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Flexible Paper Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries Using Low Amount of TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils as Binder
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
RISE, Swerea, KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
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2016 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 8, no 28, p. 18097-18106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flexible Li-ion batteries attract increasing interest for applications in bendable and wearable electronic devices. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNF), a renewable material, is a promising candidate as binder for flexible Li-ion batteries with good mechanical properties. Paper batteries can be produced using a water-based paper making process, avoiding the use of toxic solvents. In this work, finely dispersed TOCNF was used and showed good binding properties at concentrations as low as 4 wt %. The TOCNF was characterized using atomic force microscopy and found to be well dispersed with fibrils of average widths of about 2.7 nm and lengths of approximately 0.1-1 μm. Traces of moisture, trapped in the hygroscopic cellulose, is a concern when the material is used in Li-ion batteries. The low amount of binder reduces possible moisture and also increases the capacity of the electrodes, based on total weight. Effects of moisture on electrochemical battery performance were studied on electrodes dried at 110 °C in a vacuum for varying periods. It was found that increased drying time slightly increased the specific capacities of the LiFePO4 electrodes, whereas the capacities of the graphite electrodes decreased. The Coulombic efficiencies of the electrodes were not much affected by the varying drying times. Drying the electrodes for 1 h was enough to achieve good electrochemical performance. Addition of vinylene carbonate to the electrolyte had a positive effect on cycling for both graphite and LiFePO4. A failure mechanism observed at high TOCNF concentrations is the formation of compact films in the electrodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society , 2016. Vol. 8, no 28, p. 18097-18106
Keywords [en]
binder, flexible paper electrodes, Li-ion batteries, moisture, TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils, Atomic force microscopy, Binders, Binding energy, Bins, Cellulose, Drying, Electric batteries, Electrochemical electrodes, Electrodes, Electrolytes, Graphite, Graphite electrodes, Ions, Lithium, Lithium compounds, Nanofibers, Oxidation, Paper, Secondary batteries, Trapped ions, Coulombic efficiency, Electrochemical batteries, Electrochemical performance, Oxidized cellulose, Papermaking process, Renewable materials, Specific capacities, Vinylene carbonates, Lithium-ion batteries, Batteries, Cellulose Derivatives, Mechanical Properties, Paper Making
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-41288DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b05016Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84979598428OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-41288DiVA, id: diva2:1377324
Note

 Funding details: Advanced Foods and Materials Canada; Funding details: China Scholarship Council; Funding details: Child Neurology Foundation; Funding text 1: The China Scholarship Council (CSC) is greatly appreciated for financial support. Nicholas Tchang Cervin is acknowledged for providing TEMPO-oxidized CNF and Huanhuan Xu, Tobias Benselfelt, Malin Nordenstrom, and Yuanyuan Li for professional help with SEM, AFM, DLS, and TGA measurements.

Available from: 2019-12-11 Created: 2019-12-11 Last updated: 2019-12-11Bibliographically approved

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