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Fire development in a 1/3 train carriage mock-up
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
2017 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 91, 432-440 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To study what parameters that control the initial fire spread and the development to local flashover in a metro carriage, a total of six fire tests were conducted in a mock-up of a metro carriage that is about 1/3 of a full wagon length. They were carried out under a large scale calorimeter in a laboratory environment. The focus was on the initial fire development in a corner scenario using different types of ignition source that may lead to a fully developed fire. The ignition sources used were either a wood crib placed on a corner seat or one litre of petrol poured on the corner seat and the neighbouring floor together with a backpack. The amount of luggage and wood cribs in the neighbourhood of the ignition source was continuously increased in order to identify the limits for flashover in the test-setup. The tests showed that the combustible boards on parts of the walls had a significant effect on the fire spread. In the cases where the initial fire did not exceed a range of 400–600 kW no flashover was observed. If the initial fire grew up to 700–900 kW a flashover was observed. The maximum heat release rate during a short flashover period for this test set-up was about 3.5 MW. The time to reach flashover was highly dependent on the ignition type: wood cribs or backpack and petrol. A full developed carriage fire was achieved as a result of intense radiation from the flames and ceiling smoke layer. This was mostly dependent on the amount of fire load nearby the ignition source and how strong the vertical flame spread on the high pressure laminate boards mounted to walls and ceiling above the ignition source was, leading to a ceiling flame. In such cases, the seats alone did not contain sufficient fuel for the fire to spread within the train, and additional fuel (luggage) is required near the seats. For fully developed carriage fires, the fire starting on the seat in the corner spread to the opposite seat on the same side of the aisle, then horizontally spread to seats on the other side of the aisle, and finally a longitudinal flame spread along the carriage was observed. When and where the fire stopped or whether it reached a fully developed stage was mostly dependent on the amount of fire load nearby the ignition source and how strong the vertical flame spread on the high pressure laminate boards mounted to walls and ceiling above the ignition source was.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 91, 432-440 p.
Keyword [en]
Commuter train carriage, Flame spread, Flashover, Heat release rate, Metro, Transportation fire, Ceilings, Flammability testing, Gasoline, Laminates, Mockups, Commuter trains, Heat Release Rate (HRR), High pressure laminates, Ignition source, Laboratory environment, Maximum heat release rate, Fires
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30282DOI: 10.1016/j.firesaf.2017.03.016Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85019034401OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-30282DiVA: diva2:1130790
Available from: 2017-08-11 Created: 2017-08-11 Last updated: 2017-08-11Bibliographically approved

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