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What characterises a sustainable MaaS business model?
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0982-5159
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University. of Technology, Sweden.
UbiGo Innovation, Sweden.
2017 (English)In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Generally, business models are increasingly recognised as a vital component of transitions towardssustainability (Bocken et al., 2014; Bocken and Short, 2016; Boons and Lüdeke-Freund, 2013a; Schaltegger etal., 2016, 2012; Stubbs and Cocklin, 2008). For example, several works have noted that new business modelsmay unlock the economic potential of electric vehicle technology and assist in its adoption (e.g. BuddeChristensen et al., 2012; Costain et al., 2012; Weiller et al., 2015), but there exists no such work on Mobilityas a Service (MaaS), although it can, in principal, revolutionise the way we travel and has a huge potential toimprove the sustainability of the transport system. Whilst is not presently clear which business model/s willunderpin the development and adoption of Mobility as a Service, it is possible to outline the characteristicsof a sustainable MaaS business model. This paper aims to address the following research question:“What characterises MaaS business models that deliver improvements in the economic, environmental andsocial sustainability dimensions?In order to address this question, we must first tackle the sticky problem of understanding how to treat MaaSas a concept that currently lacks a formal and robust definition. MaaS is often described as an alternativeto private vehicle ownership that combines different types of mobility services as part of a single, seamlessoffering made available to users via subscription-based smartphone applications (Beutel et al., 2014; Goldmanand Gorham, 2006; Sochor et al., 2015), and is also referred to using the rubrics ‘combined’ or ‘integrated’mobility services. However, the MaaS concept can refer to different types of services, and there are several‘things’ that can be integrated within any MaaS initiative. Also, at the current, pre-commercial phase, itmakes little sense to attempt to define MaaS as the field is in a state of fluidity, with several innovativeconcepts being tested. Hence any pre-emptive definition would run the risk of quickly becoming redundant,especially given the current level of hype around the MaaS concept. Instead, it is better to treat MaaS in topological terms by classifying different elements in terms of what may be integrated in a single service.A business model is commonly referred to as a device for creating, delivering and capturing value (Chesbrough,2010; Johnson et al., 2008; Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010; Teece, 2010; Zott et al., 2011; Zott and Amit,2010). Hence in order to examine what characterises sustainable MaaS business models, it is important toconsider: 1) the concept of sustainable value; and 2) the ways in which MaaS, as a topological phenomenon,can be translated into a set of business models that create, deliver and capture sustainable value. These twopoints underpin the structure of this paper, which consists of four sections, of which this is the first. The nextsection outlines the methods deployed, focusing on an integrative literature review. Section three presentsour main findings, outlining a set of principled arguments regarding sustainable MaaS business models,supported by practical examples. The last section concludes with a set of implications for practitioners andfurther research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017.
Keywords [en]
Mobility services, business models, value capture, sustainable development
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33094OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-33094DiVA, id: diva2:1174567
Conference
ICoMaaS 2017.1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved

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