Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management of two Swedish golf courses
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
South Pole Group, Stockholm, Sweden.
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
2017 (English)In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 21, 80-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Turf management on golf courses entails frequent maintenance activities, such as mowing, irrigation and fertilisation, and relies on purchased inputs for optimal performance and aesthetic quality. Using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, this study evaluated energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from management of two Swedish golf courses, divided into green, tee, fairway and rough, and identified options for improved management. Energy use and GHG emissions per unit area were highest for greens, followed by tees, fairways and roughs. However, when considering the entire golf course, both energy use and GHG emissions were mainly related to fairway and rough maintenance due to their larger area. Emissions of GHG for the two golf courses were 1.0 and 1.6 Mg CO2e ha−1 year−1 as an area-weighted average, while the energy use was 14 and 19 GJ ha−1 year−1. Mowing was the most energy-consuming activity, contributing 21 and 27% of the primary energy use for the two golf courses. In addition, irrigation and manufacturing of mineral fertiliser and machinery resulted in considerable energy use. Mowing and emissions associated with fertilisation (manufacturing of N fertiliser and soil emissions of N2O occurring after application) contributed most to GHG emissions. Including the estimated mean annual soil C sequestration rate for fairway and rough in the assessment considerably reduced the carbon footprint for fairway and turned the rough into a sink for GHG. Emissions of N2O from decomposition of grass clippings may be a potential hotspot for GHG emissions, but the high spatial and temporal variability of values reported in the literature makes it difficult to estimate these emissions for specific management regimes. Lowering the application rate of N mineral fertiliser, particularly on fairways, should be a high priority for golf courses trying to reduce their carbon footprint. However, measures must be adapted to the prevailing conditions at the specific golf course and the requirements set by golfers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 21, 80-87 p.
Keyword [en]
Carbon footprint; Golf; LCA; Life cycle assessment; Turf maintenance
National Category
Other Agricultural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28296DOI: 10.1016/j.ufug.2016.11.009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-28296DiVA: diva2:1078210
Available from: 2017-03-02 Created: 2017-03-02 Last updated: 2017-03-03Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(734 kB)21 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 734 kBChecksum SHA-512
37f1246de2c539ef59a9a532efa9a360544dbea3350aa6f2df60b4ec3de71a94ea81faed21d3b3e30b91605e11e93efa05760ddb652ac0d07bd23f430f84bdf5
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text
By organisation
Agrifood and Bioscience
In the same journal
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening
Other Agricultural Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 21 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 132 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
v. 2.28.0