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Graphene oxide is degraded by neutrophils and the degradation products are non-genotoxic
Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
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2018 (English)In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 1180-1188Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Neutrophils were previously shown to digest oxidized carbon nanotubes through a myeloperoxidase (MPO)-dependent mechanism, and graphene oxide (GO) was found to undergo degradation when incubated with purified MPO, but there are no studies to date showing degradation of GO by neutrophils. Here we produced endotoxin-free GO by a modified Hummers' method and asked whether primary human neutrophils stimulated to produce neutrophil extracellular traps or activated to undergo degranulation are capable of digesting GO. Biodegradation was assessed using a range of techniques including Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and mass spectrometry. GO sheets of differing lateral dimensions were effectively degraded by neutrophils. As the degradation products could have toxicological implications, we also evaluated the impact of degraded GO on the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. MPO-degraded GO was found to be non-cytotoxic and did not elicit any DNA damage. Taken together, these studies have shown that neutrophils can digest GO and that the biodegraded GO is non-toxic for human lung cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 10, no 3, p. 1180-1188
Keywords [en]
Atomic force microscopy, Biodegradation, Carbon, Cell culture, Degradation, High resolution transmission electron microscopy, Mass spectrometry, Transmission electron microscopy, Yarn, Degradation products, Epithelial cells, Graphene oxides, Human lung cells, Human neutrophil, Lateral dimension, Myeloperoxidase, Oxidized carbons, Graphene
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Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33247DOI: 10.1039/c7nr03552gScopus ID: 2-s2.0-85040917284OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-33247DiVA, id: diva2:1182389
Note

Funding details: University of Manchester; Funding details: R01ES019304, NIEHS, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Funding details: 604391, EC, European Commission; Funding details: 696656, EC, European Commission; Funding details: TEM, Työ- ja Elinkeinoministeriö; Funding details: AFM-Téléthon; Funding text: This work was supported by the European Commission through the GRAPHENE Flagship Project (grant agreements no. 604391, and 696656) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (R01ES019304). We thank the University of Manchester Bioimaging Facility for the use of the TEM and AFM instruments for the characterization of GO.

Available from: 2018-02-13 Created: 2018-02-13 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved

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