functions are evaluated: minimising work effort in terms of wagon pull-backs and minimising track costs. A procedure for finding a hot-start solution with few wagon pull-backs is also presented. The proposed model is tested on real data from Sävenäs marshalling yard in Sweden. The results show that the method is able to return an optimal schedule for a planning period of 4 days if the hot-start solution is optimal or the remaining problem is tractable for the heuristics in CPLEX.

  • 40. Gotlieb, Arnaud
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Liaaen, Marius
    Marijan, Dusica
    Petillon, Alexandre
    Automated Regression Testing Using Constraint Programming2016In: Twenty-Eighth Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence (IAAI-16), AAAI Press, 2016, p. 4010-4015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In software validation, regression testing aims to check the absence of regression faults in new releases of a software system. Typically, test cases used in regression testing are executed during a limited amount of time and are selected to check a given set of user requirements. When testing large systems, the number of regression tests grows quickly over the years, and yet the available time slot stays limited. In order to overcome this problem, an approach known as test suite reduction (TSR), has been developed in software engineering to select a smallest subset of test cases, so that each requirement remains covered at least once. However solving the TSR problem is difficult as the underlying optimization problem is NP-hard, but it is also crucial for vendors interested in reducing the time to market of new software releases. In this paper, we address regression testing and TSR with Constraint Programming (CP). More specifically, we propose new CP models to solve TSR that exploit global constraints, namely NValue and GCC. We reuse a set of preprocessing rules to reduce a priori each instance, and we introduce a structure-aware search heuristic. We evaluated our CP models and proposed improvements against existing approaches, including a simple greedy approach and MINTS, the state-of-the-art tool of the software engineering community. Our experiments show that CP outperforms both the greedy approach and MINTS when it is interfaced with MiniSAT, in terms of percentage of reduction and execution time. When MINTS is interfaced with CPLEX, we show that our CP model performs better only on percentage of reduction. Finally, by working closely with validation engineers from Cisco Systems, Norway, we integrated our CP model into an industrial regression testing process.

  • 41. Guerreiro, Sérgio
    et al.
    Gaaloul, Khaled
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Analysis of Enterprise Architecture Evolution Using Markov Decision Processes2016In: Enterprise and Organizational Modeling and Simulation / [ed] Robert Pergl, Martin Molhanec, Eduard Babkin, Samuel Fosso Wamba, 2016, Vol. 272, p. 37-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture (EA) offers steering instruments to aid architects in their decision-making process. However, the management of such a process is a challenging task for enterprise architects, due to the complex dependencies amongst EA models when evolving from an initial to a subsequent state. In this paper, we design, present and analyze an approach supporting EA model evolution. In doing so, we define EA artifacts dependencies and model their corresponding evolutions during change. Then, this model is processed using a feedback control schema to fully inform the EA design decisions. An access control model for an inventory case study is introduced to reason on issues connected to this evolution. The results obtained by a stochastic solution (Markov Decision Processes) are used to argue about the usefulness and applicability of our proposal.

  • 42.
    Hewage, Kasun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Protecting Glossy-based Wireless Networks from Packet Injection Attacks2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glossy is a flooding-based communication primitive for low-power wireless networks that leverages constructive interference to achieve high reliability. The Low-power Wireless Bus (LWB) uses Glossy to abstract an entire wireless network into a shared bus like topology. As Glossy is not designed as a secure communication protocol, Glossy and hence LWB are vulnerable to unauthorised eavesdropping and packet injection attacks. In this paper, we propose several security mechanisms to protect Glossy and LWB communication and evaluate their effectiveness in real-world settings. The evaluation of the proposed security mechanisms shows that we can confine the effect of the packet injection attacks on Glossy networks into single hop nodes from the attacker

