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Controlling the elastic modulus of cellulose nanofibril hydrogels—scaffolds with potential in tissue engineering
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2271-3637
NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6183-2017
2015 (English)In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 473-481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) form hydrogels at low concentrations. These hydrogels are held together by transient interactions such as entanglement of fibrils, non-specific ionic interactions and hydrogen bonds; and are thus vulnerable for changes in the chemical environment or the influence of mechanical forces. By a covalent crosslinking of the fibrils, stable permanent gels can be formed. In this study we have produced CNF by using TEMPO mediated oxidation followed by fibrillation. During this procedure, carboxyl and aldehyde groups are introduced on the CNF surfaces. The aldehyde groups are suitable sites for crosslinking, as aldehydes readily form covalent bonds to primary amines through formation of Schiff bases. For this purpose the diamines ethylenediamine and hexamethylenediamine, differing with four carbon atoms in the chain, were used as crosslinker molecules. The results show that by varying the concentration and length of the crosslinker molecules, the elastic modulus of the gels could be controlled. The reversible gels were in this way transformed to irreversible gels by a simple water based reaction. Controlling gel strength is one important premise for the use of CNF in applications such as tissue engineering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kluwer Academic Publishers , 2015. Vol. 22, no 1, p. 473-481
Keywords [en]
Cellulose nanofibrils, Crosslinking, Hydrogels, Nanocellulose, Tissue engineering, Aldehydes, Cellulose, Elastic moduli, Functional groups, Gels, Hydrogen bonds, Molecules, Nanofibers, Scaffolds (biology), Tissue, Chemical environment, Covalent crosslinking, Low concentrations, Nano-cellulose, TEMPO-mediated oxidation, Transient interactions, Water-based reactions
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43220DOI: 10.1007/s10570-014-0470-5Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84921984452OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-43220DiVA, id: diva2:1387022
Available from: 2020-01-20 Created: 2020-01-20 Last updated: 2020-01-20Bibliographically approved

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Syverud, KristinChinga-Carrasco, Gary

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