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Surface wrinkling: The phenomenon causing bees in bitumen
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1634-6789
RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 48, no 20, p. 6970-6976Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The so called "bee phenomenon" in bitumen has been investigated by means of AFM quantitative nanomechanical property mapping. Bees are a phenomenon that can be observed by topography measurements using AFM. The characteristic "bee" appearance comes from regions with alternating higher and lower bands in the surface topography of bitumen, which are surrounded by a flat area. The proposed mechanism for bee formation is phase separation and differential contraction during cooling from melt temperatures leading to wrinkling due to differences in the elastic modulus of the material phases. Using a laminate wrinkling model, the thickness of the bee laminate was calculated from the wavelengths and Young's moduli of the bee laminate and the matrix. It was found to vary between 70 and 140 nm for the five bitumen samples that contained significant amounts of wax.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 48, no 20, p. 6970-6976
Keywords [en]
Elastic moduli, Phase separation
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Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6556DOI: 10.1007/s10853-013-7505-4Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84881122549Local ID: 23841OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-6556DiVA, id: diva2:964394
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved

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Wallqvist, Viveca

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