  • 43. Hithnawi, Anwar
    et al.
    Shafagh, Hossein
    Li, Su
    Gross, James
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    CrossZig: Combating Cross-Technology Interference in Low-power Wireless Networks2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-power wireless devices suffer notoriously from Cross- Technology Interference (CTI). To enable co-existence, researchers have proposed a variety of interference mitigation strategies. Existing solutions, however, are designed to work with the limitations of currently available radio chips. In this paper, we investigate how to exploit physical layer properties of 802.15.4 signals to better address CTI. We present CrossZig, a cross-layer solution that takes advantage of physical layer information and processing to improve low-power communication under CTI. To this end, CrossZig utilizes physical layer information to detect presence of CTI in a corrupted packet and to apply an adaptive packet recovery which incorporates a novel cross-layer based packet merging and an adaptive FEC coding. We implement a prototype of CrossZig for the low-power IEEE 802.15.4 in a software-defined radio platform. We show the adaptability and the performance gain of CrossZig through experimental evaluation considering both micro-benchmarking and system performance under various interference patterns. Our results demonstrate that CrossZig can achieve a high accuracy in error localization (94.3% accuracy) and interference type identification (less than 5% error rate for SINR ranges below 3 dB). Moreover, our system shows consistent performance improvements under interference from various interfering technologies.

  • 44. Hoiland-Jorgensen, Toke
    et al.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Hurtig, Per
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Measuring Latency Variation in the Internet2016In: The 12th International Conference on emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies (CoNEXT), ACM Press, 2016, p. 473-480Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse two complementary datasets to quantify the latency variation experienced by internet end-users: (i) a large-scale active measurement dataset (from the Measurement Lab Network Diagnostic Tool) which shed light on long-term trends and regional differences; and (ii) passive measurement data from an access aggregation link which is used to analyse the edge links closest to the user.

    The analysis shows that variation in latency is both common and of significant magnitude, with two thirds of samples exceeding 100, ms of variation. The variation is seen within single connections as well as between connections to the same client. The distribution of experienced latency variation is heavy-tailed, with the most affected clients seeing an order of magnitude larger variation than the least affected. In addition, there are large differences between regions, both within and between continents. Despite consistent improvements in throughput, most regions show no reduction in latency variation over time, and in one region it even increases.

    We examine load-induced queueing latency as a possible cause for the variation in latency and find that both datasets readily exhibit symptoms of queueing latency correlated with network load. Additionally, when this queueing latency does occur, it is of significant magnitude, more than 200\,ms in the median. This indicates that load-induced queueing contributes significantly to the overall latency variation.

  • 45.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Can the Common Vulnerability Scoring System be Trusted?: A Bayesian Analysis2018In: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, ISSN 1545-5971, E-ISSN 1941-0018, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 1002-1015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) is the state-of-the art system for assessing software vulnerabilities. However, it has been criticized for lack of validity and practitioner relevance. In this paper, the credibility of the CVSS scoring data found in five leading databases – NVD, X-Force, OSVDB, CERT-VN, and Cisco – is assessed. A Bayesian method is used to infer the most probable true values underlying the imperfect assessments of the databases, thus circumventing the problem that ground truth is not known. It is concluded that with the exception of a few dimensions, the CVSS is quite trustworthy. The databases are relatively consistent, but some are better than others. The expected accuracy of each database for a given dimension can be found by marginalizing confusion matrices. By this measure, NVD is the best and OSVDB is the worst of the assessed databases

  • 46. Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    Lagerström, Robert
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Modeling and analyzing systems-of-systems in the multi-attribute prediction language (MAPL)2016In: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Systems-of-Systems - SESoS '16, ACM Press, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Multi-Attribute Prediction Language (MAPL), an analysis metamodel for non-functional qualities of systems-of-systems, is introduced. MAPL features analysis in five non-functional areas: service cost, service availability, data accuracy, application coupling, and application size. In addition, MAPL explicitly includes utility modeling to make trade-offs between the qualities. The paper introduces how each of the five non-functional qualities is modeled and quantitatively analyzed based on the ArchiMate standard for enterprise architecture modeling and the previously published Predictive, Probabilistic Architecture Modeling Framework, building on the well-known UML and OCL formalisms. The main contribution of MAPL lies in combining all five non-functional analyses into a single unified framework.

