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A practical non-enzymatic urea sensor based on NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedles
Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; University of Sindh, Pakistan´; Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Pakistan .
Luleå University of Technology, Sweden .
University of Sindh, Pakistan.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6889-0351
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2019 (English)In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, no 25, p. 14443-14451Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose a new facile electrochemical sensing platform for determination of urea, based on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo 2 O 4 ) nanoneedles. These nanoneedles are used for the first time for highly sensitive determination of urea with the lowest detection limit (1 μM) ever reported for the non-enzymatic approach. The nanoneedles were grown through a simple and low-temperature aqueous chemical method. We characterized the structural and morphological properties of the NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedles by TEM, SEM, XPS and XRD. The bimetallic nickel cobalt oxide exhibits nanoneedle morphology, which results from the self-assembly of nanoparticles. The NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedles are exclusively composed of Ni, Co, and O and exhibit a cubic crystalline phase. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the enhanced electrochemical properties of a NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedle-modified GCE by overcoming the typical poor conductivity of bare NiO and Co 3 O 4 . The GCE-modified electrode is highly sensitive towards urea, with a linear response (R 2 = 0.99) over the concentration range 0.01-5 mM and with a detection limit of 1.0 μM. The proposed non-enzymatic urea sensor is highly selective even in the presence of common interferents such as glucose, uric acid, and ascorbic acid. This new urea sensor has good viability for urea analysis in urine samples and can represent a significant advancement in the field, owing to the simple and cost-effective fabrication of electrodes, which can be used as a promising analytical tool for urea estimation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry , 2019. Vol. 9, no 25, p. 14443-14451
Keywords [en]
Ascorbic acid, Cobalt compounds, Cost effectiveness, Cyclic voltammetry, Glass membrane electrodes, Metabolism, Nanoneedles, Nickel oxide, Self assembly, Temperature, Urea, Concentration ranges, Cost-effective fabrication, Cubic crystalline, Electrochemical sensing, Glassy carbon electrodes, Modified electrodes, Nickel cobalt oxides, Structural and morphological properties, Urea electrodes
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38918DOI: 10.1039/c9ra00909dScopus ID: 2-s2.0-85065663040OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-38918DiVA, id: diva2:1318958
Note

 Funding details: Luleå Tekniska Universitet, ICN2; Funding details: SEV-2013-0295; Funding details: Generalitat de Catalunya, 2014 SGR 1638; Funding details: European Commission, GA 654002; Funding details: Kempestiftelserna; Funding details: MAT2014-59961-C2; Funding text 1: S. A. acknowledges the Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Shaheed Benazir abad for nancial support during the study visit at the LuleåUniversity of Technology Sweden as part of her PhD program. A. V. acknowledges the European Commission under grant agreement GA 654002, the Wallen-berg Foundation, the Swedish Foundations, the Kempe Foundation, the LTU Lab fund program and the LTU Seed project for partial funding. The authors are grateful to Prof. I. Lundström for his suggestions and constructive discussions during the preparation of the manuscript. ICN2 and IREC acknowledge funding from Generalitat de Catalunya 2014 SGR 1638 and the Spanish MINECO coordinated projects TNT-FUELS and e-TNT (MAT2014-59961-C2). ICN2 acknowledges support from the Severo Ochoa Programme (MINECO, Grant no. SEV-2013-0295) and is funded by the CERCA Programme/ Generalitat de Catalunya. Part of the present work has been performed in the framework of UniversitatAutònoma de Barcelona Materials Science PhD program.

Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved

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