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Particle formation during pressurized entrained flow gasification of wood powder: Effects of process conditions on chemical composition, nanostructure, and reactivity
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9395-9928
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. University of Miskolc, Hungary.
Stockholm University, Sweden.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
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2018 (English)In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 189, p. 1339-1351Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of operating condition on particle formation during pressurized, oxygen blown gasification of wood powder with an ash content of 0.4 wt% was investigated. The investigation was performed with a pilot scale gasifier operated at 7 bar(a). Two loads, 400 and 600 kW were tested, with the oxygen equivalence ratio (λ) varied between 0.25 and 0.50. Particle concentration and mass size distribution was analyzed with a low pressure cascade impactor and the collected particles were characterized for morphology, elemental composition, nanostructure, and reactivity using scanning electron microscopy/high resolution transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. In order to quantify the nanostructure of the particles and identify prevalent sub-structures, a novel image analysis framework was used. It was found that the process temperature, affected both by λ and the load of the gasifier, had a significant influence on the particle formation processes. At low temperature (1060 °C), the formed soot particles seemed to be resistant to the oxidation process; however, when the oxidation process started at 1119 °C, the internal burning of the more reactive particle core began. A further increase in temperature (> 1313 °C) lead to the oxidation of the less reactive particle shell. When the shell finally collapsed due to severe oxidation, the original soot particle shape and nanostructure also disappeared and the resulting particle could not be considered as a soot anymore. Instead, the particle shape and nanostructure at the highest temperatures (> 1430 °C) were a function of the inorganic content and of the inorganic elements the individual particle consisted of. All of these effects together lead to the soot particles in the real gasifier environment having less and less ordered nanostructure and higher and higher reactivity as the temperature increased; i.e., they followed the opposite trend of what is observed during laboratory-scale studies with fuels not containing any ash-forming elements and where the temperature was not controlled by λ.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 189, p. 1339-1351
Keywords [en]
Biomass, Gasification, HRTEM, Nanostructure, Soot, Dust, Electron microscopy, High resolution transmission electron microscopy, Internal oxidation, Meteorological instruments, Nanostructures, Oxidation, Oxidation resistance, Scanning electron microscopy, Temperature, Thermogravimetric analysis, Transmission electron microscopy, Elemental compositions, Mass size distribution, Ordered nanostructures, Particle concentrations, Particle formation process, Pressurized entrained flow gasification, Reactive particle shells, Particle size analysis, fuel, inorganic compound, nanomaterial, oxygen, Article, ash, chemical composition, chemical structure, combustion, crystallization, gas flow, heat loss, high temperature, image analysis, partial pressure, particle size, particulate matter, powder, priority journal, solid, thermal analysis, thermodynamics, thermostability, wood
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33230DOI: 10.1016/j.combustflame.2017.10.025Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85034087389OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-33230DiVA, id: diva2:1182107
Note

 Funding details: LTU, Luleå Tekniska Universitet; Funding details: Bio4Energy, Energimyndigheten; Funding details: NSF, National Science Foundation; Funding details: MTA, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia; Funding details: SU, Stockholms Universitet; Funding details: Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse; Funding text: The authors wish to acknowledge the PEBG project financed by the Swedish Energy Agency , IVAB , Sveaskog and Smurfit Kappa Kraftliner . The Bio4Energy, a strategic research environment appointed by the Swedish goverment. The Swedish Center for Gasification financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and the member companies. Pal Toth is thankful for the support of the Bolyai Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and Kjell Jansson to the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation for support to the electron microscope facility at MMK, Stockholm University. Prof. Marcus Öhman, Luleå University of Technology is also acknowledged for discussions regarding the inorganic phase of the particles and Esbjörn Pettersson, RISE ETC AB is acknowledged for sampling of the particles during the experiments. This material is based upon work while Dr. Lighty served at the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Available from: 2018-02-12 Created: 2018-02-12 Last updated: 2018-07-11Bibliographically approved

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Winikka, HenrikSandström, Linda

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