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Phase-transfer agents as catalysts for a nucleophilic substitution reaction in microemulsions
YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
2004 (English)In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 10, 10- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The reaction between 4-tert-butylbenzyl bromide and potassium iodide was carried out in microemulsions based on different nonionic surfactants, and the reaction rates were compared with those obtained in two-phase systems with added phase-transfer agent, either a quaternary ammonium salt or a crown ether. The reactions were relatively fast in the microemulsions and extremely sluggish in the two-phase systems without additional phase-transfer agent. Addition of a phase-transfer agent did not accelerate the reaction when a hydrocarbon was used as organic solvent, neither in the two-phase system nor in the microemulsion. When a chlorinated hydrocarbon was used as solvent, phase-transfer catalysis became effective and the rate obtained in the two-phase system with an equimolar amount of phase-transfer agent added was higher than that obtained in the microemulsion. When a catalytic amount of phase-transfer agent was used, the rate in the two-phase system was about the same as the rate obtained in the microemulsion without the phase-transfer agent. The combined approach, that is, use of a microemulsion as the reaction medium and addition of a phase-transfer agent, gave the highest reaction rate. The quaternary ammonium salt (tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate) was a more efficient catalyst in the microemulsion system than the crown ether ([18]crown-6)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 10, 10- p.
Keyword [en]
Kinetics, microemulsion, nucleophilic substitution, phase-transfer catalysis
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-26344OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-26344DiVA: diva2:1053346
Note
A1704Available from: 2016-12-08 Created: 2016-12-08Bibliographically approved

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