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The characteristics of under-ventilated pool fires in both model and medium-scale tunnels
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7744-2390
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9340-6768
University of Science and Technology of China, China.
2019 (English)In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 87, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates the characteristics of under-ventilated fires in tunnels. This was done by using both model and medium-scale tunnels. The fuels used were heptane and xylene. The mass loss rates per unit area, ventilation rates from tunnel inlet, flame characteristics, O 2 , CO and CO 2 concentrations, optical densities and heat release rates were measured and recorded. Results show that the fire behaviors in under-ventilated tunnel fires are different from that in well-ventilated fires. In under-ventilated fires, the mass loss rate per unit area is found to decrease during identical periods due to the low oxygen concentration resulting from the low ventilation rate and vitiation, meanwhile the flame size dramatically reduces with a lifted and fluttering flame. This was clearly observed in model-scale tests, but due to limited optical view there was no possibility to observe this in the medium-scale tests. As a result, the ventilation rate approaches the amount required for complete combustion of vaporized fuel. This indicates that the combustion has converted from ventilation-controlled to fuel-controlled. No significant increase in CO production is observed in under-ventilated fires. Besides, the equivalence ratio and combustion efficiency were analyzed in order to judge whether the combustion is fuel-controlled or ventilation-controlled. This study provides new experimental information that contributes to improving the understanding of characteristics of under-ventilated fires in tunnel and can help firefighters to make right judgements and take related protective measures during the rescue processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 87, p. 27-40
Keywords [en]
Equivalence ratio, Flame characteristics, Mass loss rate, Tunnel fire, Under-ventilated, Vitiation, Combustion, Fire resistance, Fires, Fuels, Equivalence ratios, Tunnel fires, Ventilation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37864DOI: 10.1016/j.tust.2019.02.004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85061253858OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-37864DiVA, id: diva2:1293844
Note

 Funding details: China Scholarship Council, CSC; Funding text 1: This project was sponsored by the Swedish Fire Research Board (Brandforsk), the Swedish National Fire and Rescue Board (Räddningsverket) and the National Road Administration (Vägverket)

Available from: 2019-03-05 Created: 2019-03-05 Last updated: 2019-03-05Bibliographically approved

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Li, Ying ZhenIngason, Haukur

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