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Simulation of the Fire Resistance of Cross-laminated Timber (CLT)
ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8001-401x
ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
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2018 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 1113-1148Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cross-laminated timber, typical abbreviations CLT or XLAM, is currently one of the most innovative product in building with wood. This solid engineered timber product provides advantages compared to other solid timber slabs as the dimension stability, i.e. swelling and shrinkage, is controlled by the crosswise laminations. As for other components, the fire resistance has to be verified for this type of product. While fire testing is time consuming and costly, simulations provide flexibility to optimize the product or to develop simplified design models for structural engineers. In this paper, a simulation technique is presented which can be used to determine the fire resistance of CLT. The technique was then used to develop simplified design equations to be used by engineers to predict the behavior of CLT in fire resistance tests and verify its fire resistance. Following existing models, the simplified design model aims for a two-step process whereby in a (i) first step the residual cross section and in (ii) a second step the load bearing capacity of the partly heated residual cross section is determined. The presented simulations consider the effective thermal–mechanical characteristics of wood exposed to standard fire and perform an advanced section analysis using a temperature profile corresponding to the actual protection and the location of the centroid together with the possibility of plasticity on the side of compression. It was shown that simulation results agree well with test results and that they can be used to determine layup specific modification factors used by the reduced properties method or zero-strength layers used by the effective cross section method. It was shown that the use of the zero-strength layers is favorable compared to the modification factors to calculate the resistance of the residual cross section. This is due to the large range of modification factors answering the typical layup of CLT comprising layers with their fiber direction cross the span direction. Subsequently, the methodology was used to determine design equations for initially unprotected and protected three-, five- and seven-layer CLT in bending and buckling. While the zero-strength layer for glulam beams in bending is assumed to be 7 mm (0.3 in), for CLT the corresponding value is in most of the cases between 5 mm and 12 mm but is different for other loading modes such as buckling (wall elements) and depending on the applied protection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 54, no 5, p. 1113-1148
Keywords [en]
Cross-laminated timber, Fire design model, Fire tests, Modelling, Structural fire design, Fire protection, Flammability testing, Laminating, Models, Product design, Timber, Cross laminated, Effective cross sections, Fire designs, Mechanical characteristics, Residual cross-section, Swelling and shrinkages, Fire resistance
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36569DOI: 10.1007/s10694-018-0728-9Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85047904116OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-36569DiVA, id: diva2:1268787
Note

 Funding details: European Cooperation in Science and Technology, COST, FP1404

Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved

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