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Performance of various water-based fire suppression systems in tunnels with longitudinal ventilation
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7744-2390
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9340-6768
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6264-7307
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7140-4737
2024 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 146, article id 104141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low pressure, medium pressure and high pressure water-based fire suppression systems were tested in a medium scale tunnel (scale 1:3). The primary objective was to investigate which of these systems are most effective in the suppression or control of different types of tunnel fires. The default low, medium and high pressure systems refer to full scale water flow rates of 10 mm/min, 6.8 mm/min and 3.7 mm/min, respectively. Some other water densities were also tested to investigate the effects, as well as different ventilation velocities and activation criteria. Several series of fire tests were conducted for different fire scenarios. The fire scenarios considered included idle wood pallet fires, loosely packed wood crib fires, loosely packed wood and plastic crib fires, and pool fires, with or without a top cover on the fuel load. Comparisons of the three default systems based on the three parameters: heat release rate, energy released and possibility of fire spread, show that the performance of the default low pressure system is usually the most effective based on the parameters studied. The default high pressure system usually yields results less effective in comparison to the default low pressure system. The performance of the default medium pressure system usually lies in between them. The high pressure system behaves very differently in comparison to the others, in terms of tunnel ventilation velocity, water density, operating pressure, and the presence of the top cover. © 2024 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd , 2024. Vol. 146, article id 104141
Keywords [en]
Fire protection; Flammability testing; Flow of water; Ventilation; Fire suppression; Heat release; Heat release rate; Low pressure systems; Medium pressure; Operating pressure; Performance; Release rate; Tunnel fires; Water density; Fires
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72758DOI: 10.1016/j.firesaf.2024.104141Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85189859035OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-72758DiVA, id: diva2:1858312
Note

The work was financially supported by the Swedish Research Council Formas (2019-00521), which is gratefully acknowledged. The authors would also like to express their gratitude to Prof. Patrick van Hees at Lund University for his valuable input in the test planning process. Thanks also to our colleague Joel Blom, and other technicians at RISE for the great assistance in conducting the tests, and the Södra Älvsborg's Rescue Service for the support on site.

Available from: 2024-05-16 Created: 2024-05-16 Last updated: 2024-05-16Bibliographically approved

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Li, Ying ZhenIngason, HaukurArvidson, MagnusFörsth, Michael

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