  • 47.
    Katsikas, Georgios P.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Barbette, Tom
    University of Liege, France.
    Kostic, Dejan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Steinert, Rebecca
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Metron: NFV Service Chains at the True Speed of the Underlying Hardware2018In: The 15th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present Metron, a Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) platform that achieves high resource utilization by jointly exploiting the underlying network and commodity servers’ resources. This synergy allows Metron to: (i) offload part of the packet processing logic to the network, (ii) use smart tagging to setup and exploit the affinity of traffic classes, and (iii) use tag-based hardware dispatching to carry out the remaining packet processing at the speed of the servers’ fastest cache(s), with zero inter-core communication. Metron also introduces a novel resource allocation scheme that minimizes the resource allocation overhead for large-scale NFV deployments. With commodity hardware assistance, Metron deeply inspects traffic at 40 Gbps and realizes stateful network functions at the speed of a 100 GbE network card on a single server. Metron has 2.75-6.5x better efficiency than OpenBox, a state of the art NFV system, while ensuring key requirements such as elasticity, fine-grained load balancing, and flexible traffic steering.

  • 48.
    Kreuger, Per
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Steinert, Rebecca
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Görnerup, Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Gillblad, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Distributed dynamic load balancing with applications in radio access networks2018In: International Journal of Network Management, ISSN 1055-7148, E-ISSN 1099-1190, Vol. 28, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing and balancing load in distributed systems remains a challenging problem in resource management, especially in networked systems where scalability concerns favour distributed and dynamic approaches. Distributed methods can also integrate well with centralised control paradigms if they provide high-level usage statistics and control interfaces for supporting and deploying centralised policy decisions. We present a general method to compute target values for an arbitrary metric on the local system state and show that autonomous rebalancing actions based on the target values can be used to reliably and robustly improve the balance for metrics based on probabilistic risk estimates. To balance the trade-off between balancing efficiency and cost, we introduce 2 methods of deriving rebalancing actuations from the computed targets that depend on parameters that directly affects the trade-off. This enables policy level control of the distributed mechanism based on collected metric statistics from network elements. Evaluation results based on cellular radio access network simulations indicate that load balancing based on probabilistic overload risk metrics provides more robust balancing solutions with fewer handovers compared to a baseline setting based on average load.

  • 49.
    Köckemann, Uwe
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Integrating Constraint-based Planning with LwM2M for IoT Network Scheduling2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design and implementationof a network scheduler prototype for IoT networks within the e-healthcare domain. The network scheduler combines a constraint-based task planner with the Lightweight Machine-to-Machine (LwM2M) protocol to be able to reconfigure IoT networks at run-time based on recognized activities and changes in the environment. To support such network scheduling, we implement a LwM2M application layer for the IoT devices that provides sensor data, network stack information, and a set of controllable parameters that affect the communication performance and the energy consumption.

  • 50.
    Lagerström, Robert
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Shahzad, Khurram
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Automated Probabilistic System Architecture Analysis in the Multi-Attribute Prediction Language (MAPL): Iteratively Developed using Multiple Case Studies2017In: Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling, ISSN 2255-9922, Vol. 11, p. 38-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Multi-Attribute Prediction Language (MAPL), an analysis metamodel for non-functional qualities of system architectures, is introduced. MAPL features automate analysis in five non-functional areas: service cost, service availability, data accuracy, application coupling, and application size. In addition, MAPL explicitly includes utility modeling to make trade-offs between the qualities. The article introduces how each of the five non-functional qualities are modeled and quantitatively analyzed based on the ArchiMate standard for enterprise architecture modeling and the previously published Predictive, Probabilistic Architecture Modeling Framework, building on the well-known UML and OCL formalisms. The main contribution of MAPL lies in the probabilistic use of multi-attribute utility theory for the trade-off analysis of the non-functional properties. Additionally, MAPL proposes novel model-based analyses of several non-functional attributes. We also report how MAPL has iteratively been developed using multiple case studies.

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