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Minimization of distortions during laser welding of ultra high strength steel
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB. RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8933-6720
Volvo Cars, Sweden.
Volvo Cars, Sweden.
RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
2015 (English)In: Journal of laser applications, ISSN 1042-346X, E-ISSN 1938-1387, Vol. 27, no S2, article id S29011Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ultra high strength steels are frequently used within the automotive industry for several components. Welding of these components is traditionally done by resistance spot welding, but to get further productivity and increased strength, laser welding has been introduced in the past decades. Fusion welding is known to cause distortions due to built in stresses in the material. The distortions result in geometrical issues during assembly which become the origin of low joint quality due to gaps and misfits. U-beam structures of boron steel simulating B-pillars have been welded with laser along the flanges. Welding parameters and clamping have been varied to create different welding sequences and heat input generating a range of distortion levels. The distortions have been recorded dynamically with an optical measurement system during welding. In addition, final distortions have been measured by a digital Vernier caliper. The combined measurements give the possibility to evaluate development, occurrence, and magnitude of distortions with high accuracy. Furthermore, section cuts have been analyzed to assess joint geometry and metallurgy. The results show that final distortions appear in the range of 0-8 mm. Distortions occur mainly transversely and vertically along the profile. Variations in heat input show clear correlation with the magnitude of distortions and level of joint quality. A higher heat input in general generates a higher level of distortion with the same clamping conditions. Section cuts show that weld width and penetration are significantly affected by welding heat input. The present study identifies parameters which significantly influence the magnitude and distribution of distortions. Also, effective measures to minimize distortions and maintain or improve joint quality have been proposed. Finally, transient finite element (FE) simulations have been presented which show the behavior of the profiles during the welding and unclamping process. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Laser Institute of America , 2015. Vol. 27, no S2, article id S29011
Keywords [en]
boron steel, distortions, finite element simulations, laser welding, ultra high strength steel, Automotive industry, Boron, Distortion (waves), Finite element method, Hydrogen embrittlement, Laser beam welding, Optical data processing, Resistance welding, Spot welding, Steel heat treatment, Welding, Boron steels, Clamping conditions, Combined measurements, Optical measurement systems, Resistance spot welding, Welding parameters, High strength steel
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-42219DOI: 10.2351/1.4906468Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84943625500OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-42219DiVA, id: diva2:1379446
Conference
33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014; San Diego; United States; 19 October 2014 through 23 October 2014
Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-17 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved

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Fahlström, Karl

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