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Pharmaceuticals in source separated sanitation systems: Fecal sludge and blackwater treatment
SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Catalan Institute for Water Research, Spain; University of Girona, Spain.
SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0713-623x
SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
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2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, article id 135530Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated, for the first time, the occurrence and fate of 29 multiple-class pharmaceuticals (PhACs) in two source separated sanitation systems based on: (i) batch experiments for the anaerobic digestion (AD) of fecal sludge under mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (52 °C) conditions, and (ii) a full-scale blackwater treatment plant using wet composting and sanitation with urea addition. Results revealed high concentrations of PhACs in raw fecal sludge and blackwater samples, with concentrations up to hundreds of μg L−1 and μg kg−1 dry weight (dw) in liquid and solid fractions, respectively. For mesophilic and thermophilic treatments in the batch experiments, average PhACs removal rates of 31% and 45%, respectively, were observed. The average removal efficiency was slightly better for the full-scale blackwater treatment, with 49% average removal, and few compounds, such as atenolol, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide, showed almost complete degradation. In the AD treatments, no significant differences were observed between mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. For the full-scale blackwater treatment, the aerobic wet composting step proved to be the most efficient in PhACs reduction, while urea addition had an almost negligible effect for most PhACs, except for citalopram, venlafaxine, oxazepam, valsartan and atorvastatin, for which minor reductions (on average 25%) were observed. Even though both treatment systems reduced initial PhACs loads considerably, significant PhAC concentrations remained in the treated effluents, indicating that fecal sludge and blackwater fertilizations could be a relevant vector for dissemination of PhACs into agricultural fields and thus the environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V. , 2019. article id 135530
Keywords [en]
Blackwater, Fecal sludge, Pharmaceuticals, Sanitation systems, Source separation, Anaerobic digestion, C (programming language), Degradation, Drug products, Effluents, Metabolism, Sanitation, Separation, Sewage treatment, Sludge digestion, Urea, Agricultural fields, Hydrochlorothiazide, Removal efficiencies, Thermophilic conditions, Thermophilic treatment
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-42101DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135530Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85075887900OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-42101DiVA, id: diva2:1379160
Note

Funding details: Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas, 216-2012-2101, 942-2015-1586; Funding details: Havs- och Vattenmyndigheten, HaV; Funding details: Leukemia Research Foundation, LRF; Funding text 1: This study was supported by the Swedish Research Council Formas through the projects Blackwater ( 942-2015-1586 ) and RedMic ( 216-2012-2101 ). Additional support was coming from the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (grant 1:12 Arrangements for marine and water environment), Stockholm County Council environmental grant, the Federation of Swedish Farmers (LRF) and Telge Nät . Authors also acknowledge the staff at Salmunge and Hölö treatment plant for providing access to the blackwater treatment plant and for their support during sampling. Appendix A

Available from: 2019-12-16 Created: 2019-12-16 Last updated: 2019-12-16Bibliographically approved

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Leven, LottaEveborn, David

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