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Free-standing supercapacitors from kraft lignin nanofibers with remarkable volumetric energy density
Queen Mary University of London, UK.
Queen Mary University of London, UK; Imperial College London, UK.
University College London, UK.
University College London, UK.
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2019 (English)In: Chemical Science, ISSN 2041-6539, Vol. 10, no 10, p. 2980-2988Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have discovered a very simple method to address the challenge associated with the low volumetric energy density of free-standing carbon nanofiber electrodes for supercapacitors by electrospinning Kraft lignin in the presence of an oxidizing salt (NaNO3) and subsequent carbonization in a reducing atmosphere. The presence of the oxidative salt decreases the diameter of the resulting carbon nanofibers doubling their packing density from 0.51 to 1.03 mg cm−2 and hence doubling the volumetric energy density. At the same time, the oxidative NaNO3 salt eletrospun and carbonized together with lignin dissolved in NaOH acts as a template to increase the microporosity, thus contributing to a good gravimetric energy density. By simply adjusting the process parameters (amount of oxidizing/reducing agent), the gravimetric and volumetric energy density of the resulting lignin free-standing carbon nanofiber electrodes can be carefully tailored to fit specific power to energy demands. The areal capacitance increased from 147 mF cm−2 in the absence of NaNO3 to 350 mF cm−2 with NaNO3 translating into a volumetric energy density increase from 949 μW h cm−3 without NaNO3 to 2245 μW h cm−3 with NaNO3. Meanwhile, the gravimetric capacitance also increased from 151 F g−1 without to 192 F g−1 with NaNO3.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019. Vol. 10, no 10, p. 2980-2988
Keywords [en]
kraft lignin, nanofibre, supercapacitor, volumetric energy density
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37669DOI: 10.1039/C8SC04936JOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-37669DiVA, id: diva2:1283624
Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2019-05-03Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
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