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Mycelium bio-composites in industrial design and architecture: Comparative review and experimental analysis
Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
Galilee Research Institute, Israel.
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
Show others and affiliations
2020 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 246, article id 119037Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent convergence of biotechnological and design tools has stimulated an emergence of new design practices utilizing natural mechanisms to program matter in a bottom-up approach. In this paper, the fibrous network of mycelium—the vegetative part of fungi—is employed to produce sustainable alternatives for synthetic foams. Current research on mycelium-based materials lacks essential details regarding material compositions, incubation conditions, and fabrication methods. The paper presents the results of ongoing research on employing mycelium to provide cleaner architecture and design products with sustainable lifecycles. The paper opens with a critical review of current projects, products, and scientific literature using mycelium in design and architecture. In the second section, material properties of varied fungi-substrate compositions and fabrication methods are evaluated and compared through changes in essential chemical parameters during fermentation, visual impression, water absorbency, and compression strength tests. Then, potential architecture and design implications related to the material properties are discussed. Results indicate a clear correlation between fungi, substrate, mold properties, and incubation conditions on final material characteristics, depicting a clear effect on material density, water absorbency, and the compressive strength of the final bio-composite. Finally, two primary case studies demonstrate implications for mycelium-based composites for circular design and architectural applications. The study shows that in order to produce desirable designs and performance within an inclusive circular approach, parameters such as material composition and fabrication conditions should be considered according to the target function of the final product throughout the design process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd , 2020. Vol. 246, article id 119037
Keywords [en]
Bio-composite, Bio-design, Bio-fabrication, Circular design, Mycelium, Sustainable biotechnology, Biotechnology, Compressive strength, Driers (materials), Fabrication, Fungi, Life cycle, Network architecture, Substrates, Bio-composites, Circular designs, Experimental analysis, Material characteristics, Material compositions, Scientific literature, Substrate composition, Product design
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43400DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119037Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85075943051OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-43400DiVA, id: diva2:1390344
Note

