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Hazards of titanium dioxide nanoparticles usage in concrete: pulmonary toxicity literature review
RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
2013 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Nano-crystalline titanium dioxide is mixed into concrete in order to reduce nitrogen-oxides in urban areas, due to its photocatalytic activation of ultraviolet light. Therefore, it is important to make sure that such additions of titania nanoparticles will not cause any negative side-effects, if any, such as an increase in epidemiological harm. Accordingly, the objective of this report is to answer whether generated nanoparticles (NPs) from concrete containing titania, i.e. photocatalytic concrete, is more toxic than corresponding NPs from conventional concrete, and beside this, deduce whether titania NPs in general are more toxic compared to corresponding fine particles (FP) of titania. A state-of-the-art review is conducted, basically based on papers dealing with how micro- and nanoparticles of TiO2 affect biological systems and on papers with explicit information of nano-sized TiO2 when exposed to living tissue, in vivo or in vitro*. The primary route for body exposure to airborne particles is by inhalation, although ingestion and dermal penetration are also possible routes for NPs to enter the body. Therefore primarily papers concerning lung cell interaction with TiO2 NPs are reviewed. From the literature it is highlighted that the particle size, agglomeration state, crystallinity, surface reactivity, dose, exposure route, experiment duration, species or cells used all play a role in titanium dioxide toxicity. Initially, contradicting facts were found regarding the influence of particle size and surface area on the toxicity of TiO2 NPs. However, on closer inspection it was found that such contradicting results most probably may be explained by differences in particle sizes, crystal shape, dosages, methods etc., in the experimental setups. For example, in many papers NPs seem to induce higher inflammatory response at equivalent mass dose exposure of fine and ultrafine particles but at the same surface area no differences are found between NP and FP toxicity. Likewise, regarding crystal form, in most papers the anatase crystal form seems to be more potent in causing inflammation in cells and animals (guinea-pigs) than the rutile crystal form, whereas a combination of these two phases occasionally seems to be even more potent than the anatase phase alone. Therefore, of great importance for correct interpretation of the results is the physicochemical characterization of the particles such as coatings applied at the surface, the z-potential and the agglomeration grade. In many of the papers reviewed such characterizations are insufficient. This is particularly more common in papers published before 2005. But the scientific branch of nanoparticle toxicology is a fast developing area and the good news is that the knowledge of how to assess the toxicity accurately has increased during the last 4-5 years. Therefore more concise knowledge regarding different NPs’ inherent toxicity to living tissues and the environment will be available increasingly in a continual manner over the next coming years. Specifically, from the papers reviewed, TiO2 NPs do not seem to be much more toxic than their larger counterparts, based on equal surface area. Furthermore, some papers conclude that many studies demonstrate a low hazard potential in mammals or aquatic species even at acute exposure to the ultrafine TiO2 particles. For example, in many rat studies the inflammatory response is transient with time. Compared with other metal oxides, TiO2 is most often less toxic than other elements, such as ZnO, CuO and SiO2 in the different toxicological screening tests. Also, the doses used in the toxicological in vivo studies are 10-1000 times higher compared to any dosages that humans might be exposed to. In summary, we have the following general conclusions:_x000D_ • Nanosized particles are often more potent in inducing toxicological response compared to fine particles of the same composition when delivered at equal mass._x000D_ • At equal surface area but different particle size, similar compounds exhibit similar toxicological characteristics._x000D_ • Nanosized particles (< 50 nm) have the ability to penetrate lung cell membranes whereas larger particles cannot but will instead accumulate outside the cell wall, which also may promote damage to lung tissue. _x000D_ • Generally, titanium dioxide is less toxic than silica. Nanosized silica (microsilica) is frequently used in concrete in large quantities._x000D_ • Addition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles will increase the amount of nanosized particles in the fresh concrete, but will be bound in the cement matrix in hardened concrete._x000D_ • Antropogenically generated particles from photocatalytic concrete pavements will contain less silica-based NPs but more TiO2 NPs. _x000D_ • The amount of nanoparticles generated in concrete pavements will likely be in same order of magnitude regardless of a recipe with or without TiO2 NPs._x000D_ • Naturally or anthropogenically occurring nanoparticles agglomerate as aerosols or agglomerates in medium_x000D_ From all of this it is concluded that it is not likely that using additives of photocatalytic titania in pavements made of concrete will increase the inherent toxicity of the nanoparticles generated from pavement wear from vehicle tires._x000D_ _x000D_

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CBI Betonginstitutet , 2013. , 74 p.
Series
CBI rapport, ISSN 0346-8240 ; 2013:1
Keyword [en]
Titaniumdioxide, nanoparticles, pulmonary toxicity, photocatalytic concrete, fine particles
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-2954ISBN: 978-91-980851-0-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-2954DiVA: diva2:960559
Note
4331 Går att beställa: kontakta eva.lundgren@cbi.se (500 KR )Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07Bibliographically approved

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