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Optimizing School Food Supply: Integrating Environmental, Health, Economic, and Cultural Dimensions of Diet Sustainability with Linear Programming
Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
Gothenburg University, Sweden.
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 17Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

There is great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from public-sector meals. This paper aimed to develop a strategy for reducing GHGE in the Swedish school food supply while ensuring nutritional adequacy, affordability, and cultural acceptability. Amounts, prices and GHGE-values for all foods and drinks supplied to three schools over one year were gathered. The amounts were optimized by linear programming. Four nutritionally adequate models were developed: Model 1 minimized GHGE while constraining the relative deviation (RD) from the observed food supply, Model 2 minimized total RD while imposing stepwise GHGE reductions, Model 3 additionally constrained RD for individual foods to an upper and lower limit, and Model 4 further controlled how pair-wise ratios of 15 food groups could deviate. Models 1 and 2 reduced GHGE by up to 95% but omitted entire food categories or increased the supply of some individual foods by more than 800% and were deemed unfeasible. Model 3 reduced GHGE by up to 60%, excluded no foods, avoided high RDs of individual foods, but resulted in large changes in food-group ratios. Model 4 limited the changes in food-group ratios but resulted in a higher number of foods deviating from the observed supply and limited the potential of reducing GHGE in one school to 20%. Cost was reduced in almost all solutions. An omnivorous, nutritionally adequate, and affordable school food supply with considerably lower GHGE is achievable with moderate changes to the observed food supply; i.e., with Models 3 and 4. Trade-offs will always have to be made between achieving GHGE reductions and preserving similarity to the current supply.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NLM (Medline) , 2019. Vol. 16, no 17
Keywords [en]
Agenda 2030, children, greenhouse gas emissions, nutrition, school meals, sustainability, article, carbon footprint, catering service, environmental health, system analysis
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39921DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16173019Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85071464096OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-39921DiVA, id: diva2:1352816
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full textScopushttps://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/17/3019

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