Funding details: Israel Science Foundation, ISF, 720/19; Funding text 1: This project was supported by the Israel Science Foundation , grant 720/19 . Appendix Table A Summary of search results using Scopus, Web of Science, and Engineering Village search engines. The search used varied keyword combinations, followed by manual sorting by title and abstract relevancy. Table A No. Authors Academic scope Processing method Target use Fungal species Substrate components Fabrication method 1 Holt et al. (2012) * bio-based materials foam package Ganoderma sp. cotton gin by-products: cotton carpel, cotton seed hull, with starch, gypsum plastic mold 2 Pelletier et al. (2013) * agri bio-based materials foam acoustic Basidiomycetes rice straw, hemp pith, kenaf fiber, switch grass, sorghum fiber, cotton bur fiber, flax shive plastic mold 3 Jiang et al. (2014a) * mechanical engineering laminate shoe sole - woven textile and natural glue (water, starch, maltodextrin), Kenaf pith laminate skin mold 4 Travaglini et al. (2013) ** bio-based materials foam insulating packaging G. lucidum Quercus kelloggii (Red Oak) wood, nutrient solution (pending IP) plastic mold 5 Arifin and Yusuf (2013) mechanical & manufacturing engineering foam insulating packaging - rice husk and wheat grain plastic (PP) mold 6 Jiang et al. (2014b) * mechanical engineering laminate + foam core structure - core: kenaf and hemp. Textile skins: Biotex jute, flax, Biomid cellulose fiber vacuum skin mold 7 He et al. (2014) civil engineering foam structure oyster mushroom cotton seed hulls, carboxylated styrene butadiene rubber (sbr) latex, Silane coupling agent glass mold 8 Travaglini et al. (2014) ** composites laminate + foam core sandwich composites G. lucidum - vacuum skin mold 9 Jiang et al. (2014a) * mechanical engineering laminate + foam core shoe sole + integral tooling - ground corn stover: reinforcement layers: jute textile, kenaf mat, glue: G242 industrial corn starch, maltodextrin glue laminate skin mold 10 Travaglini et al. (2015) ** composites laminate +foam core insulation panels - - laminate skin PP mold 11 Lelivelt et al. (2015) architecture foam insulating foam C. versicolor P. ostreatus wood chips, hemp hurd, loose hemp fiber and non-woven, mats of hemp fiber plastic mold 12 Ziegler et al. (2016) * agriculture engineering laminate +foam core packaging - core: cotton (ginning waste), hemp shell: woven or nonwoven mat. plastic mold 13 Ziegler et al. (2016) architecture foam structure P. ostreatus wood sawdust (not specified) plywood mold 14 Parisi et al. (2016) . design foam not specified - Ecovative DIY and psyllium, chia and linum seeds 15 Travaglini et al. (2016) ** composites compressed foam subtractive manufacture G. lucidum Wood, additives (not specified) plastic mold 16 Mayoral González et al. (2016) material engineering foam structural furniture L. edodes P. ostreatus G. lucidum wood shavings (not specified), straw, corn stalk and rice husks mold (CNC/3D print/laser cut) 17 Mayoral González et al. (2016) bio-based material engineering foam food packaging Pleurotus sp wheat residues (Triticum sp.) wooden mold 18 Jiang et al. (2016) * mechanical engineering compressed foam core sandwich core - core: corn stover, hemp; Shell: (a) Biotex Jute, (b) Biotex flax, and (c) BioMid fiber laminate skin mold (core) 19 Jiang et al. (2017a) * mechanical engineering laminate preform Shell - core: kenaf, hemp shell: jute/flax (Biotex) laminate skin mold 20 Yang et al. (2017) civil engineering foam backfill/structure Alaska white-rot Alaska birch (Betula neoalaskana), millet grain, wheat bran, natural fiber, Calcium sulfate. plastic mold (PC cylinders) 21 Pelletier et al. (2017) * bio-based materials foam + compressed foam acoustic insulation Basidiomycetes agricultural byproducts: cotton (leaves, sticks, burs); switch-grass, rice straw, sorghum stalks, cotton burs, kenaf and corn stalks plastic mold 22 Haneef et al. (2017) nanophysics mycelium sheet mycelium films G. lucidum P. ostreatus cellulose, cellulose + potato-dextrose (PDB) petri dish mold 23 Dahmen (2017) architecture foam furniture - sawdust or agricultural waste, nutrients (not specified) styrofoam mold (row) 24 Jones et al. (2017) mechanical engineering foam insulating foams T. versicolor rice hulls, wheat grain inoculum plastic mold 25 Jones et al. mechanical engineering review on mycelium composites 26 Attias et al. (2017) industrial design & biotechnology foam composite biopolymer P. pulmonarius, P. ostreatus, P.Salmoneo, A. agrocibe agricultural byproducts: woodchips of eucalyptus, oak, pine, apple and vine ⌀14 cm Pyrex petri dishes 27 Jiang et al. (2017b) * mechanical engineering laminate + foam core laminated bio-composite - skin: natural fiber textile (jute, hemp and cellulose). core: pre-grown kenaf -hemp corn stover - hemp mixtures. Bioresin (not specified) added to matrix laminate skin mold 28 Tudryn et al. (2017) * materials science and engineering foam composite biopolymer Basidiomycetes agricultural waste: Corn stover particles; Calcium and carbohydrate (not specified) tile molds (material not specified) 29 Islam et al. (2017) * mechanical engineering foam synthetic polymer alternatives - (Ecovative) calcium and carbohydrate (not specified) tile molds (material not specified) 30 Campbell et al. (2017) architecture foam architectural assembly units P.ostreatus Seeds (not specified) mixed with hydrogel sphere plastic molds 31 Appels et al. (2018a) *** microbiology mycelium sheet thermoplastic alternative S. commune Static liquid culture, agar minimal medium 9 mm petri dish 32 Jones et al. (2018) materials science and engineering foam insulation, furniture, building T. versicolor Rice hulls, glass fines, Wheat grains 100X100 × 20mm plastic molds 33 Camere and Karana (2018) *** design engineering review of designing with living materials 34 Xing et al. (2018) architecture, microbiology foam insulation materials O. latermarginatus M. minor G. resinaceum Wheat straw PC plant-tissue vials 77x77 × 97mm 35 Grimm and Wösten (2018) *** microbiology Review on mushroom & circular economy 36 Appels et al. (2018b) *** bio-materials foam + compressed foam product design P. ostreatus, T.multicolor Rapeseed straw, beech sawdust, non-woven cotton fibers plastic molds PET-G (340x340 × 40mm) 37 Jiang et al. (2018) * mechanical engineering preform + foam core laminated bio-composite - – pre-shaped laminate skin mold 38 Karana et al. (2018) *** material driven design foam + compressed foam product design Trametes sp, S. Commune bread particles, banana peel, coffee residue, Styrofoam pellets, flower, orange peel, carrot leaves, cardboard, sawdust, straw plastic molds 39 Islam et al. (2018) * mechanical & material engineering mycelium foam not specified -(Ecovative) calcium and carbohydrate (not specified) mold 40 Girometta et al. (2019) *** environmental sciences review of material properties of mycelium-based bio-composites 41 Elsacker et al. (2019) architectural engineering foam building materials T.versicolor. hemp, flax, flax waste, softwood, straw> varied processing: loose, chopped, dust, pre-compressed and tow PVC mold 42 Sun et al. (2019) * forest products hybrid wood panel composites packaging and furniture -(Ecovative) a mixture of spruce, pine, and fir (SPF) particle- board particles mold, hot/cold press 43 Matos et al. (2019) agricultural sciences foam packaging L. edodes isolates coconut powder-based supplemented with wheat bran plastic mold 44 Wimmers et al. (2019) engineering foam thermal insulation boards F. pinicola G. sepiarium L. sulphureus P. schweinitzii P. betulinus, P. ostreatus P. arcularius T. pubescens T. suaveolens T. abietinum wood shavings of Betula papyrifera (Birch), Populus tremuloides (Aspen), Picea glauca (Spruce), Pinus contorta (Pine), Abies lasiocarpa (Fir) Addition of nutrient solution: peptone, malt extract, and yeast rectangular plastic mold or aluminum tray: 20 × 20 × 3 cm 45 Attias et al. (2019) industrial design & biotechnology foam thermal insulation water container C.versicolor T.multicolor G. sesille vine and apple tree-pruning woodchips mixed with mixed with 1% flour and 3% wheat straw plastic molds: PP: ⌀ 10 cm × 2.5  cm PMMA: 20 × 20 × 2 cm shaped 3D printed PLA 46 Bruscato et al. (2019) biotechnology foam EPS alternative P. sanguineus P. albidus L. velutinus Pinus sp. wood sawdust, wheat bran and calcium carbonate plastic molds: ⌀ 10cmX6cm 47 Hyde et al. (2019) applied mycology review of the industrial potential of fungi Legend: *Ecovative, **MycoWorks, ***Mogu.

Available from: 2020-01-31 Created: 2020-01-31 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved

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