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Comparison of high-rank coals with respect to slagging/deposition tendency at the transfer-chute of iron-ore pelletizing grate-kiln plants: A pilot-scale experimental study accompanied by thermochemical equilibrium modeling and viscosity estimations
Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; LKAB, Sweden.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9395-9928
Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; LKAB, Sweden.
LKAB, Sweden.
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2019 (English)In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 193, p. 244-262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Iron-ore pelletizing plants use high-rank coals to supply the heat necessary to process ores. Ash material from coal, in combination with iron-ore dust originating from the disintegration of the pellets, can cause deposition/slagging which often leads to severe production losses and damage. Deposition/slagging is most prominent in the hot areas of the grate-kiln setup and is more severe at the inlet of the rotary-kiln, i.e., the transfer-chute. Following on from our previous work, high-rank bituminous coals with potential for use in the pelletizing process were combusted in a pilot-scale (0.4 MW) pulverized-coal fired experimental combustion furnace (ECF). The fly-ash particles and short-term deposits were characterized to shed light on the observed difference in slagging/deposition tendencies of the coals. Global thermodynamic equilibrium modeling, in combination with viscosity estimates, was used to interpret the experimental findings and investigate the effect of the coal-ash composition upon deposition/slagging. This approach was carried out with and without the presence of Fe2O3-rich pellet-dust under oxidizing conditions within the temperature range at the transfer-chute of iron-ore pelletizing rotary-kilns. Based on the findings, a Qualitative Slagging Indicator (QSI) was proposed that can help pre-screen new solid fuels for potential slagging issues. The proposed QSI highlights the following: (1) an inverse relationship between viscosity and slagging/deposition tendency of the coals was observed (2) as viscosity decreases (either with increasing temperature or due to the change in the coal-ash composition), stronger deposits will form that will complicate the mechanical removal of the deposited layer. It was therefore inferred that low viscosity molten phases facilitate deposition/slagging, which is exacerbated by the presence of fluxing agents (e.g., CaO, MgO, K2O, Na2O, and Fe2O3) in the deposits. The low viscosity coal-ash-induced molten phases are also more likely to interact with the Fe2O3-rich pellet-dust that results in further decreases in viscosity, thereby intensifying depositions. The results from this work complement the on-going research by our group to elucidate and alleviate ash-related problems in industrial grate kilns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V. , 2019. Vol. 193, p. 244-262
Keywords [en]
Coal-ash, Deposition (slagging), Iron-ore pelletizing, Pellet-dust, Thermochemical equilibrium calculations, Viscosity estimations
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38954DOI: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2019.05.026Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85066109318OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-38954DiVA, id: diva2:1324631
Note

 Funding details: Luleå Tekniska Universitet, 93_2014; Funding text 1: LKAB (Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag) and Luleå University of Technology are acknowledged for their financial support of this study ( Dnr 93_2014 ). Many thanks to the supportive personnel at RISE-ETC (Piteå, Sweden) and Swerea MEFOS (Luleå, Sweden) for their efforts and dedication to the project.

Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved

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