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Surface and dislocation investigation of planar GaN formed by crystal reformation of nanowire arrays
Lund University, Sweden.
Glo AB, Sweden.
Lund University, Sweden.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
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2019 (English)In: Physical Review Materials, ISSN 2475-9953, Vol. 3, no 9, article id 093604Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present a process of forming monolithic GaN surface from an ordered nanowire array by means of material redistribution. This process, referred to as reformation, is performed in a conventional MOVPE crystal growth system with the gallium supply turned off and allows a crystal nanostructure to change shape according to differences in surface energies between its facets. Using reformation, coalescence may proceed closer to thermodynamic equilibrium, which is required for fabrication of high-quality substrate material. Scanning probe techniques are utilized, complemented by cathodoluminescence and electron microscopy, to investigate structural and electrical properties of the surface after reformation, as well as to assess densities, location, and formation of different types of defects in the GaN film. Spatial variations in material properties such as intrinsic majority-carrier types can be attributed to the radical changes in growth conditions required for sequential transition between nanowire growth, selective shell growth, and reformation. These properties enable us to assess the impact of the process on densities, locations, and formation of different types of dislocations in the GaN film. We find a fraction of the nanowires to comprise of a single electrically neutral edge dislocation, propagating from the GaN buffer, while electrically active dislocations are found at coalesced interfaces between nanowires. By decreasing the mask aperture size and changing the nucleation conditions the prevalence of nanowires comprising edge dislocation was significantly reduced from 6% to 3%, while the density of interface dislocations was reduced from 6×108 to 4×107cm-2. Using a sequential reformation process was found to create inversion domains with low surface potential N-polar regions in an otherwise Ga-polar GaN film. The inversion domains were associated with pinned dislocation pairs, and were further confirmed by selective wet etching in NaOH. This lateral polarity inversion was thoroughly eliminated in samples formed by a continuous reformation process. These results reveal a path and challenges for growing GaN substrates of superior crystal quality through nanowire reformation. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physical Society , 2019. Vol. 3, no 9, article id 093604
Keywords [en]
Edge dislocations, III-V semiconductors, Nanowires, Scanning electron microscopy, Sodium hydroxide, Substrates, Wet etching, Electrically actives, Interface dislocation, Ordered nanowire arrays, Reformation process, Scanning probe techniques, Selective wet etching, Structural and electrical properties, Thermodynamic equilibria, Gallium nitride
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40526DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.3.093604Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85072959448OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-40526DiVA, id: diva2:1361931
Note

 Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 38344-1; Funding details: Vetenskapsrådet, VR; Funding details: Stiftelsen för Strategisk Forskning, SSF; Funding details: 2018 02149; Funding details: Stiftelsen för Strategisk Forskning, SSF, 132141; Funding details: Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse; Funding text 1: This work was performed within the NanoLund Centre for Nanoscience at Lund University, and was further supported by the Swedish Research Council (VR), the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF), Grant No. 132141, the Vinnova innovation agency, Grant No. 2018 02149, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and the Swedish Energy Agency, Grant No 38344-1. The authors thank Hartmut Stadler from Bruker for experimental support and helpful discussions. The authors also thank Vanya Darakchieva and Rosalia Delgado Carrscon for providing XRD data for GaN/sapphire substrates.

Available from: 2019-10-17 Created: 2019-10-17 Last updated: 2019-10-17Bibliographically approved

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